Authors: H. L. Sharadhi, Navya Yarram , Vidhi Murarka, P. Uday Kiran , Varshini Shrri , Dr. Richa Tiwari , Mr. Vivek Gupta
Certificate: View Certificate
Green Marketing, is the vast field of marketing that has become one of the growing areas in inviting a lot of attention. Green marketing was given a considerable thought way back in the 1970s, but it was not until the late 1980s that the concept really took off and came into action. This was started in Europe in the early 1980s when it was discovered that some of the manufactured goods were impacting bad for the environment. Green marketing was referred to as \"Ecological\" as well. All the marketing efforts during that time period focused on addressing environmental issues. All marketing sweats during that time period centred on trying to address environmental issues. In order to meet the conditions and solicitations of the consumers, marketers started engaging in colourful forms of green marketing. It was anticipated that guests would buy green particulars, which would boost the company\'s character. These would prop in gaining a bigger request share. Despite this, nothing went as planned. Businesses were in fact doing nothing apart from merely pretending to be environmentally friendly. When marketer researchers have noticed the pushback, green marketing launched its second phase. Green marketing for the environment was the name given in the second phase. During that time, clean technology, which concerned developing new products without endangering the environment came into sharper focus. People had started to become more conscious on the need to preserve and safeguard the natural environment around them. Concerns over the environmental issues were raising people\'s awareness. The third phase began with this. This second method of green marketing was called \"Sustainable.\" Organizations had to alter their selling strategies as consumers began to purchase goods and services that had a lower environmental impact. Consumer Preferences and their buying behaviour were changing with the concern for the society. Green life has come a new way and has been accepted as a trending station of the consumers. utmost of the public and transnational associations are getting more concerned about their places in perfecting the quality of the terrain and our surroundings. Our traditional marketing system has evolved over the time to a further sustainable way of marketing that\'s ecological in nature and is then to stay. This change in the marketing system and the change in the preferences of the consumers is correctly observed by the associations who are changing themselves radically in order to feed to the demands of the dynamic request. Each player in the request is trying their stylish to produce a niche for themselves and to stand out in the crowd and in order to sustain and make gains in the long term without negatively impacting the terrain in this competitive period. To understand the consumer perspective a check was conducted in Bangalore. The population belonged to the age group of 18- 40 which included a wide range of actors with different professions and inflows. The end of this paper is to understand the change in the stations of the consumers towards green marketing practices in the FMCG sector.
Green marketing, environmental-marketing, and ecological marketing are the terms that refer to the same subject field. Environmental issues, despite their importance, have an impact on almost every aspect of our lives today. The FMCG sector, from the perspective of Indian business, is a sizable part of the economy that must embrace environmental stewardship. Consumers and businesses are equally concerned about the natural environment as society grows more complex due to environmental damage and unethical economic practices. As a result, businesses have begun to alter their conduct to accommodate the "new" issues that have emerged in modern society. There is a growing trend toward utilizing "eco-friendly" or "green" products, which has resulted in a commercial marketing approach. People's buying habits have changed drastically during the last three decades. According to several surveys, a variety of factors influence a green product's purchasing intention. Consumer health and well-being are increasingly threatened by current environmental disasters around the world. As a result, people's attitudes, choices, and purchases are becoming more environmentally conscious. As a result, green marketing is a notion that originated in the second part of the twentieth century and is based on an environmentally conscious mindset. Consumer buying intentions are boosted by these green marketing efforts. Due to stronger environmental regulations, economic, and other public pressures, today's businesses, and organizations are becoming increasingly engaged in environmental issues.
Companies must consider the environment as a unit of their operations in a competitive anal global setting. Green Marketing Practices are now being successfully implemented by many worldwide players in a variety of industries. Companies are becoming cognizant of their environmental duties. As a result, products and manufacturing processes have gotten cleaner, and more businesses are "becoming green" in order to protect the environment while also increasing profitability. The current increase in global environmental consciousness should not be overlooked. Evidence from around the world suggests that people are becoming more worried about the environment and changing their behaviour as a result.' Because business operations have caused and continue to create numerous environmental issues, there is a growing realization that green business is critical in the transition to a more ecological and sustainable society. Companies, particularly multinationals, play an important role in the global economy, and they also have the means and capacity to implement environmental solutions. Companies have a responsibility to contribute to improved sustainability and societal greening. As a result, businesses strive to develop markets for more environmentally friendly goods and services, as well as persuade curlers to switch from black to green behaviour. Green marketing is unavoidable and urgent. It's a unique opportunity to make a difference while also achieving financial success by inventing and altering items that are completely environmentally friendly. It is the process of purchasing and/or selling products and/or services based on their environmental values. Green marketing has become a popular notion in India and other developing countries, and it is considered as a key technique for promoting long-term growth. Consumer buying intentions are boosted by these green marketing efforts. Environmental issues have gotten a lot of press in recent years, indicating a rise in public awareness and concern. Environmentalists have been pushing for stricter environmental regulations for quite some time. The number of media stories about these has risen dramatically. Furthermore, some businesses have boycotted traditional products to indicate their dissatisfaction with them. Green product acceptance is influenced by several factors. Innovation boosts a company's competitiveness but simultaneously puts the environment in danger. A list of "green operation techniques'' includes green marketing as well. Many research findings suggest that environmental awareness has more to do with customer attitudes and values in the FMCG industry and their purchase behaviour. Manufacturers, marketers, governments, FMCG industry customers, and all other players in the system must work together to manage and minimize pollution and its impact on the environment, so that FMCG firms can create and introduce products that are environmentally friendly. This research examines the scope of green marketing in the FMCG sector, considering previous research assumptions. The study's major goal is to figure out how to maintain ecological balance and natural environmental characteristics via long-term growth. In this environment, the importance of fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) and their potential customers has become unavoidable for a worthwhile study. The goal of the study is to discover and investigate the techniques used by FMCG to achieve their objectives, as well as how consumers shift their preferences from conventional to green products.
A. Green Marketing
The technique of producing and advertising products based on their real or perceived environmental sustainability is known as green marketing. Advertisement of lower emissions related with a product's production process or the use of post-consumer recycled materials for a product's packaging are examples of green marketing. Some businesses may also promote themselves as environmentally responsible by donating a portion of their profits to environmental causes such as tree planting. When a company's green marketing efforts aren't backed up by major investments or operational changes, they risk being accused of misleading or fraudulent advertising. Greenwashing is another term used to describe this activity. Green marketing has emerged as an essential component of corporate public relations as a result of the growth of a customer demographic that is increasingly concerned about environmental and social problems. Green marketing methods have been criticized for favouring wealthy firms who can afford to bear the extra costs associated with these programmers. Products that sell quickly and at a low price are known as fast-moving consumer goods. Consumer packaged goods are another name for these items. Because of strong consumer demand (e.g., soft drinks and confections) or because they are perishable, FMCGs have a limited shelf life (e.g., meat, dairy products, and baked goods). These commodities are frequently acquired, quickly eaten, inexpensively priced, and marketed in big quantities. When they are on the store shelf, they also have a high turnover. Consumer goods are items purchased for everyday use by the average person. They are separated into three categories: durable, nondurable, and service items. Nondurable items have a shelf life of less than one year, while durable goods have a shelf life of three years or more. The greatest segment of consumer goods is fast moving consumer goods. They are classified as non-durable because they are consumed quickly and have a limited shelf life. Fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) are used by nearly everyone daily. They are the purchases we make at the produce stand, grocery store, supermarket, and warehouse outlet on a smaller size. Milk, gum, fruits and vegetables, toilet paper, soda, alcohol, and over-the-counter medications such as aspirin are just a few examples. Although FMCGs account for more than half of all consumer expenditure, they are often low involvement purchases.
Consumers are more inclined to brag about a long-lasting product like a new automobile or a well-designed smartphone than a $2.50 energy drink. Nestle, Procter & Gamble, and Coca-Cola are three of the largest fast-moving consumer products firms in the world. Nestle, for example, is a Swiss company that owns over 2,000 trademarks ranging from vitamins to frozen foods. Importantly, there is fierce competition for market dominance in the fast-moving consumer products sector. As a result, firms place a strong emphasis on packaging in order to not only attract customers but also to preserve the product's shelf life and integrity.
B. Consumer Demand
When we look at Indian consumers' buying habits, we can tell that they are emotional shoppers. Given that many Indian consumers prefer environmentally friendly products, the green sector has a lot of room to grow. Organizations in India have identified customer needs and are realizing the need for ecological marketing since they are aware that consumers desire items that are not only safe for them to eat but also environmentally friendly. Customers who are environmentally conscious and prefer green products appreciate companies that offer them.
Green marketing has become a competitive advantage for businesses nowadays.
C. Effect of Covid-19 on Green Marketing In FMCG Sector
The world is facing a unique challenge because of the COVID-19 pandemic. It was China where the first case was detected and in no time, it did spread across the earth. On March 11, 2020, WHO Director-General Dr. Margaret Chan declared the coronavirus outbreak a "Pandemic." (World Health Organization, 2020) Unavailability of a vaccine to stop the spread of the extremely infectious virus COVID-19, nations across the globe have been forced to adopt safety precautions like social distancing and declaring country-wide lockdowns. It was during this lockdown that the world, and so did India realize the importance of the environment and its impact of being cleaner and healthier. It took an epic episode of a virus pandemic to make humans realize that they have exploited the earth a lot and it is time to reverse the cycle, push the pause button of fast, irresponsible life and think about the environment and take responsibility to protect it. Several studies say that this environmental conscious behaviour has been reflecting in the buying and the consumption pattern of the consumers, since covid. Numerous reports and studies have shown that the coronavirus has refocused our minds on making the world a better, healthier place (BBC News). Accenture’s global head of consumer goods and services, Oliver Wright, agrees that the consumption pattern has changed since the covid times. He claims that it is a black swan event. It is causing people to consider how they buy things and how they spend their time in relation to global challenges of sustainability. Accenture conducted a survey in 2020 that said that consumers have changed dramatically, sixty percent of them choose eco-friendly and sustainable products. Consumers now prefer ethical and ecological products. Capgemini, conducted research, too, to find out the impact of covid on consumer behaviour, especially with the context of eco- friendly or Green Products. They studied the gap of consumer’s expectations of sustainable products and how well retailers understood the same. Sustainability has made it to the top of the customer's mind, according to the survey, with 79 percent of customers bending towards socially responsible, inclusiveness, or environmentally friendly products. It is clear from these studies that Covid 19 has certainly changed consumer behaviour for the good of the environment, Green Products have gained awareness and purchasing behaviour is getting environment friendly. Individuals who are knowledgeable about the environment are more likely to participate in environmentally-friendly practices.
Although, academics have defined green purchasing behaviour differently. Many researchers have objectively defined, studied, and explored the relation between the intention or willingness to buy environmentally friendly products and for if the knowledge and intention translates in the buying behaviour or spending money on buying of the green products. Plus, knowing the consumer’s perception in accordance with the 4Ps of the marketing will give them better strategy formulation technique. According to recent studies, companies that prioritize environmental concerns are more profitable. This implies a commitment to green management. Green marketing and environmental features as a source of competitive advantage has become increasingly popular among corporations for this very reason. Thus, in these uncertain times of pandemic, understanding green consumer profiles and behaviour is critical for businesses to develop new targeting and categorization techniques. It is here, that the paper, tests quantitatively the theory of being more eco-friendly or “GREEN” as a sustainable marketing strategy post covid. To do so the researcher picks up 4 Ps of marketing. First being Green Products, Price of Green Products, its availability (Place) and its Packaging. The quantitative construct has been built on the existing literature review about all the 4P’s of the marketing. Five variables have been selected for each P from the existing literature to run the regression test to show the difference between each for pre and post behaviour.
D. Latest Technologies
Green Marketing interprets the American Marketing Association (AMA) Product development and marketing is the product of the sales of products that are susceptible to environmental degradation, product development and marketing are designed to reduce negative impacts or improve the quality of the product and, finally, environmental problems Organization that manufacture, promote, pack and refinish products that are sensitive or responsive Attempt. The latest technologies which are making a mark in the current scenario are the plastic free packaging, artificial intelligence, direct distribution of the products i.e., removing middle men from the interim markets and mainly sustainability. Flexi-Hex produces Plastic-Free Packaging Flexi-hex creates ecologically friendly packaging that aids FMCG firms in reducing packaging waste. With its innovative honeycomb architecture built from recycled paper, the start-up provides customizable, plastic-free solutions. The company's mission is to eliminate plastic from the packaging sector and raise awareness about the dangers that plastic poses to the world's seas. Direct distribution of products Direct distribution is being used by an increasing number of FMCG companies to improve consumer loyalty and ensure growth. Manufacturers, for example, communicate directly with their end-customers via their own online and offline distribution channels. This boosts their profit margins while also providing consumers with a direct line to their favourite companies. This development in the FMCG industry is intimately linked to the growth of e-commerce as well as the adoption of smartphones and the internet. Artificial intelligence A consumer review analytics solution is being developed by an Italian firm. Artificial Intelligence is used by the organization to monitor ecommerce websites in order to read and understand customer feedback. The information gathered helps FMCG companies develop consumer-centric business strategies. Machine learning (ML), an AI-powered solution, is gaining traction and presenting prospects for the FMCG business. For example, voice-based systems assist consumers 24 hours a day, 7 days a week in finding products and serving customers, as well as recommendation engines that make individualized product recommendations. FMCG companies may improve their consumer experience by integrating AI-based solutions. Thereby increasing customer satisfaction and retention. Solar speakers’ Solar panels have been used for more than just powering electronics; they have also been used to assist technology become self-sustaining. The wireless speakers, a sleek, contemporary sound system with high-quality aural punch that is fuelled mostly by the sun, demonstrate this innovation. The solar panels are, as predicted, flawlessly placed on the device's top to allow for optimum light absorption. It is unmistakably cutting-edge, and it also looks fantastic. Green GPS Units For more than a decade, portable GPS systems have provided drivers with accurate instructions, traffic avoidance routes, and trip data. However, none of these specialized gadgets have been set up to serve your best environmental interests. The Pama Eco Navigator Satellite Navigation System is the first GPS solution on the market devoted to reducing the carbon impact of your vehicle. It gives you the best fuel-efficient routes as well as a full analysis of your vehicle's performance. Additionally, it automatically registers all your trips, allowing you to analyse your fuel economy for specific drives in the future.
E. Future Business Opportunities
Consumers are emotional buyers, if we study their buying behaviour, we see that the consumer does a lot of emotional buying. As we see that many consumers are greener product oriented it gives a great scope for the green market to expand. Organizations have identified the need of the consumers; they are realizing the need for adoption of ecological marketing as they are aware that consumers are demanding products that are not only safe for them to consume but should also be the same to the environment. Conscious and green customers prefer the organizations that provide environmentally safe products. Green marketing has become a competitive advantage for businesses in recent years.
Green Marketing also saves a lot of cost with respect to its manufacturing, packaging, and promotion. Because they utilize environmentally friendly items and follow the 3 R's (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle), they save a lot of money that would have been spent otherwise which encourages even small businesses to cultivate this habit in order to reduce their carbon footprint and their cost of production which helps them with future business opportunities and expansion of their current business. Viewing this, the youth-filled generation of the 21st century is encouraged and influenced in green marketing and try their utmost to implement it in their business in the future. Implementing green marketing is sustainable and creative and this trait itself attracts a lot of customers and gain in trust and increases the value of the business making it premium in the eyes of the customer creating more and more opportunities for them to grow their business and in turn increases competition giving other companies no choice but to adapt to green marketing.
II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
P. Asha and Dr. R. Rathiha (2017), They discovered that although consumers have a positive inclination toward green products, they lack sufficient knowledge of environmentally friendly products. Therefore, marketers must identify consumer environmental needs and ultimately develop products that are environmentally safe and quickly decompose in the environment. Dr. B.Nagaraju and Thejaswini H.D (2016) identified that consumers mostly buy green products because it boosts their health and they have a positive attitude towards it. Product labels and outdoor advertisements play a major role in informing them about environment friendly products. Subooh Yusuf and Zeenat Fatima (2015) observed that the consumers are of the opinion that green products have a positive impact on the environment and health of the consumers. They have easy access to it and it has better quality and has a reasonable price. Lastly, its performance is better than non- green products. Samsai et al., (2018) observed that advertisement played a major role in attracting attention of consumers towards eco-friendly products and they are purchasing it because they are health conscious Samsai et al., (2018), they found that consumers were drawn to eco-friendly products by advertisements, and they were buying them because they cared about their health. ML Ashok and Dr. T Aswathanarayana (2018) identified that consumers prefer green products on two factors, first it should be environment friendly and second ML Ashok and Dr. T Aswathanarayanaa (2018), They discovered that buyers like eco-friendly products based on two criteria: first, they should be environmentally beneficial, and second, their prices should be comparable to those of traditional products.
Wong et al. (2012), He was to investigate the attitudes of Singaporean and Malaysian teenagers toward buying eco-friendly products. The results show that five factors—concern about attitudes toward green purchases, perceived consumer efficacy, health consciousness, attitudes toward the environment, and social impact—play a role in enhancing young adults' intention to make green purchases. Today's society is paying a lot of attention to organic foods because of several problems, including diseases and the environment. The results show that young buyers are more likely to favourably view buying green products. This group of customers might be thought of as a potential target market for eco-friendly marketers. Sharma et al. (2015), In the current climate, there is a compelling need to inform and increase consumer environmental understanding. The purpose of corporate responsibility, also referred to as corporate social responsibility, is to inform young people about the dangers of the environment. It might not happen right away, but it will eventually. Today's youth are more concerned about environmental preservation. They seek to mitigate the drawbacks of utilising services and goods that are damaging to the environment. Arianne J. van der Wal et al. (2016), She conceptually replicates earlier laboratory findings showing that status motives lead people to display sustainable behaviour in public in a situational setting. According to the research, customers of high-status sustainable supermarket chains use branded green shopping bags more frequently than customers of lower-status chains to signify their commitment to sustainable consumption. As the literature reveals conflicting conclusions about the relationship between green consumer behaviour, green advertising, purchase intention, and other factors, the current study is being conducted to understand the green purchase behaviour of the residents of Coimbatore, the second largest city in Tamil Nadu, India.
Banumathi. P and Mabel Latha Rani. S (2018), with specific reference to the Thoothukudi District, highlighted how consumers perceive fast-moving consumer goods. A deterrent should not be the higher cost of high-quality goods. Health and sanitation are crucial for the growth of FMCG products. Sales establishments with exceptional customer service get more customers. Because of this, the researcher has gone to considerable pains to explain the value that all producers of quickly disseminated consumer goods provide in order to maintain market viability. In the current market, food and toiletries are the two most popular products, with others following. As a result, it is decided that this kind of research is crucial in identifying the market potentials of fast-moving consumer goods, especially in cities like Thoothukudi. Dileep Kumar (2010), He examined the extent to which hotel businesses in the tourism industry satisfy customer needs through green marketing efforts and how they affect consumer behaviour and satisfaction by encouraging green behaviour. Shobha G. Iyer et al (2011), He acknowledged that brand extension is a type of new product introduction in which the name of an existing brand is applied to a new product introduced in a distinct category. This facilitates acceptance because consumers apply the affect and meanings they associate with the parent brand to the extension, which helps it gain traction.
Milind T. Phadtare (2008), According to the research of Milind T. Phadtare, the desire for variety is a significant factor in why first-time purchasers' choices differ from those of regular customers. First-time purchasers place more value on utility, long-term thinking, and cost than do repeat buyers. Repeat customers are more attracted to features like technology and design, performance, and comfort than are first-time buyers. A.V.Tak & V.B.Tak (2010), He stated that A farm is said to be organic if it has a structure that is modelled after a natural system that possesses the integrity, independence, and benign dependency of an organism. The entire process of organ farming and its repercussions on human society are covered by the economics of organic agriculture, including societal costs, unforeseen consequences, and knowledge asymmetries as well as economies of scale. Chennakrishnan (2011), According to a survey by Chennakrishnan, demand for organic bananas is rising along with consumer appreciation for fruits farmed organically. By promoting bio-fertilizers and bio-pesticides, recycling the waste from environmentally friendly inputs, and establishing national certification programmes and accreditation organisations to certify organic products in the nation, India has the potential to become a significant exporter of organic bananas.
Selvakumar & Ramesh Pandi (2011), According to them, green marketing encompasses all marketing actions required to foster and maintain consumers' environmentally conscious attitudes and behaviours in a way that has the least possible negative effects on the environment. It is not just about producing green goods and services. Moloy Ghoshal (2011), According to the Moloy Ghoshal study, green marketing was still in its infancy. According to marketing academics, "green marketing" refers to eco-level and market segmentation as well as the influence of structural elements and financial incentives on customer behaviour. Improved environmental quality and customer pleasure are two goals that green marketers must understand. Robert Dahlstrom's research, green marketing benefits a variety of economic players. Green marketing has positive effects on the economy, the environment, consumers, company strategy, the product, manufacturing procedures, and supply chain. Companies that specialise in green marketing form strategic partnerships with the government, regional groups, NGOs, industry leaders, and rivals. Rakesh Rajpal et al (2011), According to Robert Dahlstrom's research, green marketing benefits a variety of economic players. Green marketing has positive effects on the economy, the environment, consumers, company strategy, the product, manufacturing procedures, and supply chain. Companies that specialise in green marketing form strategic partnerships with the government, regional groups, NGOs, industry leaders, and rivals
Ann Kronrod et al (2012), The study by Ann Kronrod et al. brought attention to and outlined the unexpectedly high prevalence of forceful environmental messages in the media. Environmental organisations should be aware that not all consumers are as knowledgeable and concerned about the environment as they should be. These organisations are made up of people who believe that protecting the environment is a very important problem.
Andrew S.Winston (2010), Companies and nations must address both immediate and long-term environmental difficulties while addressing immediate economic challenges, according to Andrew S. Winston's study. Get Lean, Get Smart, Get Creative, and Get People Engaged are the four primary areas of focus that will assist your business both now and in the future. In other words, going green isn't a side activity that takes time away from your company's core competencies. Kupuswamy & Venkatrama Raju (2011), Kupuswamy and Venkatrama Raju looked at the steps taken by businesses to increase energy efficiency, coming up with strategies for reusing fuels, materials, and other resources to encourage resource conservation. It focuses on how sustainability develops at three different levels: the operating level, the relationship and coordination level, and the strategic level. Philip Kotler (2011), If sustainability is to be realised, Philip Kotler understood that the Companies must make significant changes to their research and development, production, financial, and marketing methods. The ozone layer's thinning, soil deterioration and increased desertification, increased air and water pollution, changing atmospheric composition, soil degradation, and increased desertification are just a few of the environmental issues that must be taken into account in order to be sustainable. Martin Wright (2011), Martin Sustainability has lost its cachet in a world with diminishing natural resources. Business logic would support it. Fast adaptation is a hallmark of top companies. The environmental impact of Unilever has been pledged to be cut in half by 2020 yet sales are also expected to double. In the future, Wal-Mart wants to source all of its energy from renewable sources. Henry Assael (2006), In the United States, businesses have taken steps to support environmental controls and green marketing, according to a study by Henry Assael. For instance, Reynolds Wrap promotes recycling, while Crane Papers highlights the natural content of its products, and McDonald's switched from plastic to paper wrapping and uses recyclable materials to build its restaurants.
Michael R. Solomon(2009), According to Michael R. Solomon, companies that adopt the attitude to safeguard or improve the environment as they conduct business are an example of green marketing. Marketers highlight a group of consumers who adhere to "Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability," or LOHAS.
Douglas J. Darymple & Leonard J. Parsons (2002), The "green" movement, according to Douglas J. Darymple and Leonard J. Parsons (2002), is a way for industry to make more ecologically friendly products. This strategy is referred to as green marketing. Environmental protection is merely one facet of responsible behaviour. Where it is feasible, the products should be made such that they may be recycled.
Smitha Khare (2011), Ms. Smitha Khare A steadfast Indian is committed to making the nation greener in the midst of ecological discussions and the alarms over global warming. With everyone working to make the nation greener, environmental awareness is gradually integrating itself into today's lifestyle. Pallavi (2011), According to Pallavi's analysis, rural India's income has significantly improved as a result of the agricultural technology advancement, or "green revolution," which began in Indian agriculture in the 1970s. The original "4 Ps" have given way to the new "4 As," which stand for Affordability, Awareness, Availability, and Acceptability.
III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
We have used a method of empirical descriptive research that combines primary and secondary data. The study aims to identify numerous aspects of society, institution, or situation under study. It highlights potential connections between variables, providing a foundation for later, more in-depth research. The study attempts to ascertain the frequency with which something occurs or its relationship to other things; research investigations describe the qualities of a certain person or group. Descriptive research data can concentrate specifically on a theoretical idea and may be helpful in confirming key ideas through actual observation.
A. Research Design
A pilot study was done and a questionnaire was accepted with a Cronbach alpha value of 0.8795. Hence later on a survey was sent to around 200 people in Bangalore in the form of a questionnaire among which 119 valid responses have been selected for analysis in the study.
B. Method of Data Collection
We are taking up a survey research method as the collection of information from a sample of individuals through their responses to questions". This research allowed a variety of methods to recruit participants, collect data, and utilize various methods of instrumentation. Survey research use quantitative research strategies, qualitative research strategies, or both strategies. As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.
Simple Random Sampling has been used and, in the population, respondents had an equal likelihood of being chosen. The questionnaire was sent to a random 200 people of Bangalore among which only 119 responded.
2. Secondary Research
Secondary data was collected through articles and published journals
IV. DATA INTERPRETATION
There were 30 statements in the questionnaire sent out to the respondents for the study of the title. The following pie charts indicate different demographics of the respondents.
The questionnaire helped us get the respondents views on green marketing and majorly comprised green promotion, preferences of consumers, ease of disposal of product, prevention of global warming, chemicals and preservatives used in a product, what that product can give back to society. These dimensions were checked upon each other to understand the correlation and the subsequent impact they had on each other. A pilot study was done and a questionnaire was accepted with a Cronbach alpha value of 0.8795.
Researchers have aggregated on following aspects of research before sending out the questionnaire:
However, the null hypothesis of promotion of a product is the main factor which is influencing consumer buying behaviour was tested and the result from the same is negative hence we rejected. Many factors influence consumer buying behaviour.
V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Majority of the respondents are aware of the term green practices and its benefits and for them product, packages, places, and promotion all are important green marketing elements which strongly influences your buying behaviour of products. And most of the respondents are likely to make a purchase for the product based on appropriate disposal post-usage, if required.
It was assumed that the buying behaviour of consumers is strongly influenced only by the promotion of the product but other factors like packaging, reliability, the ease of disposal of products also influences their buying behaviour.
Eco friendly packaging and recycling are the most popular green marketing initiatives. Most of the consumers prefer eco-friendly packaging over normal packaging. Green marketing in the FMCG sector increases consumer engagement and participation in environmental initiatives. As per (Ansari, 2022) Research shows that only green pricing and green advertising can influence consumers' green FMCG purchases. Higher prices lead to a slightly lower willingness to buy, suggesting that consumers believe environmentally friendly products are expensive and are unwilling to pay a high premium. And the results show that the respondents purchase their FMCG products from local stores online so for them the easy availability is required. They are not specific to buying from a particular place itself. They are open to explore. The main reasons that respondents are willing to pay more for the “green” products are Enhancing a quality of life and Environmental protection responsibility. 95.8% are likely to consider the environmental impact of products when making purchasing decisions. And 78.9% of the respondents are likely to get influenced and feel that green marketing initiatives impact consumer buying behaviour. There is a positive response saying respondents feel that people buy green products (environmentally friendly products) due to the influence of promoting agents.
And most of the respondents feel that the Indian FMCG market will grow aggressive penetration-pricing methods to stimulate initial demand for green products.
As a result of the thorough investigation, the study's goals and objectives were achieved, and the results are as follows.
Like several other studies this study also had limitations on specific grounds while the research was carried out on the demographic front, we can say that the recurved responses had an imbalance or difference in their number.
Thus, it can be noted that the demographic profile was not similar in all the factors. Hence this might have impacted the results of certain parameters
Fast moving consumer goods sector is a vast industry and right now none of the companies or products are enjoying monopoly which indicates that there is high competition among themselves. Adopting green marketing initiatives can be of highly advantageous to the company. As mentioned in the results earlier, consumers were willing to pay high prices for the eco-friendly products, so the companies can go green by introducing more greener products. Green marketing initiatives can save the environment against global warming and climate changes. Avoiding usage of chemicals in products can impact the world on a larger scale.
The study was restricted to respondents in Bangalore at the pan-India level. Hence the result may vary with respect to ethnicity. This major limitation on the worldwide perspective on ethnicity is another challenge (perception of different factors) so the researchers believe recommendations cannot be standardized in every industry or the geographical profiling. However, this analysis included references to Green Marketing regarding FMCG products. But there could be differences or a few advancements due to the dynamism of the industry during and post-study timelines.
The present study is a quantitative analysis due to the ease of access, interpretation scarcity of resources longitudinal constraints this is why it can be said that the qualitative approach of the study may have deepened the perception, thus it can be said that the alternative method of research can gain different insights on how green marketing impacts the consumers from the FMCG sector.
VIII. FUTURE SCOPE
A. Consumer Need
Indian consumers frequently make emotional purchases, as can be seen through an analysis of their shopping habits. Given that many Indian consumers are more interested in eco-friendly products, the green sector has a lot of room to grow. Organizations in India have recognised customer needs and are beginning to understand the necessity of adopting an ecological marketing strategy since they are aware that consumers want products that are not only healthy for them to use but also to be kind to the environment. Customers who are environmentally aware and ethical favour companies that offer products that are safe for the environment. These days, businesses view green marketing as a competitive advantage.
B. Social Responsibility of Corporations
Organisations like Wipro, Tata Group, as a responsibility to the environment and society, have been engaging in green marketing. They have been taking part in a variety of activities to promote environmentally friendly ones. Additionally, this is consistent with the business's CSR efforts. Where businesses are fulfilling their obligations to the environment where they operate.
Another potential area for growth for green marketing is the competition from businesses that use green marketing. Other businesses that have not yet implemented a green marketing strategy are under pressure to do so in order to compete in the market.
D. Governmental Proposals
The government is currently making several efforts to promote environmentally friendly activities. For the businesses, they have established several policies and guidelines.
E. Financial Efficiency
Given the current environment, green marketing has a larger use due to its efficiency in terms of cost. Recycling and material reuse are the main goals of green marketing initiatives. The businesses employ technology for both waste material reduction and material reutilization. These activities are crucial right now since they are both beneficial to society and the environment.
The driving forces behind the current study are a lack of environmentally friendly packaging options on the market, a lack of consumer awareness, an inability to distinguish between environmentally friendly and non-environmentally friendly package alternatives, increased costs, and a lack of environmental information on the package. An effective environmental marketing plan is never complete since it occasionally needs to be improved. This is because no product is an entirely environmental product in the proper meaning of the word because natural resources, energy, and waste are all used during the manufacture of any environmental product. The key takeaway is that environmental marketers should always strive to enhance all aspects of their campaigns, including resource use, packaging, transportation, and trash disposal. So, green packaging is becoming increasingly important in the FMCG sector in order to decrease waste and use energy extremely effectively. Some consumers are also aware of the energy savings provided by green packaging. Although flexible packaging is no longer the most effective packaging type, environmentally friendly technologies like green additions to it still exist. Green Marketing becomes the new trend exposure of companies in the world, especially in developed countries, where it represents one of the new faces of ultramodern marketing. This study aimed to identify this conception and clarify the boundaries and rudiments associated with it, in order to more fete it and its styles of operation, besides the donation of the most successful gests in this field encyclopaedically, and identify the most dependent sectors on it. The study concluded that green marketing is the operation of traditional marketing practices, but considering the protection of the terrain as a precedence in determining the rudiments of the whole marketing blend, from product design, pricing, distribution, and creation, this should be in line with the company\'s general gospel including all its conditioning, grounded on giving acceptable attention to the terrain during the planning, perpetration and control of its operations. The study also showed that green marketing isn\'t confined to one sector only, but the leading global gests in this field vary between buses, apparel, food, technology, cabinetwork, and others because espousing this approach is a choice and conviction that appears in the diurnal operation of all processes and deals, not a temporary commitment for a specific period and for a specific assiduity.
 Aparna, K. (2017). A study on green marketing practices of selected FMCG manufacturers in India.  Ball, L. a. (2003). https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697. Retrieved from shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in: https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697  Chen. (2001). https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697. Retrieved from shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in: https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697  Chen, c. (2005). https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697. Retrieved from shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in: https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697  D.M Kodituwakku, D. K. (2017). green marketing concept and consumer purchasing intention with special reference to consumer goods.  Darnton, S. a. (2005). https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697. Retrieved from shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in: https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697  Dr.Suma. (2013). Study on Green Marketing. Retrieved from https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/72697/7/07_chapter%201.pdf. (2020). fast moving consumer goods sector analysis report. equitymaster.  Fernando, J. (2021). Green Marketing. Investopedia.  Figge. (2002). https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697. Retrieved from shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in: https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697  Fisk. (1998). https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697. Retrieved from shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in: https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697  Fisk, G. a. (1996). https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697. Retrieved from shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in: https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697  H.D, T. (2017). A study of consumers attitude towards eco-friendly FMCG products with reference to Karnataka. shodhganga.  Hallin. (1995). https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697. Retrieved from shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in: https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697  Hart. (1997). https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697. Retrieved from shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in: https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697  Hurvitz, A. D. (2019). Everywhere you look: IP rights and FMCG challenges. world trademark review. (2021). Indian FMCG industry analysis. India brand equity foundation.  Johansson. (2002). https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697. Retrieved from shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in: https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697  Karpagavalli.G, D. A. (2015). A study on the opportunities and challenges available for implementing green marketing strategies- A solution for suitable business development. Asia pacific journal of research.  Kenton, W. (2021). FMCG. Investopedia.  Kilbourne. (1998). https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697. Retrieved from shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in: https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697  Langerak. (1998). https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697. Retrieved from shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in: https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697  Latest Technologies in green marketing. (2018). 3.  Marris, J. (1997). https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697. Retrieved from shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in: https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697  Menon. (1997). https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697. Retrieved from shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in: https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697  Matilda, V. P. (2012). green marketing. International journal of research and development.  Mohd Amir, P. A. (2018). Sustainable green marketing practices enhance competitive advantage in the Indian FMCG sector. international journal of management, technology and engineering, 13.  NAYAK, V. M. (2017). Green Marketing and its application and scope. Retrieved from https://www.ijsr.in/upload/414082048Chapter_19.pdf.  Oyewole. (2001). https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697. Retrieved from shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in: https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697  Patil, P. (2016). An overview of the Indian FMCG sector. ResearchGate.  Polonsky. (1998). https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697. Retrieved from shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in: https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697  Rawat, S. R. (2015). Impact of age and income over green consumer behaviour. Research gate.  S.R, S. (2013). Study on green marketing with special reference to fast moving consumer goods. shodhganga.  Sable, K. (2019). FMCG market by type and distribution channel: global opportunity analysis and industry forecast. Allied Market Research.  Sharma, T. (2016). Green marketing and consumer buying behaviour a study of eco friendly products in the fast-moving consumer goods FMCG sector. shodhganga.  Sharma, U. (2018). A study of consumer behaviour towards green fast moving consumer goods with special reference to Gwalior district. shodhganga.  Simon. (2000). https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697. Retrieved from shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in: https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697  Strannengard, L. (2000). https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697. Retrieved from shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in: https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697  Vikashita Mohanty, S. N. (2017). Green marketing - its application , scope and future in India. Indian Journal of science research.  Wahegaonkar, D. M. (2017). Green marketing of products in the FMCG sector in maharashtra. Excel journal of engineering technology and management science.  Wiser, R. (1997). https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697. Retrieved from shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in: https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/72697  Yasemin Oraman, M. A. (2011). The firm\'s survival and competition through Global Expansion: A case study from the food industry in the FMCG sector. Science Direct, 9
Copyright © 2023 H. L. Sharadhi, Navya Yarram , Vidhi Murarka, P. Uday Kiran , Varshini Shrri , Dr. Richa Tiwari , Mr. Vivek Gupta. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.