Authors: Chandrababu Pendem, Dr. Nagaraju Battu
Certificate: View Certificate
The role of HRM practices is considered to be vital in the organizations. Among all the other HRM practices recruitment and selection and training and development programs are considered to be more important. Furthermore, the study also considered that the role of HRM practices leads to the employee empowerment. Hence, this study is emphasized to test the impact of recruitment and selection and training and development variables over the employee empowerment.
Human resources management (HRM) is a management function concerned withering, motivating and maintaining people in an organization. It focuses on people in organizations. Human resource management is designing management systems to ensure that human talent is used effectively and efficiently to accomplish organizational goals. HRM is the personnel function which is concerned with procurement, development, compensation, integration and maintenance of the personnel of an organization for the purpose of contributing towards the accomplishments of the organization’s objectives. Therefore, personnel management is the planning, organizing, directing, and controlling of the performance of those operative functions. The whole context of Human Resource Management revolves around this core matter of managing relations at work place. Since mid-1980’s Human Resource Management (HRM) has gained acceptance in both academic and commercial circle. HRM is a multidisciplinary organizational function that draws theories and ideas from various fields such as management, psychology, sociology and economics. There is no best way to manage people and no manager has formulated how people can be managed effectively, because people are complex beings with complex needs. Effective HRM depends very much on the causes and conditions that an organizational setting would provide. Any Organization has three basic components, People, Purpose, and Structure. HRM refers to a set of programmes, functions and activities designed and carried out in order to maximize both employee as well as organizational effectiveness.
A. Scope of HRM
The scope of HRM is indeed vast. All major activities in the working life of a worker from the time of his or her entry into an organization until he or she leaves the organizations comes under the purview of HRM. The major HRM activities include HR planning, job analysis, job design, employee hiring, employee and executive remuneration, employee motivation, employee maintenance, industrial relations and prospects of HRM.
B. Functions of HRM
Human Resources management has an important role to play in equipping organizations to meet the challenges of an expanding and increasingly competitive sector. Increase in staff numbers, contractual diversification and changes in demographic profile which compel the HR managers to reconfigure the role and significance of human resources management. The functions are responsive to current staffing needs, but can be proactive in reshaping organizational objectives. All the functions of HRM are correlated with the core objectives of HRM.
II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Koch and McGrath views that HRM can help firms improve organizational behavior in such areas as staff commitment, competency and flexibility, which inturn leads to improved staff performance. The effective management of human resources requires sound Human Resource Management systems such as Recruitment, People Management, Salary Management, Competence and Talent Management, Carrier Management, Learning Management, Change Management, Absence Management, and Time Management.
Store defines HRM as a distinctive approach to employment management, which seeks to obtain competitive advantage through the deployment of a highly committed and skilled workforce, using an array of techniques. In order to develop a sound HRM system, the organization should have effective Human Resource Management practices.
Schuler and Jackson HRM practices refer to organizational activities directed at managing the pool of human resources and ensuring that the resources are employed towards the fulfillment of organizational goals. Hamel and Prahalad argue that a competitive advantage is obtained if a firm can obtain and develop human resources, which facilitate it to learn quicker and apply its learning more successfully.
E. Guest says that the HRM has evolved as one of the most important areas of organizational science and practices. It has not been developed in isolation, but rather in the context of industrial change and economic development. The uniqueness of the Human Resources (HR) approach needs a total different type of attention from managers. The HR has characteristics that provide the greatest challenge as well as opportunity. A company‘s HR is fragile with delicate relationships, along with unpredictable contributions, and permanency is uncertain.
Wright, Smart, and McMahan state that the crucial inputs among others in the organization are its human resources. People bring to their jobs diversity of skills, needs, goals, and expectations. They are socialized into the organization through their hiring to begin with, and their continuous functioning in the organization.
MacDuffie found that the measures of HR practices were related to quality and productivity on auto assembly lines, Youndt8 and others14 discovered that human capital enhancing HR practices were related to operational performance among as ample of manufacturing plants. Though much of the research on the relationship between HR practices and performance has somewhat consistently revealed a significant relationship, some recent debates have emerged regarding the value of different approaches to studying this phenomenon. Debates have arisen regarding the proper sources for gaining the most valid reports of HR practice measures, the proper level of analysis and proximity of Performance Measures (PM), and the timing of measurement.
Dyer and Reeves reviewed much of the existing research on the relationship between HR practices and performance and proposed that measures of performance could be broken down into four categories. First, employee outcomes deal with the consequences of the practices on employees such as their attitudes and behavior, particularly behavior such as absenteeism and turnover. Secondly, organizational outcomes focus on more operational measures of performance such as productivity, quality and shrinkage, many or all of which would be precursors to profitability. Thirdly, financial/ accounting outcomes refer to the actual financial performance measures and include expenses, revenues and profitability. Finally, market-based outcomes reflect how the financial markets value a firm, particularly stock price or variations of it.
According to Seyed-Mahmoud Aghazadeh Human resource management must change as the business environment in which it operates changes. He outlinesthe key challenges facing human resources managers as they move from simply handling personnel issues to making a strategic contribution to the future directionand development of an organization. He demonstrates that human resources managers can contribute both to performance enhancement and cost reduction thus contributing directly to the productivity of the organization.
Seyed-Mahmoud Aghazadeh also investigates three aspects of human resource management facing future challenges, personnel, technology and globalization. He suggests that the human resource professionals in a successful business must be able to attract and retain individuals who have the ability to manage a globally responsive business. He covers the use of technology for competitive advantage. He advocates global strategies in operations management and empowerment of the individual.
The global turmoil has witnessed the rising importance of Human Resources Management (HRM) in both business and public life. The turbulent business climate brought in the wake of liberalization, globalization, changing technologies, growth in knowledge and advances in information technology is offering managers a complex and challenging situation. Indian organizations are tending to become competitive to meet up globally relevant standards. The growing stress on privatization haswarranted a new focus in terms of result orientation.
Singh in his article speaks of long-term strategies, consumer focus, initiative and different mindsets for internal and external communication. Indian organizations normally direct their HRM efforts towards the development of competencies, culture and effectiveness among employees individually or in groups. Best HR practices vary from industry to industry, among companies within an industry. The most effective practices are not necessarily uniform across geographical regions. However, more similarities than differences exist in the types of HR practices advocated within and outside India.
III. RESEARCH GAP OF THE STUDY
There are enormous studies prevailing over the human resource management practices in the Indian context. The studies which emphasized on the employee empowerment and the employee satisfaction is very nascent. Furthermore, it is also observed that the studies related to test the impact of employee empowerment over the employee satisfaction is also very less. Hence, this study undertaken the various human resource practices such as, recruitment and selection, training and development, employee participation, performance appraisal and compensation and rewards. However, the impact of such HRM practices impact over the employee empowerment is aimed to test. Finally, it is also deliberated to check the impact of employee empowerment over the employee satisfaction.
A. Formulation of Hypotheses
As the study is in exploratory in nature, it is required to frame the hypotheses of this study in the form of null. Hence, the researcher framed the hypotheses in full form as mentioned below:
B. Data Analysis
The relationship between the Recruitment and selection and the Employee empowerment is measured in this section. To perform this action, the researcher considered the Recruitment and selection as the independent variable and the Employee empowerment is the dependent variable. The mean scores of Recruitment and selection is regressed over the mean scores of Employee empowerment. Simple linear regression analysis technique is adopted by the researcher to examine the relationship between the concerned variables. The derived results are discussed in the below paragraphs.
The coefficient of the regression model is presented in table - .3 The results disclosed that the constant i.e β0is found to be 2.566 and β1 of the model is estimated as 0.512. Further the results of the analysis elicited that the standard error of the model is 0.034; t – value of the model is 15.119 and the p-value of the model is 0.000. Based on these results the researcher concluded that the relationship between the Recruitment and selection and the Employee empowerment is strongly significant. The regression of the concerned model can be presented as mentioned below:
Employee empowerment (Y) = 2.556 + 0.512 (Recruitment and selection)
2. H2o: Training and development will not effect the Employee empowerment
The relationship between the training and development and the Employee empowerment is measured in this section. To perform this action, the researcher considered the training and development as the independent variable and the Employee empowerment is the dependent variable. The mean scores of training and development is regressed over the mean scores of Employee empowerment. Simple linear regression analysis technique is adopted by the researcher to examine the relationship between the concerned variables. The derived results are discussed in the below paragraphs.
The coefficient of the regression model is presented in table - 6. The results disclosed that the constant i.e β0is found to be 2.513 and β1 of the model is estimated as 0.517. Further the results of the analysis elicited that the standard error of the model is 0.033; t – value of the model is 15.874 and the p-value of the model is 0.000. Based on these results the researcher concluded that the relationship between the training and development and the Employee empowerment is strongly significant. The regression of the concerned model can be presented as mentioned below:
Employee empowerment (Y) = 2.513 + 0.517 (Training and development)
Based on the derived results, the researcher concluded that, the Recruitment and selection have moderate impact over the Employee empowerment levels in the organizations. Further it is also noted that the concerned independent and dependent variables highly significant. The statistic results proved that the null hypothesis H10a is disproved and the alternative hypothesis H1 is proved. Hence, it is required frame certain Recruitment and selection which may deliberate Employee empowerment. Based on the derived results, the researcher concluded that, the training and development have moderate impact over the Employee empowerment levels in the organizations. Further it is also noted that the concerned independent and dependent variables highly significant. The statistic results proved that the null hypothesis H10b is disproved and the alternative hypothesis H2 is proved. Hence, it is required frame certain training and development which may deliberate Employee empowerment.
 M.J. Koch and R.G. McGrath, “Improving Labor Productivity: Human Resource Management Policies Do Matter’, Strategic Management Journal, 17 (1996) pp. 335–354.  J. Storey, ed., Human Resource Management: A Critical Text, London: 1995, and Tayeb M. Routledge, “Transfer of HRM practices across cultures: An American Company in Scotland,” The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 9, no. 2 (1998) 332-358.  R. S. Schuler and S.E. Jackson, “Linking Competitive Strategies with Human Resource Management Practices”, Academy of Management Executive, 1, No.3 (1987) pp. 207-219.  Hamel and C. K. Prahalad, “Strategic Intent”. Harvard Business Review (May-June, 1991) pp. 63–76.  E. Guest, “Personnel Management: The End of Orthodoxy?”, British Journal of Industrial Relations, 3, no. 5 (1991) pp. 137–156.  P. M. Wright, D. L. Smart and G. C. Mc-Mahan, “Matches between Human Resources and Strategy among NCAA Basketball Teams”, Academy of Management Journal, 38 (1995) pp. 1052–1074.  J.P. MacDuffie, “Human Resource Bundles and Manufacturing Performance: Organizational Logic and Flexible production systems in the world auto industry’.Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 48, 197-221.  M. A. Youndt, S. A. Snell, J.W. Dean and D. P. Lepak, “Human Resource Management, Manufacturing Strategy and Firm Performance”, Academy of Management Journal, 39, no. 4 (1996) pp. 836-866.  L. Dyer, and T. Reeves, “HR Strategies and Firm Performance: What Do We Know and Where Do We Need to Go?” International Journal of Human Resource Management, 6, no. 3 (1995) pp. 656-670.  Seyed-Mahmoud Aghazadeh, “A New Mandate for Operations Managers”, Work Study, 52 No. 6 (2003) pp. 310 – 316.  Seyed-Mahmoud Aghazadeh, “Human Resource Management: Issues and Challenges in the New Illennium”, Management Research News, 22, no. 12 (1999) pp. 19 – 32.  K. Singh, “Strategic HR Orientation and Firm Performance in India”, International Journal of Human Resource Management. 14, no. 7 (2003) pp. 530–554.
Copyright © 2022 Chandrababu Pendem, Dr. Nagaraju Battu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.