Authors: N. Shalom, Nabeel Narshad, Veeraj V Gopal, Arjun Sajeev, Abhinand M Thampi
Certificate: View Certificate
The average human life span has decreased since ancient times. Because the number of automobiles on the road is growing every day, the death rate from accidents has dramatically grown. Because brake failure causes so many accidents, we can lessen their impact when the brake is controlled automatically. An transmitter and a receiver are part of an ultrasonic system that is positioned in front of the vehicle. When an obstacle is recognised, the ultrasonic waves are always being emitted by the ultrasonic emitter and are reflected back to the receiver, which then picks up the signal. Based on the object\'s distance, the signal from the reflected wave is sent to the Arduino Nano, which activates the buzzer or the brakes
The creation of a transportation system has been the driving force for humans' higher evolution than other earthly organisms. In our daily lives, cars play a significant part. We use it to commute to work, communicate with friends and family, and carry things. However, it can also result in disaster for us or even result in our deaths from accidents.
The creation of a transit infrastructure has contributed to human beings evolving further than other earthly organisms. The function of the automobile in modern life is significant. We use it to move our goods, communicate with friends and family, and go to our place of employment. But it may also bring us sadness or even cause our deaths through mishaps.
The advancement and significance of sensing technology increased year after year, particularly in security arrangements for industry, where the majority of physical phenomena may be picked up by sensors, monitored by amplifiers, activated by circuits, and then shown by metres or personal computers. One of the biggest and most important danger factors when driving is speed..
It not only influences the severity of an accident but also raises the likelihood that someone may be alarmed in one. Despite the considerable effort put forth by several governmental and nonprofit organisations throughout the world through a variety of programmes to raise awareness against irresponsible driving, accidents nevertheless happen sometimes. A well-organized automated accident detection system with an automatic communication to the emergency service with the accident location is a most significant necessity to save the valuable human life, however many lives may have been saved if the emergency facility had received the crash information in time.
A group of engineers and scientists from Hughes Research Laboratories in Malibu, California, carried out the first demonstration of forward collision avoidance in 1995.
Ross D. Olney, a physicist at HRL, served as the project's director and was paid for by Delco Electronics. For this automobile application, a 77 GHz tiny custom-fabricated radar-head was created. The front radar head, together with the signal processor with visual, aural, and tactile feedbacks were initially included into a Volvo S40 and then a Cadillac STS.
The use of autos is growing today. As there are more cars on the road, more people are dying in traffic accidents. Our nation sees an average of 450000 accidents every year. Most accidents are brought on by a driver's tardiness in using the brakes or recklessness. Because brake failure causes so many accidents, we can lessen their impact when the brake is controlled automatically. This article discusses the development and design of a mechatronic braking system that, while in use, may automatically apply brakes to any item that the ultrasonic sensor detects.
When an obstacle is recognised, the ultrasonic waves are always being emitted by the ultrasonic emitter and are reflected back to the receiver, which then picks up the signal. The signal is transmitted by the reflected wave to the Arduino Nano microcontroller, which then activates the brakes depending on the object's distance. Speed is a significant aspect today and contributes to disastrous events.
Therefore, we can reduce the number of fatalities in traffic accidents by implementing an ultrasonic braking system.
The primary goal of this work is to create a vehicle's speed control and automated braking system. This concept outlines an autonomous braking system that is monitored by ultrasonic sensors and operated by them. The ultrasonic sensor-equipped robot is managed by the Arduino microcontroller.
The car has an ultrasonic sensor attached to the front end. By mounting sensors on the robot, sensors collect data from the area around it. The sensor identifies the intended road to halt the impediment when it is caught by the sensor. To control the movement of the robot vehicle, the micro-controller will receive data from the sensor and deliver it to it. The wheel encoder and ultrasonic sensor will be utilised to detect the vehicle's movement and direction. This vehicle's job is to recognise barriers and steer clear of crashes.
When an obstacle is recognised, the ultrasonic waves are always being emitted by the ultrasonic emitter and are reflected back to the receiver, which then picks up the signal. The Arduino receives the signal from the reflected wave.
According on the object's distance, the alarm or brakes are activated at the nanoscale. Solenoid valves are utilised to activate the brakes. An ultrasonic wave emitter located on the front of an automobile produces and emits ultrasonic waves as part of an autonomous braking system, an intelligent mechatronic system. Additionally, a reflecting Ultrasonic wave signal is operationally received by an ultrasonic receiver that is mounted to the front of the vehicle. The distance between the obstruction and the vehicle is determined by the reflected wave (detected pulse). Then, a microcontroller is employed to manage the vehicle's speed depending on the information from the detecting pulse in order to depress the brake pedal and administer extreme braking to the vehicle for safety reasons. Collision avoidance and warning systems are progressively being installed in automotive vehicles to foresee the possibility of colliding with an external object, such as another car or a person
Designers have suggested numerous improvements for automation For anti-collision applications where automated braking is implemented in response to collision risk detection and where a very high likelihood of detection is complemented by a very low level of false alarms, a precise short range radar system was created.
A braking strategy for a vehicle's automatic parking system has proposed a brake controller that works with the system to make parking stable and easy. For a four-wheel vehicle, an autonomous antilock braking system (ABS) system that can replace the vehicle's traction control has been created.
By avoiding wheel lock-up, ABS is a braking system that preserves control over the directional stability of the car during emergency braking or braking on slick surfaces. Modern car braking systems have made significant advancements recently..
FPGA-based automatic reverse braking system implementation Prof. A. P. Thakare, Divya Thakur. In order to avoid front-end, rear-end, right-turn, and left-turn accidents on roadways, an auto-braking system employing sensors was developed. Using a sensor, this module may measure the separation between the car in front of the driver's vehicle and the latter to control the brakes.
All of the aforementioned design approaches have improved both pedestrian and automobile safety. It avoided rear-end collisions and offered ABS on slick or abrupt corners. But since all of these only apply to cars travelling in the straight forward direction, we must create technologies that improve car performance and security when travelling backwards.
A concept for cars that reversed included speed control using binocular cameras and obstacle detection. Therefore, we suggest a "Automatic Reverse Braking System" in this study to avoid collisions by employing sensors to identify impediments. Processing sensor data and managing the vehicle is done by the "Automatic Reverse Braking system" to avoid accidents.
Examining the automatic braking system and speed control AVBIT, Pawnar (WARDHA), Maharashtra (INDIA), Gopal P. Gawande, Shruti V. Gavhale, Irshad A. Zariye, and Sagar P. Ritpurkar EXTC Department
The suggested work may regulate a vehicle's speed and autonomous braking system.
There are three main stages to it:
With the use of several sensors, the suggested technique will automatically show information about the obstruction in the vehicle's route on the display. The vehicle is equipped with ultrasonic sensors that detect the obstacle (the Hurdle) and then communicate with the controller. Based on these indications, the controller decides what measures to take to ensure the driver's safety. We can immediately see the distance between the automobile and the obstruction on the LED display when the obstacle in front of the car has been detected.
The automatic braking system is engaged if an accident-like circumstance is identified by the IR sensor and there is a very short space between two automobiles or between a car and an obstruction.
To operate the solenoid valve in this project, electronics play a significant role in the task. because the braking cylinders are actuated by solenoid valves, an electromagnetic component. The following is a list of the circuit's components:
It is possible for current or voltage to change continuously over time in analogue electronic circuits in order to correlate to the information being represented. The two fundamental building blocks of analogue circuitry are series and parallel.
circuits. The same current flows through a number of components in a series circuit. A series circuit is much like a string of holiday lights; if one goes out, they all go out. All of the components in a parallel circuit are connected to the same voltage, and the current is divided among them based on their resistance.
Accidents cause the loss of priceless lives, goods, and money. The loss of lives has continued despite the ineffectiveness of the accident prevention mechanisms thus far. Air bags, GPS, robot-driven automobiles, monitored autos, and other devices can help prevent accidents to some extent.
Accidents have a variety of reasons. Among these are: disobeying traffic laws; driving while intoxicated; driving while dreaming; mechanical problems with the car; and drivers' errors.
The primary factor stated in each of these situations is an inability to use the brakes when necessary. All of the aforementioned situations can be avoided if the brakes are used in a timely manner. Accidents caused by all of the aforementioned factors can be prevented if a system is developed that automatically applies the brakes when an accident occurs.
This initiative intends to correct the mistakes made by the drivers, and when accidents occur, the system assumes control and stops the car before a collision..
B. Draw Backs of Emergency Braking System
C. Basic Distance Measurement Principle
With the advancement of science and technology in the modern era, radar technology has found widespread use across several sectors. Radar transmitters that use ultrasonic and millimetre waves are more common. electromagnetic waves with a wavelength between 1 and 10 mm are referred to as millimetre waves, and their high resolution and tiny antenna components may be adapted to harsh environments. Consequently, millimeter-waveRadar is very accurate, interference-resistant, performs well at low altitudes, is compact, lightweight, and weather-adaptable.
The generation of ultrasonic waves involves mechanical vibration at a frequency higher than that of audible sound waves. They can be transmitted in a variety of media at varying speeds, with varying degrees of directivity in the communication process, the ability to concentrate energy in a variety of advantageous locations depending on the medium type, a small reduction in the transmission process, and the capacity for reflection.Ranging schematic figure of shown in Fig. 1 basedon the collision The key components of the ultrasonic and millimetre wave radar prevention system are the measurement of the side barriers and the leading vehicle distance.
D. Basic GSM and GPS Working Principle
Modern technology, the Global Positioning System (GPS), was created by the American Department of Defence for military use. It was now made available for civilian usage.
It is used for a wide range of purposes, including logistics, traffic management, security, surveying, location, direction, speed, and timing. It is now a crucial component of a vehicle's identification and navigation system. It may provide precise time, position, and speed information. However, the Global technology for Mobile Communications (GSM) is a widely used digital mobile telecommunications.
Over 690 mobile networks provide GSM services in 213 countries, and GSM accounts for 82.4% of all mobile connections worldwide. It provides Short Message Service (SMS) and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) for data transfer in addition to voice communication.
In this project, I use a GPS's capacity to detect accidents based on monitored speed, and I notify the position and time of the accident to the hospital, loved ones, friends, and an ambulance using GPS data processed by a microcontroller and the GSM network.
The goal of this effort is to create an ultrasonic sensor-based safety car braking system and to create a vehicle that requires less human attention while being driven. There are no technology to stop accidents in autos right now. However, they have included sensors that might find any obstructions.
By incorporating automated brakes, which would receive information from sensors and then create the brakes and prevent crashes, we are strengthening the previous work in this project. A piezoelectric crystal in the ultrasonic transmitter can resonate up to the necessary frequency. Additionally, this transforms acoustic energy into electrical energy and vice versa.
There is a component called an ultrasonic wave generator that generates the ultrasonic wave while the ultrasonic wave is being sent using Ultrasonic waves were created, and an ultrasonic transmitter sent the waves in the direction of the road surface to detect obstacles. The range of the utilised ultrasonic sensors determines how far away an obstruction may be detected.
The ultrasonic wave will create a reflected wave if it encounters any form of physical obstruction. The ultrasonic vibrations are reflected by a reflector once the obstruction has been located. This is done by using an ultrasonic receiver to collect ultrasonic waves that are reflected off of the road surface and turn them into a reception signal..An ultrasonic transducer can convert sound waves back into electrical energy. An amplifier has magnified this signal. To identify components in the amplified signal caused by obstructions on the road surface, the amplified signal is compared to the reference signal. To keep a consistent ratio between the average of the reference signal and the average of the amplified signal, the amplitude of the reference signal or the amplifier's amplification factor is regulated. As a result, the presence of cars may be checked by the ultrasonic sensor. Once this is finished, the sensors sound an alarm if they detect an obstruction. The signal that has been processed will be sent to the brake circuit.
An IR sensor that is mounted in front of the vehicle detects collisions and sends a signal to the microcontroller if the obstacle struck the vehicle as a result of the vehicle slowing down for a longer period of time. The breaking circuit receives instructions from the microprocessor to switch off the engine. Additionally, the microcontroller transmits the accident note to the closest hospital and the relatives of the predefined number..
When used in an automobile, the ultrasonic braking system prevents a great deal of accidents and can protect people and property. In order to partially prevent accidents, the use of such a propelled structure may be made necessary in the same way that safety belt use is. Our infrared braking system offers a glimpse into the future of vehicle safety and how much more effective this particular system can be for preventing accidents and protecting vehicle occupants when they are combined into one framework. The future of automotive security is more than just creating a new breakthrough; it involves changing how we approach health. Although the ultrasonic braking system technique represents a significant departure from the way health is often handled, it is still. This project discusses the development and design of a mechatronic braking system that, when activated, may automatically apply breaks when it comes into contact with any objects detected by an ultrasonic sensor. One of the clever solutions for halting a moving body without spasmodic motion in numerous automotive applications is intelligent braking. According to our team\'s study, designing intelligent brake applications largely depends on how well Ultrasonic sensors and microcontrollers (the motor driver) work at managing the speed of the vehicle in accordance with preset distances. Our current study has convinced us that the implementation of this smart system is feasible and practical.
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Copyright © 2023 N. Shalom, Nabeel Narshad, Veeraj V Gopal, Arjun Sajeev, Abhinand M Thampi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.