We have an increasing global need for bio lubricants that are safe for human and environmental use, easily biodegradable, and non-polluting. The friction and wear qualities of cotton seed blended lubricant as well as castor blended lubricant are compared and contrasted in this research using a Pin on disc wear testing Tribometer. In this research, we will look at the study\'s results and analyse their significance. Blended lubricants were created by combining cotton seed & castor based biodiesel with the basic lubricant SAE20W40 at volumetric ratios of 5, 10, 15, & 20%. Cotton seed and castor blended bio lubricants were tested for friction and wear at sliding velocities of 2.5 metres per second while subjected to weights of 50 N, 100 N, and 150 N. Wear might be slowed by as much as 15 percent by mixing in cotton seed biodiesel with the base oil, as has been shown. When this threshold is passed, wear increases at an ever-increasing pace. Castor oil blended lubricant performed best in wear tests when coupled with a base lubricant at a 5 and 10 percent castor oil blended lubricant concentration. The wear rate was accelerated when 15 percent castor oil was added to the basic lubricant. It has been discovered that at lowest and maximum load, CBL 5 and CBL 10 may serve as an alternative lubricant to increase mechanical efficiency at a sliding velocity of 2.5 metres per second. Because of their efforts, less need has been seen to lessen dependence on petroleum-based goods.
A lubricant is applied to sliding components so that the rate of wear and friction may be reduced.
Lubrication is essential for reducing friction between moving engine parts like the piston ring as well as the cylinder liner. Recognizing the global threat presented by depleting non-renewable resources, the role of renewable resources becomes crucial . Because items based on petroleum have contributed to global problems such as pollution, we now utilise products that are not based on petroleum.
Large amounts of lubricant are needed as a result of the rise in the global population and the expansion of the number of industries . In order to fulfil this criterion, lubricants derived from vegetable and plant seed oils, as well as other key renewable sources, are used. Vegetable oil, unlike mineral oil, decomposes spontaneously and doesn't add to pollution. Additionally, vegetable oil has several drawbacks, including a reduced thermo-oxidative, poor cold flow characteristics, as well as hydrolytic stability . Therefore, the structure of the plant's oil seed may need some modification in order to satisfy the demand for lubricant. Cotton seed blended lubricant and castor blended lubricant were both used in this research to investigate and evaluate the wear rate and frictional force characteristics at varying sliding velocities and loads .
II. PREPARATION OF BIODIESEL SAMPLES
A) Materials used
1) Oil – Cotton seed Oil, Castrol Oil
2) Fuel - Diesel
3) Strong Base - Methanol
4) Catalyst - Potassium Hydroxide
a. The transesterification process is shown in Fig 2. The working oil of 1200ml is heated up to 40?C on a Magnetic Stirrer or Mixer.
b. After obtaining of required temperature, a mixture of Methanol &KOH is added to it and heated up to 56?C -58?C.
c. Let the oil to settle down with its fatty acids and glycerol.
d. Now separate the glycerol from the oil with the help of a separating funnel.
e. Later separation rinses the oil with distilled water or Hot water thoroughly.
f. And reheat the obtained oil for one more time up to 90?C on Magnetic Stirrer to evaporate the water bubbles which may present in it.
g. Collect the oil into container bottles and process to Blending
III. EXPERIMENTATION PROCEDURE
A. Biodiesel Preparation Process
Get a beaker that can hold at least 500 ml of liquid. Start by heating 400 ml of oil in a magnetic stirrer . Make sure the beaker's turning at less than 500 revolutions per minute before adding the magnetic pellet. Maintain a regular schedule of checking the oil temperature using a thermometer. When the oil reaches 40 degrees Celsius, you may add the methanol that you put up earlier. You should let the solution heat up. Fig. 3 depicts the beginning of the preheating phase .
2. Adding of Methanol Mixture
Then, combine 3.5 grammes of sodium hydroxide (KOH) pellets with 125 millilitres of methanol. Turn down the heat as soon as the oil reaches a temperature of 56 to 58 degrees Celsius. Let the oil an hour to settle .
3. Separation of Layers
Clearly visible in fig 4 are the two distinct layers of methyl ester and glycerol that need to be extracted.
1) Blends of cotton seed and castor oil biodiesel are created first, and their characteristics are analysed.
2) Cotton Seed as well as Castor oil biodiesel blends are then mixed with base lubricant in proportions of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%
3) The wear rate was minimum when cotton seed oil biodiesel was mixed with 5% and 15% of base lubricant oil
4) The minimum wear rate was observed when castor oil biodiesel is mixed with 5% and 10% of base lubricant oil
5) Cotton seed oil biodiesel blended with 5 and 10 percent of base lubricating oil was shown to have the lowest friction coefficient.
6) Mixtures of castor oil biodiesel with basic lubrication oil at 5% and 10% have the lowest frictional coefficient.
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