Netra (eyeball) is a fundamental organ of perception. There are restrictions notwithstanding the remarkable developments and advancements in modern ophthalmology. There is currently no solution for this specific eye problem in modern medicine. The majority of inflammatory eye conditions are successfully managed by western medicine. Even the most cutting-edge new generation techniques cannot treat neurological eye diseases or degenerative eye problems. Neurological and degenerative eye conditions are common among patients in India alone. Even though ophthalmology has seen significant and astounding improvements in modern medicine recently, the importance of Ayurveda treatment for eye disorders cannot be understated. An old medicinal system called Ayurveda offers helpful guidance for both treatment and prevention.
In order to prevent and treat eye diseases, it is vital to find an ocular procedure with few adverse effects. One of the most popular eye treatments in Ayurveda, Tarpana is acknowledged to offer a permanent solution to the issue of ocular disorders. Therefore, it is essential to look into Tarpana mechanism of action and present a precise pharmacodynamics picture of the drug in order to justify its use in a way that is grounded in science. An effort was made to find the scientific evidence that can support Ayurveda teachings with this viewpoint.
The main sense that God endowed mankind with is their eyes. The Ayurveda saying “Sarvendriyanam-Nayanam-Pradhanam” [i] emphasises the importance of the eye, stating that it is the most important sense organ among all others. Sushruta talks in-depth about it. Sushruta explains the medicinal, curative, and preventative uses of Netra over the course of 19 chapters in Uttartantra. For Indriya-janya-gyana, which is regarded to be the source of Pratyaksha gyana, Netra (Akshi) is a crucial organ (direct perception) of the five Indriya (sensory organs), Netra is without a doubt the most crucial because it is how we acquire knowledge.
All materials, whether living or non-living, are made up of five basic components termed Panchamahabhuta, and all body parts are composed of the combination of these Mahabhuta, according to ancient Indian philosophy. The key figure in Netra case is Teja Mahabhuta[ii]. As a result, because Teja Mahabhuta is completely opposed to Kapha Dosha, the Netra organ is constantly at risk. The eye is where Alochaka Pitta is located. Everyone should make conscious efforts to maintain their vision until the end of life, in AshtangaHridaya opinion, as a blind person will not benefit from this beautiful planet, regardless of riches. [iii]. Use of Nasya, Anjana, Tarpana, and other therapies should be made in an effort to strengthen the eyes. The diversity of the world will merge into a single, uniform blackness once vision is lost. Even though ophthalmology has made significant and amazing strides recently, the value of Ayurvedic treatment for eye problems cannot be overstated. With the exception of Samanya Chikitsa, every branch of Ayurveda has produced Visishta Chikitsa. For instance, the Chikitsardha in Kayachikitsa, Shalyachikitsa, and Shalakya Chikitsa, respectively, are Basti Chikitsa, Rakthamokshana, and Kriyakalpa. Kriyakalpa are special techniques employed in Shalakya Tantra that have a significant impact on Netra Vikara control. Kriyakalpa are designed to lessen the effects that Sthanika-khavaigunya and vitiated Dosha have on Netra Avayava. Kriyakalpa can also be practised as Swasthya-Sanrakshaka-Prayoga to preserve the health of the sense organs and relieve illnesses brought on by ageing. Kriyakalpa is made up of Seka, Aschyothana, Tarpana, Putapaka, Anjana, Bidalaka, and Pindi.[iv]The most crucial Kriya Kalpa for treating eye disorders is Netra Tarpana. Akshitarpana is one of the particular remedies for numerous eye issues. For maintaining appropriate eye health, Akshitarpana is both a therapeutic and preventive therapy. Natural settings contain Brimhana. In Sanskrit, the words “Akshitarpana” (also known as “Netrabasti”) allude to the process of feeding or rehydration, and “Akshi” is the term for the eye.
Thus, the name collectively refers to eye feeding or, in a way, ocular rehydration. Ayurveda care centres offer Akshitarpana, a cleansing and regeneration procedure, as a Panchakarma treatment. The Akshi Tarpana method uses lukewarm medicinal ghee to administer The Akshi Tarpana procedure involves placing lukewarm medicinal ghee into a specially made frame and allowing it to remain stationary in the eyes for a certain amount of time. The therapy is particularly beneficial for treating a number of eye conditions as well as for relieving eye strain so that the eyes can remain still for a period of time. Since ancient times, Akshi Tarpana has been used in Ayurveda to enhance vision. It is especially beneficial for people who spend long hours using equipment that strain their eyes, such as computers. It is the Kriya Kalpa that Netra practitioners enjoy and use the most. It strengthens Drishti Shakti while also nourishing the eyes.
In Vataja and Pittaja Vikara, it is a very successful preventive and curative approach.
A. Indications for Tarpana Karma[v],[vi]
Tarpana Karma Indicators,
When a patient notices the gloom in front of their eyes.
Eyes that are dry.
The eyeballs’ roughness.
Tightness in the eyelids.
A drop in eyelashes.
The eyes filthiness.
Deviated or squinted eyes.
In the most severe worsening of eye disorders.
Traumatic or injury-related ocular ailment.
Illnesses that are primarily Pitta or Vata.
A list of diseases that have been carefully selected for Tarpana Karma has also been provided by Acharya Vagbhata. The following people have eye problems:Subconjunctival haemorrhage in Arjuna, conjunctivitisin Syanda, glaucomain Adhimantha, and Anyatovata (referred pain in the eye or sphenoidal sinusitis), Tama (dizziness), Siraharsha (conjunctival blood vessel congestion), Sirotpata (episcleritis), Vataparyaya, and Kricchronmilan (corneal opacity).
Indications against using Tarpanakarma[vii] Acharya Sukrata asserts that Tarpana is not recommended on cloudy days.
Seasons of extreme heat or cold.
When there are fears and anxiousness.
When your eyes are giddy and you are exhausted.
In eye-related problems.
Shodhana Karma is carried out in accordance with accepted procedure. Sthanika Abhyanga and Mridu Swedana finished later.
A. Practice Karma
On an auspicious day, Akshitarpana is best administered in the early or late afternoon after the patient has digested their food and has undergone the necessary cleansing procedures. The patient is given access to a room that is open, well-lit, and free of dust in which to lay down and rest. The Pali (wall) around the eyes is then covered with Masha paste to form a sturdy, leak-proof barrier. Vagbhata says that Pali can grow to a height of 2 Angula.
B. The Passata Karma
The eye is then fomenteated with lukewarm water after the Ghrita has been stored for a set amount of time through a hole in the dough wall close to the outer canthus. Kapha should be eradicated with Shirovirechana (Nasya) and fumigation (Dhoompana) when employing Kapha suppressing medications when it has already been stimulated by the potency of Ghrita. The patient must take every precaution to stay away from things like lights, wind, the sky, mirrors, and moving lights.
Period of Retention of Ghrita, also known as Snehadharanakala With regard to the severity of Dosha Prakopa and the diseases Adhishtana, Snehadharanakala is initiated. Sushruta sharirsthana, Asthanga Hriyda, Sharangadhar Samhita, Bhavaprakasha. Given the severity of Dosha Prakopa and the prevalence of diseases Adhishtana, Snehadharanakala is initiated.
C. Days of procedure or Tarpana Avadhi
AcharyaSushruta just requests that the treatment be provided for one, three, or five days, or until the Samyaka Tarpita Lakshana are visible, without noting the state of the eyes. According to Acharya Jejjata, Tarpana should be practised for one day for Vataja diseases, three days for Pittaja issues, and five days for Kaphaja issues. Depending on the dosha and Teevratha of the Vyadhi as well as the Swasthya, Tarpana can be practised every day, every other day, alternately, with a two- or three-day respite, or with an interval of two or three days.
D. Samyak Tarpita Lakshana
Avbodhatva- blissfula wakening
Sukha Swapana -good(sound)sleep
Vaishadhya- clearness of the eyes
Varnapatava- discernment of individual colours
Nivriti means comfort
Prakashkshamta- ability to with stand bright light
E. Ati Tarpita Lakshana
Netra Gaurava-heaviness in eyes
Atisnigdhata- excessive oiliness
Ashru Srava- lacrimation
F. Heena Tarpita Lakshana
Netra Rukshata- dryness of eye
Avilta- indistinct vision
G. Treatment of excessive and insufficient Tarpana
The Dhoompana, Nasya, Anjana, Seka, Ruksha, or Snighdha procedures should be used to address both inadequate and excessive Tarpana circumstances depending on the predominance of Dosha. Ruksha is a Kapha, SheetaSeka is a Pitta Dosha, and Snigdha Seka is a VataDosha illness.
Ghrita is typically used for Tarpana, a medicine that primarily comprises omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, vitamins A, E, and K, and antioxidants17. Tarpana, which contains a variety of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, etc., is also made with milk18
God gave mankind their primary sense organ, the eye. Every person should make sincere efforts to preserve his vision until the last breath of life since for a Blind person, day and night are the same, & no matter how wealthy he is, this beautiful world is useless to him. Despite great advancements and expansion, there are still certain restrictions in modern ophthalmology. The traditional medical system known as Ayurveda offers helpful guidelines for both treatment and prevention. When used quickly, the local therapeutic technique known as Akshi Tarpana Karma yields measurable proof of exceptional outcomes.
 Aachary Manik, editor Chanakya Neeti, Azadpur, Delhi,Sadhana Publication, 2004.p.86
 Dr. BrahmanandTripati, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha,elaborated by Charakaand Dridbala, editedwith Charaka Chandrikahindicommentary, Vol.2, Chaukhamba SurbharatiPraka- shan, Varanasi, seventhedition:2000,CharakSutrasthan 5/16pg115.
 Vaidya Yadunanandana Upadhyaya, AshtangHridya of Vagbhatta, editedwiththe Vidyotini hindi commentary by Kaviraja Atrideva Gupta, editedby, Edition: reprint 2012, Chaukhamba Prakashan, Ashtang Hridya Sutrasthan 13/98pg 697.
 Dr. Brahmanand Tripati, Sharangadhara Samhita of pandita Sharangdhar acharya containing Anjananidana of Maharishi Agnivesha, annoted with Dipika hindi commentary by Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan,Varanasi, edition2004,Uttarkhanda 13pg430.
 Kaviraja Ambikadutta Sashtri, Sushruta Samhita of Maharishi Sushruta, edited with Ayurveda Tatva Sandipika, hindicommentary, Vol. 2, Edition: reprint2012, by Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan, Sushruta Uttartantra 18/17 pg94.
 Vaidya Yadunanandana Upadhyaya, Ashtang Hridya of Vagbhatta, edited with the Vidyotini hindi commentary by Kaviraja Atrideva Gupta, edited by Edition: reprint 2012, Chaukhamba Prakashan, Ashtang Hridya Sutrasthan 24/1-3pg 187.
 Kaviraja Ambikadutta Sashtri, Sushruta Samhita of Maharishi Sushruta, edited with Ayurveda-Tatva-Sandipika, hindi commentary, Vol. 2, Edition: reprint2012, by Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan, Sushruta Uttartantra 18/18 pg95.