Authors: Lohit ., Arka , Parminder Kaur
Certificate: View Certificate
Blockchain technology has many applications in terms of record-keeping, transparency, and cryptocurrency as well. Additionally, with one of its characteristics, manipulation or fraud can be eliminated. By decentralizing the data, the data becomes immutable, which means any traditional method of record-keeping that were susceptible to manipulation can be removed now. In this paper, a method to remove scholarship-based manipulation has been proposed. In many universities, there are scholarships based on the student’s family income. To support the poor and deserving in getting an education, these scholarships are a must. However, paper-based income certificates used to justify family income can be easily manipulated. Therefore, with the help of the Ethereum Smart Contract, a framework to store income certificates has been proposed. This method can be used to enter income data from the student’s family’s employer’s backend. Considering a fair and acceptable income for eligibility for the scholarship, the university can decide to go ahead with it without fearing the manipulation of income data.
Scholarships are to reward a student’s academic achievement and educational programs. Whether you’re starting your career or you’re studying in high school to grow new abilities, receiving a scholarship is a big achievement. Talking about the economic benefits, scholarships are especially appealing to young aspirants who are simply beginning their careers as employees. Furthermore, taking a scholarship can open the way to various educational centres as well as employment opportunities. This is a Golden opportunity for genuine aspirants.
Merit-based scholarships in India are available for students displaying exceptional performance in academics. The motive of providing such scholarships is to help rank achievers fulfil their career aspirations. Also, merit-based scholarships in India work to encourage students to pursue higher studies .
One widespread use of blockchain in education is record keeping. The number of student records is virtually endless, and verifying academic credentials can be time-consuming, with lots of paper documentation and case-by-case checking. According to a 2019 analysis conducted by Credential Engine, more than 738,000 unique credentials documenting learning can be counted, including degrees, certificates, digital badges, and apprenticeships .
Blockchain can eliminate much of the overhead associated with this process and streamline verification procedures, saving educators and administrators time when it comes to things like transfers between schools or states. Using blockchain, an institution accepting a transfer student could verify their record and the courses they took with a few simple clicks. The same concept applies to record sharing with an employer.
A digital transcript can be highly detailed, containing attendance information, courses taken, and even the results of specific exams or papers. Those with access to the student’s transcript — other schools or potential employers, for example — can see how they performed on certain assessments . This technology holds value not only for higher education; it could also be useful in primary and secondary education.
Blockchain, and particularly the concept of a permanent digital transcript, also holds great value for lifelong learners. With lifelong learning, education is more borderless and individuals are continuously learning new skills and refining old ones, whether that’s by earning a degree or attaining a certificate or digital badge. Lifelong learning is poised to become increasingly vital in a world marked by technological dynamism, and, as a result, the need for blockchain-based credentialing may also increase .
Storing diplomas on a blockchain allows students to own and manage their academic achievements, providing them with the ability to share them when and where they choose. Blockchain’s record-keeping capabilities to store scholarship data can be useful to universities in getting relieved of all the paperwork in addition to eliminating manipulation in data. Income-related data to score a scholarship can be easily manipulated on a piece of paper. The universities or colleges hardly have time to cross-check student data. Scholarships are given to deserving candidates who come from a less earning background to ensure proper studies within plausible earnings . Manipulation in such conditions can be considered a huge fraud and would be considered unfair to the deserving students.
A. Blockchain Introduction
Life is increasingly moving online, as one of the challenges the internet users face is performing financial transactions in a setting where people cannot know or trust the other party. Some of these trust issues have been noticed through the development of cryptocurrencies like bitcoin. All transactions in the bitcoin economy are tracked in a ledger system called “Blockchain”.
Blockchain is the backbone of the Digital Cryptocurrency Bitcoin, blockchain (Figure 1) is a distributed database of all records of a transaction. Each transaction is verified by a majority of participants of the system. It records every single record of each transaction. Blockchain is a shared and immutable ledger that facilitates the process of recording transactions and tracking assets in a business. An asset can be tangible like a house, car, or land or intangible like patents, copyrights, branding, Virtually anything of value can be tracked and traded on a blockchain network that reduces risk and cuts costs for all involved.
Blockchain technology helps businesses to run on information. The faster it is received and the more accurate it is, the better and blockchain is ideal for delivering that information because it provides immediate, shared and completely transparent information stored on an immutable ledger that can be accessed only by permission of network members .
1. Ethereum: Ethereum is a decentralized blockchain platform that establishes a peer-to-peer network that securely executes and verifies application code, called smart contracts. Smart contracts allow participants to transact with each other without a trusted central authority. Transaction records are immutable, verifiable, and securely distributed across the network, giving participants full ownership and visibility into transaction data. Transactions are sent from and received by user-created Ethereum accounts. A sender must sign transactions and spend Ether, Ethereum's native cryptocurrency, as a cost of processing transactions on the network .
2. Smart Contract: Smart contracts are programs which govern the behaviour of accounts within the Ethereum state . Smart contracts have the potential to introduce radical change in the way international business and trade are executed by speeding up transactions, reducing paperwork, and bringing about cost-efficiency. Industries like art, music, real estate, finance, manufacturing, retail, supply chain, and telecom could benefit significantly from smart contracts. The adoption of smart contracts would be hastened if the platforms which host them accept payments in all currencies instead of just cryptocurrencies, and brought them under the purview of the current judicial system.
4. Solidity is statically typed and supports inheritance and libraries and complex user-defined types among other features.
5. Remix: Remix  is a solidity online compiler, access through remix online, the user need not be install anything. Remix is also a convenient option for testing nightly builds without installing multiple solidity versions.
II. MOTIVATION AND CONTRIBUTION
Working with an emerging technology brings far many productive results, especially when used for an existing technique. Any type of fraud is prevalent in many parts of the world where paperwork is still considered a practical way of work. Due to the extent of manipulation that cannot be avoided especially scholarship-based certificates, using a proper method is elimination is called for. Blockchain Technology is not only a crypto-based technology, it has far more advantages as record-keeping as well.
To solve the problems of manipulation, a blockchain-based record-keeping of income certificates has been proposed which will eliminate any level of manipulation for receiving scholarships. By using the proposed framework, the following contributions were made:
III. LITERATURE REVIEW
Thus there are billions and billions of students undertaking education in various institutes in a year. It is the greatest task of maintaining records of those students' details in paper documents. When those records are on paper formats, it becomes a complex task to get back the details of students who studied 4-to 5 years back. It takes a lot more time to recollect the old data and record 0. Securely maintaining the certificates of students becomes difficult and requires manpower. The trouble-filled part of the education sector is accounting, which requires time and people to calculate and maintain the finance of an institute. This involves the calculation of employee/staff salary, student fees, maintenance and operational costs of that institute. Monitoring the scholarships for the students also became difficult as there are more students and also scholarships provided.
The paper by the author  Kamišali? et al., has presented a thorough overview of block-chain initiatives and solutions in higher education. They have shown how blockchain is used to immutably store student achievement data while making it available for authorized users. As this is most commonly used in the future. They have identified 25 projects, only four out of 25 are detected as institution-centric, while 11 as only student-centric projects. Ten projects are following both approaches, student- and institution-centric. Most of the projects within the educational domain deal with record-keeping issues while taking student-centric approaches. Block-chain technology is showing its potential to disrupt established business processes. Four types of block-chain initiatives have been identified: Recordkeeper, efficiency play, digital asset market, and block-chain disruptor.
The paper by  Honesti et al., has presented how they all want to connect the current scholarship system in every sector to the blockchain. In today’s scholarship scheme they face many challenges which are as no detectable utilization structure, lack of openness between students and the Learning Board and no major novel confirmation.
In this paper, they have planned smart contracts and implemented a Blockchain-based gamification Scholarship Scheme for College Students. They have divided this scholarship scheme into 4 different categories like Study Boards, Students, Large Schools, and Banks. Block-chain-based Smart Contracts for Gamification scholarship schemes provide easy-to-understand weather for students as well as protect the direct bond between students and their dedicated Learning Board.
The paper by  Tekgüç et al., has explained how the world is getting transformed, and education becomes an unavoidable one among the people. Thus there are billions and billions of students undertaking education in the various institutions in a year. It is the greatest task of maintaining records of those students' details in paper documents. When those records are on paper formats, it becomes a complex task to get back the details of students who studied 4-to 5 years back. It takes a lot more time to recollect the old data and records. Securely maintaining the certificates of students becomes difficult and requires manpower. The trouble-filled part of the education sector is accounting, which requires time and people to calculate and maintain the finance of an institute. This involves the calculation of employee/staff salary, student fees, maintenance and operational costs of that institute. Monitoring the scholarships for the students also became difficult as there are more students and also scholarships provided.
IV. THE PROPOSED FRAMEWORK
Proving the validity of any document is a difficult task. Because a lot of data manipulation occurs in government official documents, it would only be fair to deploy a method in eliminating such manipulations from the root.
The proposed framework (Figure 2) is named the Blockchain-based Scholarship Manipulation elimination system and has been prototyped using the Ethereum Smart contract. The working of this system could be elucidated through these components:
The following Screenshots from the code explain the working of the prototype:
Figure 3 explains the creation of income detail structure to store income details namely: name of the employee, their unique ID (UID), the name of the organization, the code of the organization to ensure legal workplace, the type of service the employee is entailed in, the number of years the employee has worked in the organization, along with the current salary and the date up to which the salary is valid.
Figure 4 below includes store income detail functions that will record all the aforementioned data in blockchain when deployed. This contract will be deployed by the parent’s workplace with correct and verified information about their employee’s income and employment data. A unique ID for a transaction will be created to fetch the records.
Furthermore, the university or college where the student has applied for a scholarship would use the unique ID created by the parent’s organization to retrieve data (Figure 5) about their income to provide approval for a scholarship. The figure below depicts the retrieve function using “uid” for a unique ID.
There are many ways in which fraud can be conducted. However, not many ways to stop them. In this work, a method of stopping scholarship-based fraud, especially through traditional paper-work means was proposed. The paper discussed the various existing work in this area along with a proposed methodology on how scholarship manipulation can be eliminated. An Ethereum based smart contract was used to create a record-keeping system that would store income details on the student’s parent from the organization of employment itself. BY using this method, the university would not have to worry about paper-based income certificate manipulation. The prototype was created using the Ethereum Smart contract and can be further improved in future work. Other fraud elimination methods can be proposed using blockchain technology.
 J. B. G. Tilak, “Student loans in financing higher education in India,” Higher Education, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 389–404, 1992.  L. Winkler and A. Reamer, “Counting U.S. Postsecondary and Secondary Credentials,” 2019.  S. Gilda and M. Mehrotra, “Blockchain for student data privacy and consent,” in 2018 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI), 2018, pp. 1–5.  V. L. Lemieux, “Blockchain and distributed ledgers as trusted recordkeeping systems,” in Future technologies conference (FTC), 2017, vol. 2017.  R. Sparrow, “Protecting education for the poor in times of crisis: An evaluation of a scholarship programme in Indonesia,” Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 99–122, 2007.  S. Nakamoto, “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System | Satoshi Nakamoto Institute,” 2008.  K. Wüst and A. Gervais, “Do you need a Blockchain?,” IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, no. i, p. 375, 2017, [Online]. Available: https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/375.pdf  Buterin and Vitalik, “Ethereum White Paper: A Next-Generation Smart Contract & Decentralized Application Platform,” Etherum, 2014.  W.-M. Lee, Beginning Ethereum Smart Contracts Programming. 2019. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4842-5086-0  Solidity, “Solidity.” https://docs.soliditylang.org/en/v0.8.7/  Ethereum, “Remix IDE.” [Online]. Available: https://remix.ethereum.org/  A. Kamišali?, M. Turkanovi?, S. Mrdovi?, and M. Heri?ko, “A preliminary review of blockchain-based solutions in higher education,” in International workshop on learning technology for education in cloud, 2019, pp. 114–124.  L. Honesti, Q. Aini, M. I. Setiawan, N. P. L. Santoso, and W. Y. Prihastiwi, “Smart Contract-based Gamification Scheme for College in Higher Education,” APTISI Transactions on Management (ATM), vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 102–111, 2022.  U. Tekgüç, A. Adalier, and K. Yurtkan, “ScholarChain: The Scholarship Management Platform with Blockchain and Smart Contracts Technology Cloud Computing Bulut Bili?im View project Masked Face Recognition Using FaceNet Pretrained Model View project,” 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/346574091
Copyright © 2022 Lohit ., Arka , Parminder Kaur. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.