Authors: Namrit Sheth , Shrey Sheth, Smita Nayak, Vedatma Kriti
Certificate: View Certificate
Automation has had a significant impact on a wide range of industries outside of manufacturing. In the production of goods and services, automation decreases the demand for human labor. Automation is a must-have in today\'s world. The process of mechanization tends to be minimized as technology advances. While mechanization offers machinery to assist human operators with the muscular demands of their jobs, automation drastically reduces the need for human interaction. Bottle filling is done by a machine that packages liquid products like cold drinks or water in the beverage industry. This procedure is far superior to the manual process in terms of safety and precision.
In most of the small scale industries bottle filling operation is done manually. The manual process has many disadvantages like spilling of water, delay in work due to human error, quantity of water which we require may not be filled properly etc. To eliminate all these problems faced by small industries, we took up this project.
This project is specially designed for small scale industries. This project reduces the labor effort and makes work more accurate and reliable. And it will also eliminate the chances of inaccuracy in the quantity of water which is very common in the manual process. As it also reduces the operation time, it will increase the production as more bottles can be filled in less time. All the operations in this system are executed through a program that is designed to do the entire operation. Talking about the safety, this model is extremely safe to use, as there are least possible components used to achieve the goal, thus minimizing the chance of any errors. Workers may easily operate these machines.
The project's goal is to create an arduino rev3-based automatic bottle filling system that can detect the presence of a bottle and fill it to a predetermined level. We used an infrared proximity sensor and an ultrasonic sensor to detect the presence of a bottle and the level of water in this project. This project assists in the automatic filling of bottles without the need for human intervention. This method can be used to fill any form of liquid.
Small scale beverage industries which use packaged liquids as their products, mainly employ workers in the factories for manufacturing the products. This has been a conventional practice in this sector. But as growing technology is making human effort easier and easier, it was a great idea to implement an automated bottle filling mechanism that these small scale industries could adopt and gain great advantages.
The precision and timing of a machine is much better than humans, which guarantees a better and uniform quality of the product. Implementing this model will save a lot of human effort, and would exponentially benefit the industry. While thinking about this, we analyzed many research papers which helped us shape this project and guided us properly.
We went through similar projects and saw how the circuitry works, which helped us understand the project better. It helped us get an insight on different types of sensors that have been used in the model. All these contents were quite informative and helpful for the implementation of the project.
Automation has contributed to a higher level of living, such as a longer and more varied existence, more efficient use of commodities and materials, and a greater understanding of the world we live in. Automation has enabled numerous previously unimaginable actions and events, such as worldwide colour television and man's first flight to the moon, thanks to communication, computation, and control. For a packager, switching to an automated packaging system is a major move, but it's one that's often necessary owing to product demand. However, automation has a lot of advantages in addition to the potential to produce more things in less time.
This project aims to design and create an automatic liquid filling system which will be used to sort bottle of different heights. The existing machines tend to fill only a specific type of container up to certain volume and the quantity of liquid filled is not to the current requirement . Development of a machine that can fill a range of vessels according to different parameters is the motive . It is useful in various industries like oil, pharmaceutical, etc.
The need for labor is reduced as a result of automation. The machines are designed to fill any type of bottle with soft drink or water. The filling operation can be tailored to the size, shape, and weight of the bottles.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
In the paper entitled, “Design and Development of Automatic Bottle Refilling System” by Parth K Patel & Parth D Patel, from Institute of Technology Nirma University, Ahmedabad, describes a PLC & Arduino based design methodology of an automatic bottle filling system. Photoeye detectors and motors are used to get the position of the bottles, and move the bottles on the belt respectively. PLC and Arduino have been used in this project to drive the circuit. Arduino is interfaced with different components like Servo Motor, Stepper motor, DC motor, IR sensor and LCD display. The motors are responsible for moving the conveyor belt on which the bottles are placed, and the IR sensor is responsible for detecting the position of the bottle. A prototype of automatic bottle filling system ensures low human effort and high productivity.
The paper entitled, “Automatic Bottle Filling Using Microcontroller Volume Correction” by Ashwini P. Somawanshi, Supriya B. Asutkar & ,Sachin A. More from Amrutvahini College of Engineering, Sangamner (Pune University), describes a microcontroller-based embedded control design methodology for automatic bottle filling. A special purpose computer handles embedded control, which is constrained by real-time processing restrictions. The task is broken down into two stages. The water level in the tank is checked, and if it meets the minimum requirements, the second stage can begin. Three sensors are employed in the second stage. The existence of an empty bottle will be detected by the first sensor. When an empty bottle is identified, the motor activates the conveyor belt, which moves the empty bottle forward. A second sensor is installed to detect the bottle in the right filling position. The conveyor belt will halt and the pump will remain on for 15 seconds if the second sensor detects the presence of a bottle. As soon as the pump is shut off once the bottle has been entirely filled, the conveyor belt will begin. The bottle will now advance to its final location once more. A third sensor is installed in the final position to detect the presence of a filled bottle. The bottle count will be displayed on the LCD after passing past this point. This operation is repeated until all of the bottles have been filled and the circuit has been turned off.
The paper entitled, “Automated bottle filling system” by Bipin Mashilkar, Praseed Kumar, Amit Chawathe, Vivek Dabhade, Vighnesh Kamath & Gayatri Patil, from Fr. C.R. Institute of technology, Vashi, Navi Mumbai, describes an Arduino based microcontroller design methodology for automated bottle filling mechanism. The Microcontroller is in charge of the Bottle Filling System's components. The procedure begins with human input via the keyboard, which is then sent to the microcontroller. After that, the microcontroller activates the dc motor, which drives the circuit. The DC servo motor is turned on when this button is pressed. The chain conveyor starts moving until the proximity sensor detects the presence of bottles, at which point it stops. The proximity sensor is capacitive, and it instructs the microcontroller to open the solenoid valve, turn off the motor, and open the valve to fill the liquid. When the desired volume is reached, the microcontroller shuts down the solenoid valve and starts the dc motor at the same time. Thus the same process repeats for the filling of next bottles until the batch quantity is satisfied.
The paper entitled, “Bottle Filling Plant Automation System Using Conveyor Belt” by Harsh, Nivedita Nidhi Roy, Ayush Sharma and Abhishekh Singhal from SRM Institute of Science and Technology, describes an AT89s52 Microcontroller based automated bottle filling plant. In this project, the DC Gear motor was interfaced with the microcontroller using motor driver circuit (L293D) for the movement of the conveyer belt. Two LM339 comparator IC and one LM358 comparator IC were used. 10 IR sensors were used for detecting the bottle that fell within range, rejecting the bottle that did not fall within the range and counting the bottles filled. The LM339 comparator ICs were connected to four IR sensors each to get output of sensors in digital form. And the output of those eight IR sensors is given to microcontroller. The Lm 358 comparator IC was connected to two IR sensors to get the output of sensors in digital form. There was a buzzer at the end of the conveyor belt to know that the filled bottle reached the end. The entire operation would be display on LCD. It would display the bottles within the range, the bottles not within the range and size of the bottle if bottle is within the range and count the number of bottles filled.
III. PROJECT DESIGN
This presents the problem statement, block diagram and the list of components used. It also highlights the software used for the project. It consists of a brief description of the softwares as well as the components used.
A. Problem Statement
To design automatic bottle filling machine using Arduino. To display the level of the tank and the time LCD display is been used to notify the same. The IR proximity sensor is used to detect the position and ultrasonic sensor is used to detect the water level of the tank.
B. Block Diagram
This is the workflow of the project. The inputs will be taken from the ultrasonic sensor and IR proximity sensors which will be further transferred to Arduino UNO rev3. This data is processed and result is displayed on LCD display.
C. Hardware Description
The given below is the detailed information of the components used in this project.
2. Components Details
The given below is the detailed information of the components used in this project.
b. Ultrasonic Sensor: An ultrasonic sensor is an electronic device that emits ultrasonic sound waves and converts the reflected sound into an electrical signal to determine the distance between a target object and the sensor. Ultrasonic waves travel at a quicker rate than audible sound, which humans can hear. Ultrasonic sensors, as their name suggests, use ultrasonic waves to determine distance. The sensor head sends out an ultrasonic wave, which is reflected back to the sensor head. By monitoring the duration between emission and reception, ultrasonic sensors can determine the distance to the target.
c. IR Sensor: The term "infrared" refers to a beam of infrared light which is used to detect the presence of an object. It works in the same way as ultrasonic sensors, but instead of using sound waves, it sends out infrared signals. Infrared proximity sensors have an IR LED that emits light and a light detector that detects reflected light. It has a signal processing circuit integrated in that determines an optical spot on the PSD. The IR LED emitter produces infrared light. When a beam of light strikes an object, it is reflected at an angle. The light detector will receive the reflected light. The position/distance of the reflected object is determined by the sensor in the light detector.
d. LCD Display: A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display, electronic visual display (EVD), or video display that uses the light modulating characteristics of liquid crystals. Light isn't emitted by liquid crystals in any way. This arrangement uses a 2-line, 16-character LCD display. It uses a 4-bit interface. The characters showing the process occurring are sent to the screen to display.
e. DC Gear Motor: A gear motor combines a motor and a gearbox into one unit. When a gear head is added to a motor, the speed is reduced but the torque output is increased. In terms of gear motors, the most significant criteria are speed (rpm), torque (lb-in), and efficiency (percent). To choose the best gear motor for your application, you must first calculate the load, speed, and torque requirements for your application. One of the key advantages of employing DC gear motors is that the gear assembly may be customized to boost torque. Furthermore, gear workings can be modified to reduce the speed to almost any desired result, allowing for great control across a wide range of applications.
f. Conveyor Belt: Conveyors provide a dependable technique of transporting bulk materials in a continuous manner. When it comes to handling rate and total quantity warrant, this gadget is the most cost-effective. The type of conveyor used in this project is a chain conveyor. A machine having a moving chain is known as a chain conveyor. The conveyor bed is one of the components involved, and the size is determined by the requirements.
g. Relay: A relay is a switch which is initiated or stopped by electricity. Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically activate a switch, however solid state relays and other working principles are also used. Relays are employed when a low-power signal is required to control a circuit (with perfect electrical isolation between the control and controlled circuits), or when multiple circuits must be controlled by a single signal.
D. Software Description
The given below is the detailed information of the softwares used in this project.
To automate bottling operations, we should first understand what is happening in the bottling system. The bottle filling system's process is as follows:
IV. IMPLEMENTATION ON SOFTWARE AND RESULTS
The given below presents the working of the system with the help of Proteus software. It also holds the schematics created on other softwares like EAGLE and Tinkercad for a proper functioning of the system.
A. Proteus Simulation
This project was initiated by an idea of reducing work labor, and deploying machines to do the manual work. We had the aim of reducing human efforts in the beverage industry. With this aim, our project is an attempt to implement an automatic bottle filling mechanism, which would require less human effort, with more precision. The current manual process has many disadvantages, like difference in quality of liquid, spilling of bottles due to human error, and also there is a big concern on safety. Talking about the safety, this model is extremely safe to use, as there are least possible components used to achieve the goal, thus minimizing the chance of any errors. Workers may easily operate these machines. Also, these machines work with much more precision than human effort, which makes it quite reliable. This model should be put up to use in small scale industries, to boost their production efficiency. The software tests were successfully conducted and gave positive results. Different platforms were used to test the schematic. The circuit provided desired output.
This is a small scale project made for creating an automated bottle filling system. We developed a system wherein it was feasible to fill the liquid into the bottle without manual labor. The bottle can be filled up to the required mark by setting the timer for the amount of liquid we want to be poured into it. Once the bottle is filled the conveyor belt will start moving and the same process will repeat again for the next bottle. This project was created by keeping in mind the problems faced in filling liquids like spilling of the liquid, requirement of manual labor and wastage of time. This present system can be enhanced with new features that can be deployed in the future. Features such as quick liquid filling using a jet nozzle, employing more valves to fill more bottles at a time to increase productivity, usage of sensors for alarms that will show any mismanagement in the process, application of HMI (human-machine interface), and many more are available.. For now it can only fill water in the bottle itself but in future it can upgrade in such a way that bottles can also feed in the conveyor itself. One can also install a capping system in it before storage. In future it can upgrade in such a way to store the bottles. By modifying in CAM (computer-aided manufacturing) design the capacity would be increased.
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Copyright © 2022 Namrit Sheth , Shrey Sheth, Smita Nayak, Vedatma Kriti. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.