Authors: Ketaki Patil, Saisrijan Gupta, Anjali Nair, Vitthal Gutte
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The use of different cloud computing technologies increased with the rise of 5G technology and IoT. Cloud computing also enabled intense data processing and warehousing. Data storage in the cloud comes with several issues and security concerns. Moreover, when the volume of data created by every device increases, the conventional cloud computing architecture fails to address concerns such as excessive latency, bandwidth limits, and resource constraints. As a result, new computational paradigms such as edge and fog computing have been proposed to address the former\'s issues. Both of these paradigms offer computation and memory storage alternatives. Regardless of their benefits, implementing these technologies introduces many new privacy and security issues. This work presents a list of security and privacy concerns, as well as dangers, that exist in all three computing paradigms: cloud, fog, and edge computing.
Cloud cloud computing is an emerging computing approach that stores data and applications on remote servers over the internet. Organizations are focused on decreasing costs and achieving more with less in today's economic environment while still attempting to be competitive. Over the past decade, cloud computing has been the major platform for storing and analysing enormous amounts of data. It has infiltrated a variety of areas, including healthcare, education, real estate, banking, and manufacturing. Instead of maintaining data on their local machines, businesses send it to the cloud.
Emerging technologies like 5G and IoT, traditional cloud computing is becoming ineffective in handling difficulties like excessive latency, resource allocation, and bandwidth limits. New technologies such as edge and fog computing are now being used to manage data from IoT devices and smart applications. Edge computing is a form of IT architecture that allows data from Internet of Things devices to be processed on or near the device. Rather than being processed in a cloud data centre, the data is processed locally on a local computer or server. After that, all of the edge devices send the data to the cloud storage repository. Because both fog computing and edge computing require intermediate processing and storage, the phrases are interchangeable.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
Identifying and working upon the security and privacy concerns faced in the latest cloud computing paradigms is of utmost importance in the current times. Many researchers have dedicated their time to analyzing and gaining research insights through the extensive study of attacks on the various cloud computing paradigms, their impact and the solutions suggested on them. This section focuses on the works done previously in this field.
Venkatesh et al. Data security was highlighted as an important issue in Cloud Computing. They've uncovered a number of approaches for securing data storage in the cloud.
Ahmed discussed various security challenges relating to data privacy and reliability, as well as critical elements affecting cloud computing and recommendations for specific areas.
Danish J et al.discussed a number of cloud computing security challenges including Browser Security , XML Signature Element Wrapping, and Flooding Attacks, Cloud Malware Injection Attacks, as well as various solutions.
Wani, A.R et al highlighted security vulnerabilities in cloud computing and gave solutions for both cloud service providers and customers. As a result, this paper investigated cloud security by identifying security needs and attempting to provide a practical solution that can mitigate these dangers.
Maurantonio Caprolu et al.  have identified security issues in four major Edge/Fog computing scenarios and also have highlighted the practical solutions that affect the security of Edge/Fog paradigm are also presented.
Mithun Mukherjee et al.  have presented the security challenges, privacy issues, and main factors that are responsible for them in an edge computing environment.
Rahman Atiqur et al.  have discussed the MEC (Mobile Edge Computing) concept and architecture of in the IoT domain. Protection and confidentiality mechanisms of MEC are also assessed. At last, use case scenario on autonomous vehicles is presented.
Mithun Mukherjee et al.  highlighted the privacy and security issues that are faced by the end-user while using fog computing. It also focuses on identifying the research gaps that are triggering multiple attacks. Various difficulties have been identified, along with corresponding research challenges.
Shanhe Yi et al. has discussed various issues related to fog computing. They have mainly focused on Privacy and Data Storage. Various methods have already been proposed to address the problem however, there are many obstacles to overcome before they can be implemented successfully.
III. CLOUD COMPUTING (CC)
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) defines cloud computing as "concept for providing simple, on-demand network access to a shared pool of programmable computer resources.".It refers to saving and fetching data across the Internet, not the computer's hard disk drive.
CC is a type of internet-based computing which processes applications by sharing computing resources instead of using local servers or private machines. Figure. 1 depicts the cloud computing architecture.
Cloud computing architecture is a blend of service-oriented and event-driven design. Cloud computing provides 3 levels of Services:
2. PaaS (Platform as a Service): Users can design, test, run, and manage applications using the PaaS framework. Users get the basic OS and some development software, in addition to the infrastructure required to build the app.
3. IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service): Clients can rent networking, storage, servers, and additional computer facilities in the cloud on a pay-as-you-go basis from the seller.
3 kinds of Cloud:
a. Private Cloud: A private organization uses the cloud for its own purposes. This category restricts access to a certain set of people. Private clouds, which might be a single house or an industry cloud, are designed for private benefits.
b. Public Cloud: In this situation, cloud infrastructure is housed on the vendor's premises. As a result, the user has no control over or visibility into where the cloud infrastructure is housed. As a result, the infrastructure of the public cloud is shared among users who are members of the same public cloud. Used for common purposes, such as providing public services on a rental basis. Charges are imposed on the client as a result of their use of the service.
c. Hybrid Cloud: Combines public and private resources. It is handy when a business has certain vital data/applications that must be hosted in a private cloud and others that do not require high security and must be stored in a public cloud.
C. Security and Privacy Issues
IV. EDGE COMPUTING (EC)
The main aim of edge computing architecture is to bring processing in close proximity to the source of data. In this architecture, the data is partially processed in the device that creates it, or in a separate device at the edge of the network. 
The functional organization of edge computing architecture is described in the Figure 2.
Core infrastructure offers mobile edge devices with core network access as well as centralized cloud computing services and administrative capabilities.
Second, edge servers offer virtualized and multiple management services. These servers are managed by the infrastructure provider have multi-tenant virtualization architecture.
Furthermore, the edge can deploy many edge data centers that work together and do not cut off from the standard cloud. Edge computing infrastructure connects edge infrastructure to the wireless network, data center network, and the Internet. Finally, edge devices are any devices linked to the edge network that act not just as data consumers but also as data providers in the distributed architecture for all four layers.
Every device that creates data falls under this category.
C. Security and Privacy Issues
V. FOG COMPUTING (FC)
Cloud computing experiences difficulties in significant traffic jams, end-to-end delay, communication expenses, data processing, etc.  Fog computing (FC) is emerging as an another option to standard CC for supporting latency- sensitive, geographically scattered, delay-sensitive, and QoS- aware IoT (Internet of Things) applications. The term "fog computing" refers to “ a situation in which a large number of diverse (autonomous and wireless) widespread and distributed devices connect and potentially collaborate among themselves and with the channel to conduct storage and processing functions without the involvement of third parties” .
In the second tier, fog nodes are located above the edge devices, collecting data from many edge devices. This layer's fog nodes are network devices like routers, gateways, switches, etc. Computational Resources and storage can be shared by fog nodes in a cooperative manner. To gather data from the end devices, fog servers use transport layer technologies such as Bluetooth or Wi-Fi. Routers or base stations are commonly used to create fog nodes. The uppermost layer is the cloud centre, that receives data from the fog nodes. Figure. 3 depicts the architecture of fog computing.
C. Security and Privacy Issues
Cloud computing is constantly evolving in order to provide customers with various levels of on-demand services. While many individuals appreciate the advantages that cloud computing provides, cloud security is a major concern. Clouds still have a lot of vulnerabilities, and hackers are continually exploiting them. This paper provides an overview of security and privacy concerns for the Cloud, Edge, and Fog computing paradigms.
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Copyright © 2022 Ketaki Patil, Saisrijan Gupta, Anjali Nair, Vitthal Gutte. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.