Authors: Dr. Asha, Dr. Vishal Sharma
Certificate: View Certificate
The science of Ayurveda focuses on the prevention and cure of illness. The Tridoshas, Sapta Dhatus, and Trimalas all endorse it. Apart from the Sapta Dhatus, Upadhatus play an important role. It is Artava, the Upadhatu of Rasa Dhatu, that causes conception in females. Therefore, Artava\'s health is very important in terms of reproductive health. The menstrual cycle is known in Ayurveda as Rituchakra and is separated into three phases: Ritukaala, Rituvyatitkaala, and Rajahsravakaal. The most significant is Jatharagni, which breaks down four different kinds of food into Rasa and Mala. Every Dhatu is divided into three parts by the seven Dhatvagni acting on its corresponding dhatus. Thus, the whole transformation process yields two different kinds of products: Kitta (excrete) and Prasad (essence). The former is consumed for sustenance, whereas the latter is discarded because, if it remains in the body longer, it defiles it. Since all of the Artava Dushti falls under the category of impaired Agni function, this Agni serves as a crucial foundation for the creation of Artava in the tree.
In Ayurveda, the female menstrual cycle is referred to as the Rituchakra. The term 'Chakra' signifies its regular beginning at regular periods, much like a cycle. A normal cyclic menstruation is essential for women's health (Ritusrava). Sufficient Artavautpatti (formation) and Nishkramana (expulsion) are necessary to preserve women's health. The three stages of a single Rituchakra, lasting one Chandramasa (28 days), are the Rajahsrava Kaala, the Ritu Kaala, and the Rituvyatita Kaala. Rasa's essence is used to generate the Upadhatu Artava. Agneya, who possesses qualities similar to Rakta, is Artava. Many of Rakta's characteristics are shared by Artava, who also helps Garbha grow. It is among the most important physiological processes that enable the formation of Garbha. In females, Rajas, also known as Artava, is a Rasa Dhatu Upadhatu that lasts from the age of 12 to 50.
II. AIM OF STUDY
To establish co-relation between Agni & Artava Dushti.
III. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Modern science and all the references found in Ayurvedic scriptures were used to conduct the study. For the relevant references of Artava and Agni, Bruhatrayee, i.e., Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, Ashtanga Sangraha, and Ashtanga Hridaya, have been examined. overview of the literature on current research on menstrual schedules and their impact on reproductive health. Additionally, information has been gathered here from a variety of medical research databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, and online journals, websites, and textbooks.
IV. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Every month, Artava, the Rakta in Stree, is expelled for three days after reaching the Garbhakostha (uterus). The essence of rasa is used to construct the Upadhatu Artava. The Rituchakra does not arise in young females (before menarche) since their Yoni (reproductive system) is Heena (underdeveloped). The first stage of life, known as menarche and one of the signs of puberty, is called 'Pratham Rajodarshankaala.' As they age, all their biological systems mature and menstruation starts. Contrarily, menopause, sometimes referred to as "Rajonivrittikaala," is the term for the permanent cessation of menstruation at the end of reproductive life due to a decrease in ovarian follicular activity. Acharya's differing perspectives: According to Sushruta Acharya, a person's rite of passage expires at age 50 and commences at age 12. According to Arundatta: Menstruation can start before the age of 12 and menopause can start before the age of 50. According to Chakrapani: Although it forms in Garbhakala, Artava first appears around the age of twelve. According to Dalhana: Since childhood, acknowledges the existence of Raja or Shonita using the metaphor "pushpmukulastho," which is not very clear because of the small number.
A. Formation of Artava
Following the explanation of how the Dhatus (tissue elements) are fed, the Upadh?tus (subsidiary tissue elements) are described. The nutritional component of Rasa (chyle) aids in the production of women's menstrual blood and breast milk. Although menstrual blood, or Rajas, is a consequence of Rasa, its production is delayed due to its subtlety. This viewpoint is corroborated by Sushruta, which asserts that it takes a month for males to develop Sukra (semen), and for females to form Rajas (swollen blood).
B. Role of Dosha in Rituchakra
Entire period of one month of Ritu Chakra Kala is divided into three phases
a. Rajasravakala (Menstrual Phase) - 3 to 5 days
b. Ritukala - 12 to 16 days
c. Rituvyatitakala - 9 to 13 days
C. Rajahsrava Kaala (Menstrual Phase)
The menstrual period, known as Rajahsrava Kaala, occurs one month apart. This period takes varied amounts of time according to different Acharyas. Generally speaking, the period lasts three to five days. 
Divergent views on how long the bleeding period should last are
D. Characteristics of Healthy Menstruation
It is regarded typical to have a menstrual flow that occurs once a month, lasts for five nights, is neither excessive nor insufficient, and is free of burning, sliminess, and pain.
When a woman's menstrual flow has the color of a lotus, Gunja fruit, Laksha Rasa, or Indragopa (trombidium), it is said to be uncontaminated. 
E. How Long will this Phase Continue?
Acharya Sushruta states that the duration is twelve days. Acharya Vagbhata believes this period to be twelve years. That might last for a month, sixteen days, or even a week Acharya Kashyapa has presented a novel idea based on the diverse racial groups within the community.
It is accurate. Ritukaala gets her name because a woman's menstrual cycle will be disturbed if her Garbhashaya gets during this stage of pregnancy. With the seeds, there is a probability of fertilization (sperms). It resembles the breeding season. The reasoning behind the creation of Ritukaala has been extensively explored. as follows: After blooming, the Lotus flower closes Likewise, women's Yoni is limited after dusk and does not accept Ritukaala or Shukra after Ritukaala.
F. Rituvyakta Kaala (Luteal Phase)
Rituchakra's phase that follows Ritukaala and ends when Rajahsrava Kaala begins. This stage has been briefly described as the Rituchakra stage in which the Yoni closes or becomes constricted. Sperm entrance is prohibited due to this closure, preventing pregnancy at this time. The secretary phase of the menstrual cycle, known as the Rituvyakta Kaala, symbolizes the uterus getting ready to implant the fertilized ovum. 
V. AGNI AND ARTAVA
Agni is the original natural energy that gave rise to life as we know it in this universe. It is one of the Pancha mahabhoota that Tejo Tatva's reign produced. Agni, or from the time of Garbhavakranti throughout life, is highly valued in Ayurveda. Pachakagni and Dhatvagni directly contribute to the process of life's sustenance. The underlying cause of every Artavavaha sroto vikara is agna dushti. An important part of Artava's creation is Agni. This becomes clear when we understand the Artava process in relation to its Utpatti, Vahana, and Nishkramana. Dushti of Artava is triggered by any interference with this process and can result in a range of gynecological problems.
When the Agni is destroyed, the person dies. A person who maintains Agni in Samyavastha will live a long life free from illness.
Damage to this srotas in any way can result in Vandyatva, or infertility, and Maithuna Asahishnutva, or dyspareunia.
A. Artava Rogas:
B. Artava Kshaya
The pathophysiology of Artava Kshaya involves the involvement of Jatharaagni. Nidana sevana causes Jatharagni Dushti, which in turn causes Mandagni to lead to Rasadhathwagni Dushti, which further leads to upadhatu artava dushti, which in turn causes Artava Kshaya.
Our Acharyas have prescribed the use of Samshodhana Chikitsa and Agneya Dravya in the treatment of Artava Kshaya. Agneya Dravya, consisting of Teekshana Guna and Ushna Veerya, creates Jatharagni Vardhana, which consequently results in Rasadhatwagni Vruddhi, Prashastha Rasa Dhatu formation, and Artava Kshaya correction.
Table 1: Relation between state of Agni and Artava dushti
State of Agni involved
Pittaja, kunapagandhi, ksheenartava, puti pooya
Kaphaja, granthi bhuta
C. Vataja Artava Dushti
Vataja Artava Dushti is managed by the Vishamagni that is brought into Samyavastha by the Agni Deepaka Gritha, Amla and Lavana Rasa, Ushna Veerya, and Deepana guna of all the Dravyas processed in Ksheera.
D. Pittaja Artava Dushti
The medications utilized here are Madhura, Tikta, and Kashaya Rasa; Snigdha Guna controls Pittaja Artava Dushti by bringing the Teekshna Agni into Samyavastha, Shita Veerya, and having a Guru Guna.
E. Kaphaja Artava Dushti
Yukta dravyas katu vipaka, laghu, and rooksha guna yukta veerya, deepana, katu, and kashaya rasas; agni deepana, which calms mandagni and so controls kaphaja artava dushti.
Nidana sevana results in Pachakagni Dushti of vishamagni, which in turn causes Vata Vruddhi, Avarana of Kapha, blockage to Artavavaha Srotas, artava apravrutti, and ultimately anartava.
Vata-Kaphahara Dravyas were used in order to treat the Vishamagni which causes Anartava. The Tila, Masha, Shukta, Gomutra, and Udashvith Prayoga are mentioned for this Amla Kanji.
Due to Nidana Sevana The vitiation of Vata, Pitta, and Agni leads to increase in Dravataha Guna of pitta, which results in garbhashaya gata sira rakta vrudhi, which further inflicts ati pravrutti of rajavaha sroto, and rajo vrudhi which is named as Asrukdara.
Table 2: Relation between state of Agni and Asrukdara
State of Agni
Vataja Asrukdara: The medications used to cure Vataja Asrukdara are mostly Madhura rasa, Snigdha guna, Sheeta veerya, Deepana, and vataghna in nature; they treat vataja asrukdara by calming vishamagni and bringing agni to Sama Avastha.
Pittaja Asrukdara: The majority of the medications used to treat Pittaja asrukdara are pittagnha in nature, which calms Teekshna Agni and brings it to Sama Avastha, which cures Pittaja asrukdara. Other medications include Madhura rasa, Guru and Snigdha guna, and Sheeta veerya.
Kaphaja Asrukdara: Here, Tikta, Kashaya Rasa, Laghu Ruksha Guna, Ushna Veerya, Deepana, and Pachana Karma are the medications that are employed. This calms Mandagni, correcting Agni and aiding in the treatment of Kaphaja Asrukdara.
Jatharagni is closely associated with Dhatvagni, or bioenergetics, and the metabolic processes that occur in cells, culminating in tissue metabolism or the Dhatu-Paka process. Every Dhatvagni is dependent upon Jatharagni being in a regular, healthy state. The Dhatvagni will act excessively or slowly if the Jatharagni is hyperactive (Tikshna) or hypoactive (Manda). Ultimately, this erratic behavior results in a number of disorders. The primary Agni that governs the operation of the other twelve Agnis is called Jatharagni. The state of the Jatharagni is entirely dependent upon the Agnis.
The basic nutrients found in the Anna Rasa, or essence, of the food consumed are transformed into the essential Rasa Dhatu needed for that specific Dhatu or cell by each Dhatvagni, or the bioenergy present in each Dhatu. Similar to how Rasa Dhatwagni aids in the development of Rasa Dhatu, Artava is produced as Upadhatu after that. Every Dhatvagni possesses a unique ability to combine and modify the ingredients according to the needs of that specific Dhatu.
As an Agneya, Artava is indebted on Agni for both its appropriate functioning and its creation from Rasa Dhatu.
The primary cause of Artava Dushti, which leads to Artava Rogas, is impairment of Agni. It is clear now that the majority of women are suffering from a variety of menstruation diseases and infertility as a result of their unhealthy eating choices and unusual lifestyles, which have a direct impact on Agni.
So, it is very vital to follow the regimens like Dinacharya, Rutucharya and Ashtavidha Ahara Vishesha Ayatanas which are especially mentioned for the purpose of preservation of Samagni, thereby fostering disease-free-state.
The Pachakagni Vaishamya can be corrected to arrange a successful treatment. Diagnose and treatment of Artava Roga are critical for procreation, since it eventually leads to Abeejatva.
The Kramanusara Utpatti of Rasadi Dhatu, Upadhatu, and Mala is attributed to Jatharagni. Any damage to the Jatharagni creates Rasadhatwagni Dushti, which in turn causes Rasa Dhatu Dushti and Upadhatu Artava Dushti, both of which worsen Artava Rogas. The upadhatu of Rasa Dhatu is Aratava. Jatharagni needs to be normal in order for Rasa Dhatu to form correctly. When ahara is ingested, the Jatharagni affects how Ahara Rasa is formed. Therefore, any interference in the Jatharagni results in incorrect ahara rasa formation, which produces Rasa Dushti and ultimately Artava Dushti. Therefore, the initial goal in treating Artava Vikras should be to correct Jathragni. The reproductive system\'s harmony will return upon the correction of Jathara Agni.
 Caraka Samhita Transalation Based on Cakrapani Datta’s Ayurveda Dipika Vol. 4 By R.K. Sharma, Bhagwan Dash, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series, 14.  Caraka Samhita Transalation Based on Cakrapani Datta’s Ayurveda Dipika Vol. 4 By R.K. Sharma, Bhagwan Dash, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series, 185.  Ayurvedic concepts in Gynaecology, Dr. Nirmala G. Joshi, chapter VIII, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan, Delhi.  Dhargalkar Dilip Nandini (ed) Sharira Kriya Vidnana, part 2, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2010; 613.  Agnivesha, Caraka Samhita, Ayurvedadipika Com- mentary by Cakrapanidatta, edited byVaidya Yadavji Trikramji Acharya, Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, reprint- 2011, Chikitsa Sthana 15th Chapter, Verse-3, pp- 738, pg -320.  G K Soumya, M Srivathsa, Prakruti, Kala - modifying factors of Rituchakra (menstrual cycle), journal of Ayurveda and holistic medicine, ISSN2321-1563, published on, 2016  Premavati Tiwari, Ayurvediya Prasuti Tantra evam Streeroga, Part 2, Chaukamba Sanskrith Sansthan, Varanasi, 2009; pp-69
Copyright © 2024 Dr. Asha, Dr. Vishal Sharma. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.