Authors: Sontakke Vedika Vikas, Sangave Pranav Nishikant, Bandi Shreyash Pravin, Tathe Ayush, Dr. Ganesh Bhutkar
DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.22214/ijraset.2023.51228
Certificate: View Certificate
This paper explores the declining population of birds in India due to human activities such as deforestation and urbanization, which has led to a significant decrease in the number of bird nests. With over 1,300 bird species in India, it is essential to conserve their populations and nesting habitats. The paper studies the problems faced by birds in natural nests and proposes an innovative approach to designing smart nests that can improve nest success rates and promote bird conservation. The research methodology includes contextual inquiry, flow modeling, and a cultural model to understand the regional culture of birds and their significance. The study analyzes the process followed by birds to build a natural nest and identifies decision points, dependencies between tasks, and the roles of birds and interference by humans and predators in their nests. The paper also presents different innovative approaches to nest design and construction, such as the use of recyclable materials, technology, and green roofs. Ultimately, this paper aims to raise awareness of the importance of bird conservation and provide a roadmap for creating better nesting habitats for birds in India.
Birds play a vital role in maintaining a healthy ecosystem, but their population in India has been declining due to human activities like deforestation and urbanization. This has led to a significant decrease in the number of bird nests.
India's rich biodiversity is reflected in its status as home to over 1,300 bird species. These species depend on a diverse range of habitats, from forests to grasslands, for breeding and raising their young. Most bird species build nests, which play a vital role in ensuring their survival. However, recent statistics reveal that nest success rates in India can range from as low as 10% to as high as 100%, depending on the species and habitat. Additionally, predators pose a significant threat to nesting birds, with predation rates varying from 10% to 80% based on the habitat and predator presence.
Unfortunately, the bird population in India has decreased by 70% over the last five decades, largely due to human activities such as deforestation and urbanization. As a result, the availability of suitable nesting habitat has declined significantly, worsening the challenges faced by nesting birds. In India, several types of bird nests are available, including tree nests, ground nests, and cliff nests, however these types of habitats are becoming more and more rare. Given the crucial role that birds play in maintaining ecosystem health, it is essential to take urgent steps to conserve bird populations and their nesting habitats.
To address this issue, this paper aims to study the problems faced by birds in natural nests and propose an approach for creating better Smart Nest Design that can improve nest success rates and promote bird conservation in India.
II. PREVIOUS WORK
The literature survey on ‘Structures and taxonomies of nests’ is a unique way for the conservation of the birds. This section discusses a few of these related research articles, which are helpful to create one specific approach for developing a smart nest.
The paper 'The design and function of birds' nests' is a comprehensive review of the literature on bird nest design and function. The authors explore the factors that influence nest construction, including environmental conditions, habitat characteristics, and predator pressures, as well as the various materials and adaptations used by birds. They also highlight the ecological and evolutionary significance of nests, including their impact on reproductive success and offspring survival, and the adaptive variation in nest design. Overall, the paper provides valuable insights into the complexity and sophistication of bird nests and their important role in birds behavior and ecology.
The paper "Construction patterns of birds’ nests provide insight into nest-building behaviors" by Lucia Biddle, Adrian M. Goodman, and D. Charles Deeming contributes to the existing body of research on bird nest construction patterns and their relationship to ecological and behavioral factors. The authors review the various types of nests constructed by different bird species, and the , including twigs, grass, feathers, and mud.
They explore how the shape and structure of nests are influenced by ecological factors such as predation, thermoregulation, and camouflage. For instance, some bird species build nests that are well-camouflaged and difficult to access, potentially reducing the risk of predation. The authors also discuss the potential applications of their research for conservation and management efforts, such as using artificial nest boxes to help protect declining bird populations. The paper provides new insights into the complex biology and behavior of nest-building in birds, and its potential implications for conservation and management...
In the paper "Predators of bird nests in the Neotropics: a review" the authors review the literature on predators of bird nests in the Neotropical region. The authors provide a comprehensive overview of the different types of predators that target bird nests, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and invertebrates. They also explore the various factors that influence nest predation rates, such as nest location, nest structure, and nest concealment. The paper further discusses the potential impacts of nest predation on bird populations and the conservation implications of these findings.The review highlights the importance of understanding the factors that influence nest predation rates in order to develop effective conservation strategies for threatened bird species. The authors note that while nest predation is a natural process, human activities such as habitat destruction and fragmentation can increase predation rates and threaten bird populations.Overall, the paper offers valuable insights into the ecology and conservation of bird populations in the Neotropical region, particularly in relation to the threat of nest predation. The authors provide a useful resource for researchers and conservationists working to understand and mitigate the impacts of nest predation on bird populations.
The article titled "When and how to study the nesting biology of Indian birds: Research needs, ethical considerations, and best practices'' was published in the Indian BIRDS journal in 2020. It addresses the need to study the nesting biology of Indian birds and the ethical considerations and best practices that must be followed while conducting such research. The article highlights the importance of nesting biology research, its potential contributions to conservation efforts, and the ethical issues surrounding the study of birds in their natural habitats.
III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The methodology of research work for studying bird’s nest and birds behavior was done in two major steps; first of which includes conducting a Contextual Inquiry of bird advocates and second, developing flow models that effectively convey insights related to the factors and how it affects the birds living criteria.
A. Contextual Inquiry
The research approach of Contextual Inquiry is aimed at gathering important insights by studying users in their natural surroundings, allowing for a better understanding of the core requirements and usability problems that may exist in the environment. To gather qualitative data for this research paper, we decided to approach bird enthusiasts and seek their experience and observations related to birds and their nesting structures, rather than relying on quantitative statistics derived from questionnaires. By conducting fieldwork and observing user interactions, we aimed to gain valuable insights into the natural behavior of birds, such as their feeding patterns, migratory habits, and territorial behavior, as well as their nesting preferences, materials used, and location choices. The aim of this research was to gather a deeper understanding of birds' behavior and living criteria, to help design better artificial nests that provide suitable habitats for different bird species.
In order to gain insights into the behavior and nesting habits of birds, we conducted a contextual inquiry with 3 individuals who identified themselves as friends of birds. During the inquiry, we asked the participants about their experiences with birds, their observations on bird behavior, and their knowledge of bird nesting structures.
The participants shared their understanding of birds' natural behavior, such as their feeding patterns, migratory habits, and territorial behavior. They also discussed the various types of nests birds build, including cup nests, cavity nests, and platform nests. Based on their experiences and observations, they provided valuable insights into the nesting preferences of different bird species, including the materials they use to build their nests and the locations they choose for nesting. Overall, the inquiry provided us with a deeper understanding of birds' natural behavior and their nesting preferences, which can help us design better artificial nests to provide suitable habitats for different bird species.
The reason for this was to understand their views and opinions related to birds behavior and living criteria.
B. Process Followed by birds to Build a Natural Nest
Birds build their nests through a process that involves several steps. Here's a more detailed explanation of the process followed by birds to build their nests:
C. Problems Faced by Birds in Natural Nests
Predation is one of the primary challenges that birds face in their natural habitats. Eggs and chicks are vulnerable to predators such as snakes, raccoons, and even other birds.
Nesting on the ground or low-lying shrubs exposes the eggs and chicks to predators. Many bird species have evolved to nest in trees, but habitat loss has led to a shortage of suitable trees for nesting. This has resulted in birds nesting in suboptimal locations that are more susceptible to predation.
Habitat loss is another significant challenge that birds face in their natural habitats. Deforestation, urbanization, and agricultural practices have led to the destruction of natural habitats, leaving birds with few nesting options. Many bird species require specific habitats to nest successfully, and the loss of these habitats has caused a decline in bird populations worldwide.
Climate change is yet another challenge that birds face in their natural habitats. Climate change is causing alterations in temperature, rainfall patterns, and the timing of seasonal events such as migration and breeding. This can disrupt the synchronization between birds and their environment, leading to a decline in nesting success.
D. Dependencies Between Tasks
Indicate any dependencies between tasks. For example, the bird may need to collect specific materials before it can begin construction. The nest building process performed by birds involves a series of interdependent tasks that are necessary to build a sturdy and secure nest. Here are some of the dependencies between the different tasks:
E. Decision Points
Indicate any decision points where the bird must choose between different options.
F. Choosing Nest
Birds are very particular when it comes to choosing the location of their nest. They take into consideration several factors to ensure that their eggs and chicks are safe and healthy. Firstly, they look for a location that provides protection from predators like cats, snakes, and other birds. Secondly, they choose a spot that provides shelter from the elements, such as wind, rain, and sun. They also require easy access to food and water for themselves and their chicks. Additionally, birds need a location that provides a suitable temperature and humidity level for incubating their eggs and raising their chicks. Access to suitable nesting materials is also a crucial factor that birds consider when selecting the location of their nest. Lastly, some bird species choose a location that is situated at a safe distance from other nests to reduce competition for food and space. All these factors play a significant role in the survival of the eggs and chicks. Therefore, birds take their time and carefully consider all these factors before selecting the location for their nest.
G. Choosing Materials
Birds select materials for their nests based on various factors, including availability, accessibility, and suitability for the nest structure they want to build.
Material Selection Criteria
Why Birds Choose this materials
Sturdy twigs, branches, grasses
To support the weight of the nest and its occupants, and to withstand wind and other environmental factors.
Vines, bark strips
To shape and weave the material into the desired nest structure, and to provide more support and stability.
Feathers, fur, moss
To regulate the temperature inside the nest and keep eggs and chicks warm, and to protect against the elements.
Grasses, leaves, downy feathers
To provide a comfortable surface for eggs and chics to rest on.
To blend in with the surrounding environment and protect the nest from predators.
Materials found nearby
To save time and energy in collecting and transporting materials from a distance.
To ensure that the nest can be reused for multiple breeding seasons, and to withstand wear and tear over time.
H. When To Leave The Nest
When birds leave the nest, it is a natural part of their development and growth. This process is called fledging, and it occurs when young birds are ready to leave their nest and start their journey into adulthood.
Fledgling usually occurs when the birds are able to fly on their own and can find food and shelter without the help of their parents. The timing of fledgling varies depending on the bird species, but it generally occurs between 2-4 weeks after hatching. Once the birds leave the nest, they may stay close to their parents for a while, learning important survival skills such as how to find food and avoid predators. Eventually, they will become fully independent and leave their parents to start their own lives.
I. Roles of Birds and Interference by Humans and Predators in their Nests
Birds, humans, and predators are all important parts of the ecosystem and play vital roles in the life of birds. Understanding their roles is crucial to protecting and preserving bird life.
Birds build nests to lay eggs and raise their young, staying in the nest to protect their offspring and keep them warm. Breeding in the nest is essential to producing offspring and maintaining the bird population. Protecting the nest from predators and other threats is also a key role of birds. Humans observe birds and their behaviors in their natural habitats, including their nests, predators, eggs, and babies. Unfortunately, some humans may interfere with bird life by stealing their nests or birds, or destroying their nests. However, humans can also contribute positively to bird protection and preservation by designing and maintaining birdhouses and nesting boxes that provide safe and suitable habitats for birds.
Predators pose a significant threat to birds and their offspring. They may attack the nest to capture birds or eggs for food, stay in the nest to prey on birds, or capture birds in the nest for food or other purposes. Also sometimes predators can capture the nest as well. This highlights the importance of designing birdhouses and nesting boxes that protect birds from predators and other threats.
J. Cultural Model
The culture model in studying bird nests involves understanding the social behavior and traditions of a specific bird species in relation to building and maintaining their nests. By examining the cultural aspects of bird nest building, researchers can gain insights into the evolution and adaptation of bird behavior in response to environmental and ecological pressures.
K. The cultural significance of nest
Understanding the cultural significance of nests can provide insights into how people have valued and used them over time, and how this may have influenced the behavior and ecology of the birds that build them. This knowledge can inform conservation efforts aimed at protecting nesting habitats and the species that rely on them.
The cultural significance of nests varies across different cultures. Here are some examples of the cultural significance of nests in different contexts:
L. Regional Culture of Birds
Understanding the regional culture of bird's nests can provide important insights into how bird nests are used and valued in different parts of the world, and how cultural practices and beliefs have influenced the study and conservation of birds and their habitats.
Birds exhibit different behaviors and adaptations based on their regional culture, which refers to the specific customs, traditions, and practices of a particular geographic region or population.
Some examples of regional culture in birds include:
Overall, regional culture plays an important role in shaping the behavior and adaptations of birds, as well as their interactions with their environment and other species.
M. The Role of Gender and Social Hierarchy
Gender and social hierarchy play important roles in the lives of birds. In many bird species, males and females have distinct roles in the nesting process, with males often responsible for defending the territory and providing food for the female and young. The social hierarchy within a bird community can also impact the nesting process, with dominant individuals often having access to better nesting sites and resources. In some bird species, social hierarchy is established through aggressive displays and physical confrontations, with dominant individuals having the advantage in securing nesting sites and resources. However, in other species, social hierarchy is established through more subtle cues, such as vocalizations or body language. The impact of gender and social hierarchy on the nesting process can have significant implications for the survival of bird populations. If dominant individuals are able to monopolize resources, it can limit the ability of other individuals to successfully nest and reproduce, leading to a decline in the population. Understanding the role of gender and social hierarchy in the nesting process can help conservation efforts to better protect and manage bird populations.
N. How Birds Recognize their Predators
In the cultural model of studying birds, it is important to understand how birds recognize their predators. Here are some points that may help in understanding this phenomenon:
Understanding how birds recognize their predators can help in the conservation of nesting habitats. By identifying and mitigating threats from predators, we can help protect birds and their nesting habitats.
O. Conservation of nesting habitats
Conservation of nesting habitats in the cultural model refers to the preservation and protection of the nesting habitats of birds.
Birds use various ways to conserve their nests, depending on their species and the location of their nests. One common way is through nest sanitation, where they remove waste and debris to keep the nest clean and healthy. Some birds also engage in aggressive behavior to protect their nests from predators and other birds.
Additionally, birds may use camouflage techniques to hide their nests from potential predators or choose locations that are difficult to access. Conservation efforts for nesting habitats may include providing nest boxes or artificial structures for birds to use and protecting natural nesting sites from disturbance and destruction.
P. Sequential Model
The Sequence Model represents tasks and related action sequences involved in task completion.
Birds are fascinating creatures that exhibit a wide range of adaptations and behaviors, some of which are not commonly known to the general public. One preconception that many people hold is that all birds can fly, which is not entirely accurate as there are several flightless bird species. Additionally, some birds are selectively bred for meat and egg production. Another preconception about birds is that most of them lay eggs and build nests. While this is true for many bird species, there are some exceptions like Swifts and humming birds , for example, do not build nests and instead lay their eggs in tree hollows or on branches. While birds are often associated with singing and vocalizations, not all species sing. Vultures and pelicans communicate through grunts or hisses, while owls and herons are largely silent. The breeding process of birds involves courtship, nest-building, incubation, and hatching of eggs. During the courtship stage, males often display their feathers or perform intricate dances or songs to attract females. Once a pair has formed, they will typically select a suitable nesting site and begin building a nest. The nest provides a secure environment for the eggs and developing embryos, protecting them from predators and adverse weather conditions. The construction of a nest also enables the female to incubate her eggs more effectively, maintaining a constant temperature and humidity level that is essential for the successful development of the embryos. Birds protect their nest by exhibiting various behaviors, such as aggressive displays towards potential predators, vocal warnings, or physical attacks. Both male and female birds take turns incubating the eggs and feeding the young once they hatch. The availability of suitable nesting sites and the quality of the nests can impact the overall population of a particular species. The destruction of natural habitats can result in the loss of nesting sites and the decline of bird populations. Understanding the breeding process and nest protection behaviors of birds is crucial to the conservation and protection of these fascinating animals.
Q. Sensory Model
The sensory model can be applied to the behavior of birds in protecting their nest. Nest building and protection are complex behaviors that involve several stages of sensory processing. In the first stage, birds receive sensory information from their environment, such as the availability of suitable nesting materials and the presence of predators. They use their senses, such as sight and touch, to locate and gather materials for the nest. In the second stage, birds process this sensory information to build a suitable nest. They may use visual cues to select a secure nesting site and tactile cues to arrange the materials in the nest. Once the nest is built, they use their senses to monitor the environment for potential predators and to detect any disturbances. In the third stage, birds use their senses to protect the nest and its contents. They may use vocalizations, visual displays, or physical attacks to deter predators from approaching the nest. They also use their senses to monitor the behavior of potential predators and to respond appropriately to any threats. Overall, the sensory model helps us understand how birds use their senses to build and protect their nests. By understanding the sensory processes involved in nest building and protection, we can better appreciate the complexity of bird behavior and the importance of nest protection for bird conservation.
R. Physical Model
A physical model of a bird's nest can be created using materials commonly used by birds to build their nests, such as twigs, grasses, and leaves. The materials can be arranged in a similar pattern to the nests that birds build, with attention paid to the structural properties of the nest.
The structural properties of bird nests are critical for providing protection for eggs and young birds. The physical model of a bird's nest can be used to study these properties, including the strength and durability of different nest structures under varying weather conditions or predator attacks. By manipulating the materials used in the model and testing different configurations, researchers can gain insights into the optimal structure for bird nests to provide maximum protection and support for offspring.
Furthermore, the physical model can be used to study the impact of human activities on bird nests. Habitat fragmentation and urbanization can have detrimental effects on nesting success, and a physical model can be used to simulate these effects and develop strategies for mitigating them. For example, the model can be used to study the effects of placing bird feeders near nests or the impact of human disturbance on nesting success.
Overall, a physical model of a bird's nest can provide valuable insights into the structural properties of bird nests and their role in supporting offspring, as well as their vulnerability to human activities. By using the physical model to study these factors, researchers can develop effective strategies for protecting bird nests and supporting healthy bird populations.
S. Innovative Approaches to Nest Design and Construction
In response to the challenges faced by birds in their natural habitats, innovative approaches to nest design and construction are necessary. These approaches aim to provide safe, secure, and environmentally friendly nesting options for birds.
The use of eco-friendly materials is one approach that can provide a more sustainable nesting option for birds. The use of natural materials such as twigs, leaves, and grasses can provide a more eco-friendly alternative to synthetic materials such as plastic and metal. Eco-friendly materials are also biodegradable, reducing the environmental impact of nest construction.
New technologies are also being developed to create innovative nesting options for birds. For example, 3D printing technology can be used to create custom-designed nests that are tailored to specific bird species' needs. Drones can also be used to survey habitats and identify suitable locations for nesting. These technologies can provide a more efficient and effective approach to nest design and construction.
Another approach is to design artificial nests that mimic natural nests' features. These artificial nests can provide a more secure and safe nesting option for birds. For example, some artificial nests have a sloping roof to prevent rainwater from entering the nest, while others have an elevated design to reduce the risk of predation. Some artificial nests even have heating elements to provide warmth for chicks during cold weather.
T. More Approaches for Artificial Nests
Artificial nests have become an increasingly popular approach to providing safe and secure nesting options for birds. These nests mimic natural nests' features and provide a more controlled and predictable environment for breeding and nesting. Artificial nests can also be designed to address specific challenges that birds face in their natural habitats, such as predation and habitat loss. In this section, we will discuss some of the innovative approaches to nest design and construction of artificial nests.
U. Use of Recyclable Materials
The use of recyclable materials is an innovative approach to creating artificial nests. The materials used in nest construction are often synthetic and non-biodegradable, leading to environmental pollution. By using recyclable materials, such as paper and cardboard, artificial nests can be constructed with minimal environmental impact. These materials are also lightweight, making them easy to install and move around to different locations.
V. Designs for Different Bird Species
Birds have different nesting requirements, and it is essential to consider these requirements when designing artificial nests. Innovative approaches to nest design include creating nests that are tailored to specific bird species' needs. These designs may include features such as entrance hole size, nesting cavity depth, and perch location. For example, some bird species prefer nesting in cavities with a depth of 8 to 10 inches, while others require a depth of up to 24 inches. By designing artificial nests that cater to specific bird species' needs, the nesting success rate can be increased.
W. Use of Technology
Technology can also be used to create innovative artificial nests. For example, sensors can be installed in artificial nests to monitor temperature, humidity, and other environmental factors. This information can be used to optimize the artificial nest's design and improve the nesting success rate. Drones can also be used to survey habitats and identify suitable locations for artificial nest installation. This can reduce the time and effort required for manual nest location identification.
X. Green Roofs
Green roofs are another innovative approach to providing nesting options for birds. Green roofs are roofs that are covered with vegetation, providing a habitat for birds and other wildlife. These roofs can also help to reduce the heat island effect in urban areas and provide a more sustainable alternative to traditional roofs. By incorporating nesting boxes and other nesting features, green roofs can become an excellent nesting option for birds in urban areas.
The declining bird population in India poses a significant threat to ecosystem health and biodiversity. This paper proposes a novel approach to bird conservation by designing Smart Nests that can improve nest success rates and promote bird survival. By understanding the problems faced by birds in natural nests and designing nests that address these issues, we can help conserve bird populations in India. The research methodology used in this study provides a comprehensive understanding of the various aspects of bird behavior and nesting habits. The use of technology and recyclable materials in nest design can not only promote bird conservation but also contribute to sustainable development. It is essential to implement such measures to ensure the long-term survival of bird populations and the overall health of ecosystems in India.
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Copyright © 2023 Sontakke Vedika Vikas, Sangave Pranav Nishikant, Bandi Shreyash Pravin, Tathe Ayush, Dr. Ganesh Bhutkar. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Paper Id : IJRASET51228
Publish Date : 2023-04-29
ISSN : 2321-9653
Publisher Name : IJRASET
DOI Link : Click Here