Authors: Anushka Srivastava
Certificate: View Certificate
Life and death are perpetual topics for human beings to investigate. The basic kind of funeral architecture is cemeteries, which serve as the final resting place for humans and their final homes. The demand for cities has been highlighted as a result of population growth. This research focuses on the spaces linked to a multi-faith cemetery as well as the types of spaces that evoke emotions throughout the death process. For the research, four main religions were chosen: Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, and Zoroastrianism. The aim of the research is to find out the emotional aspect and spatial character of the space associated with deceased. The main research topic was: what effect do emotional elements have on death places and what are the design criteria for high-rise cemeteries in metropolitan areas? According to the findings of this study, emotions such as mourning or grief, as well as remembrance processes, were major preoccupations. It also indicates that all faiths\' funeral practises and ceremonies have a similarity, as well as shared concepts about death. The study\'s result offers a fresh perspective on how the architectural character of spaces aids in coping with the emotions associated with death.
Birth and death are natural stages in the life of every human being. But the emotional aspects of these two events are significantly different. The birth of a new human is associated with excitement and optimism; thoughts about death are usually scary and unpleasant. People die every day, and architecture cannot change this fact. But architecture can influence the perceptions and emotions connected with the death of a relative.
Humans use architecture as both their first and last stop. A new born is honoured and welcomed into the new world in the hospital. The final stage is to take the deceased to the cemetery, wherever they are laid to rest in peace. Death cannot be avoided. To cope with and minimise the great pain caused by the death of our loved ones, a wide range of afterlife beliefs and stories have been developed on a cultural, spiritual, geographical, and other level. Religion and culture are two underlying themes in these afterlife spirits and beliefs (SONG, MAY 2017).
A death may have a significant influence on someone's life, and the environment in which these events occur should help individuals through tough times. Funerary places are important from the aspect of a designer since they must account for both physical and emotional needs, which involves knowledge and empathy on the part of the designer.
The purpose of this research is to find assumptions for the design of funeral estates in contemporary society. Because everyone must deal with death at some time in their life, cemeteries and crematoria are important places to visit. Funerary spaces are interesting to designers because they must account for both physical and emotional needs, which involves knowledge and empathy on the designer's side. Funeral rituals serve different purposes depending on religion and time and place. Historically, the aim of most religious funerals was to assist the departed in their journey to the next life, and this is still an integral part for many.
II. HISTORIC TIMELINE OF DEATH PRACTICES
It was an established tradition by the time the first Hindu scriptures were published, about 1,200 B.C. There is archaeological evidence that in the distant past, burial was the norm, and subsequently cremation with a secondary burial became prevalent, giving way to cremation, which is now the dominating habit. It is unclear why cremation became popular; some claim it is a method of cleansing, freeing the soul from a filthy body; 2) it represents the transitory aspect of life, of destruction and rebirth; or 3) it eliminates the body as a health risk and does not take up valuable land.
This is how and why the practise of cremation developed. It was an established tradition by the time the first Hindu scriptures were published, about 1,200 B.C. There is archaeological evidence that in the distant past, burial was the norm, and subsequently cremation with a secondary burial became prevalent, giving way to cremation, which is now the dominating habit. (HINDU CREMATIONS, 2018)
III. CURRENT SCENARIO IN INDIA
IV. METHOD OF CORPSE DISPOSAL
The process of disposing of the ashes of a deceased individual being is known as "human corpse disposal." The improper disposal of a human corpse poses both a sanitation and a public health risk. The body gets decomposed in two storage processes:
A number of disposal methods are performed. A funeral is a ritual that may be performed in conjunction with the final disposal of a deceased person. In any case, the form of disposal is usually influenced by religion, with the desire to keep an eye out for the departed, and could be highly ritualised.
According to the beliefs of various religions existing in India, the following traditional methods of disposal of a body are mainly practiced:
d. Sky Burial
V. HOW DEATH ASSOCIATE WITH EMOTION & SPACE
Death rituals, such as the ritual of prayer, can offer cultural comfort to people who are grieving the loss of their own life or that of another. Prayer rituals can help maintain a sense of control and identity during this time of crisis, offering comfort, meaning and structure (Souza, 2021).
Mourning can be seen as the symbolic action of grief, where grief is the emotion and mourning is the process of dealing with that emotion. The process of mourning is usually structured and performed around spaces or material objects. Such rituals and rites can be dated back to the very first human civilizations. The purpose of these rites as following:
“The performance of the commemorative ritual was also intended to tame the feeling of loss and render it as a natural transition to the other world. In this way, the public ritual of taming death created a sense of control, allowing its participants to overcome loss.”
There are many reasons to celebrate and mourn the life of a loved one, but for many, these six things sum up why remembrance is important:
D. Emotions Related to death
Characteristics of Stages of Grief:-
Avoidance, Confusion, Elation, Shock & Fear
Frustration, Irritation, Anxiety
Struggling to find meaning, Reaching out to other, telling one’s story
Overwhelmed, Helplessness, Hostility, Flight
Exploring option, New Plan in Place, Moving on
E. Architecture of Emotion
As we study the causes, significance, and impacts of emotions on human psychology and behaviour, the necessity to understanding its connection with architecture becomes clear. Emotion is a link that influences how inhabitants perceive architecture. Emotion Consider how the form and angles of your surrounds may have a significant impact on how you interact with the environment and people around you.
There is always a link between the environment and a person's behaviour, which results from either the users own perception of the space or an intended experience designed by the architect. Each space is associated with the emotions of the user which provides a 'sense of place'. The scale of emotional impact that the space creates on the occupant differs as per the 'quality of spaces'.
The functioning of a crematorium enable to design spaces that can interact with the sense of the user through different form and volumes. For example, the prayer hall, waiting areas, processional axis. The effect of emotion on every person is subjective, the feeling of grief and sorrow in varying amount always exists.
Environmental psychology is the study of the interaction between people and the spaces they inhabit. Lighting, colours, configuration, scale, proportions, acoustics, and materials address the senses of the individual and generate a spectrum of feelings and practices (Harrouk, 2020). Space control people’s movements, creating a flow from element to element, telling people where to look, what to read and what’s important. While designing spaces, the function of the space, the time people will spend in it, and the mood you want the space to evoke should be taken into consideration.
Design and creative measures should be considered according to the social and psychological needs of the occupants. Psychology of space is in fact "the study of human relations and behaviours within the context of the built and natural environments". Having a direct impact on our subconscious, contributing to our emotions and perceptions, through that special part of your brain that reacts to the geometry of the space (Harrouk, 2020).
VI. HIGH RISE CEMETERY IN URBAN SPACE
A. Vertical Cemetery
Urban high-rise cemeteries provide a space for people to visit loved ones in cities and areas of urban density. As a result, it could allow the deceased to be laid to rest in relatively close proximity to their loved ones. This model addresses the challenges of displacement and distance between the living and the dead created by urban sprawl, population growth and governance issues (Team, March 2020). Vertical cemetery is a new concept to solve land shortage issues for the urban cemetery. This 'skyscraper cemetery' design proposal was submitted by Martin McSherry, a student at Copenhagen's Royal Danish School of Architecture. The proposal addresses the need in Norway for alternative burial methods as land becomes more scarce and crowded.
McSherry’s vision for the future cemetery is that to build up as a skyscraper. Different floors are designed specifically for different religions and for non-believers. McSherry envisions that “existing cemeteries will slowly be removed to provide land to the city’s living souls. The vertical cemetery will become a significant part of the city and daily reminder of death’s existence. In time, the city’s tallest and largest building will become a grave for all its citizens – the city’s ever-changing monument.” (SONG, MAY 2017)
B. Verticality as a Challenge for Some Typologies
The side effect of population explosion is the rise of space demands in the city. Verticality has become the practical solution to answer the land needs in urban area. "Verticalism" (Abalos, 2010) has just begun. This stacking methodology has been applied to almost every building typology. University campuses, museums, libraries, fashion buildings, sport buildings, along with combination of all these mixed with residential, hotel, and office typologies. We are moving to a phase in which verticality is seen as tolerance, not vandalism. 'Form follows function' has changed to 'form follows finance'.
In last 5 years, we are introduced to "Vertical Park", the combination application of technology and new idea. However, verticality is still not (yet) the solution for some specific typology. Zoo and cemetery are the biggest challenges for this method. Rising problem of lacking space, these typologies need to be transformed into vertical form. It will help to resolve a growing spatial problem (Hariyono1, 2015).
Cremation has certainly become more popular to both save burial cost and land in urban area, but this does not make cemetery obsolete. In some religions, cremation is forbidden and the dead body is required to be buried. But in this case, burial is not always on the ground. The possibility of verticality will be overlooked with religion/belief rules in burial.
C. Urban Cemetery Demands
Cemeteries are usually end up with a less dominant priority to be designed. Houses could be squeezed, offices could be shared, shops could be stacked, but not cemetery. Death number can be decreased, but what has been buried cannot be replaced. Cemetery has no other possibility than "extending". Land will always be constantly demanded for this typology.
he rapid population and economy growth in Hong Kong causes a very big competition in land uses between the live and the "dead". To optimize the space, some building developers have built tall skyscrapers. Soon, this transformation will be applied to typology that has caused problems of quantity. There is no possibility to replace them with cemetery in the top to-be-built list.
This research investigated and analysed the historic and modern funeral traditions and rituals of India\'s four major faiths. The different alternatives for corpse disposition after death, the types of cemeteries, and the future need for land required to continue with these ancient burial practises were also examined. The goal was to obtain a better understanding of these practises. The study was designed to explore emotional aspect with the context of all religion funeral rites & rituals and to draw implication for spaces associates with these activities and their impact on human psychology. The context of rites & rituals helped the bereaved individual confront their loss and help them to cope with it. One suggestion for space designing and other providing services for bereaved person and families is to consider the importance of understanding bereaved participants grief & emotional experience and the factor that impact their experiences at cemetery. The conclusion drawn from this study is that there is a strong link between emotion and space. It is believe that the architecture can, & perhaps should be considered as physical emotional & memory places. As an architecture use have to see to the specific emotion & memories to the place and let them speak. Funeral places are also used for grief, funerary ceremonies, remembering, and remembrance. The ability to execute rituals is very crucial during the grief process. 1) Praying is the important part of the death rituals all religion unite with this, so the place for praying is an important features that should be recommended in cemeteries for all religion. 2) The concept of bringing all religion at a one place bought a common harmony in a society. 3) Light and shade have a great impact on the environment and human psychology. It will help to reduce the stage of grief during performing the rituals. 4) Different color have a different impact on the human Psychology. 5) The future cemetery should function as a social hub for multiple purpose. Architectural design must incorporate various functions and provide more services for the community. 6) Future cemetery design must include emotion design in human scale. 7) Memory is one of the cultural treasures that needs to be preserved and inherited. Using technology to transfer abstract memories into digital data allows human to preserve the memories infinitely. 8) Spirituality is present in all people and is often of profound importance towards the end of a person’s life, even for those who would not normally consider themselves to be spiritual. 9) Rituals follow a standard form and structure that can be broken down and understood, allowing for better facilitation within end-of-life and palliative care. 10) Rituals provide a sense of control and allow people to maintain a sense of identity when faced with the crisis of death and bereavement. 11) Death and dying represents life’s final rite of passage, where prayer rituals are performed to aid the dying person in passing from one life to the next and to provide comfort, meaning and structure for the dying and the bereaved person in a time of spiritual suffering.
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