Steering knuckle is an indispensable part of an automobile vehicle, integrating different subsystems like suspension, brakes and steering. Being the pivot point of the vehicle, it undergoes diverse stacking under rigorous conditions resulting in failure of the component. The objective of this paper is to perform static structural analysis on the knuckle under diverse loadings. This is achieved by designing a generic steering knuckle of a car in CATIA V5R20 and performing the finite element analysis using ANSYS Workbench 14.5. The analysis is carried out under maximum loading condition, braking and bump maneuvering.
A steering knuckle is a part of automotive suspension system that detaches the vehicle from roughness and vibrations while keeping the tires in contact with the road surface. Hence, the steering knuckle should be strong enough to endure loads during various maneuvers such as cornering, accelerating, and braking and road roughness. Most Common type of suspension system is Macpherson Suspension System. In this steering knuckle is connected to the axle housing by using kingpin, one end is connected to the strut while another end is connected to the steering link or “tie rod”. The wheel hub is fixed over the knuckle by using a bearing. The function of the steering knuckle is to convert linear motion of the tie rod into angular motion of the stub axle. Variety of materials is utilized to produce steering knuckle, from cast iron to alloy steels. But because of the booming aluminum industry, most of the automakers are relying on the aluminum alloys for better strength for comparatively lesser weight of the component. Because of low material weight, the component will contribute toward overall mass reduction and decrease in use of fuel and CO2 production. In addition, to light-weight material utilization, many researchers are using optimization techniques such as: topology optimization, shape optimization and size optimization. 
Mass or weight reduction is becoming a core highlighted issue in automobile manufacturing industry to improve fuel efficiency thereby reducing emissions. Weight reduction has been achieved through advances in materials, improved design and analysis methods, fabrication processes and optimization techniques, etc. Design optimization should be implemented to obtain a minimum weight with maximum or feasible performance, based on removal of conflicting constraints, design boundaries, and design uncertainties, such as design clearance and material defects.
The steering knuckle on a vehicle is a joint that allows the steering arm to turn the front wheels. It is the connection between the tie rod, stub axle and axle housing. Steering knuckle is connected to the axle housing by using king pin. Another end is connected to the tie rod. The wheel hub is fixed over the knuckle using a bearing. The function of the steering knuckle is to convert linear motion of the tie rod into angular motion of the stub axle. A knuckle design is dependent on the suspension, brake and steering subassembly design of the particular vehicle and hence gives flexibility to optimize it in terms of weight and durability. Inspire of the large design variations, steering knuckles are divided into two main types - with a hub or with a spindle. Among the vehicle structural components, the knuckle is one of the important parts in the suspension system. A reduction in the weight of suspension components also improves the vehicle’s handling performance. It plays a crucial role in minimizing the vertical and roll motion of the vehicle body when it is driven on a rough road. A knuckle component is required to support the load and torque induced by bumping, braking, and acceleration and also helps in steering the tire connecting tie rod and rotating at the kingpin’s axis centre. Under operating condition, it is subjected to dynamic forces transmitted from strut and wheel. Steering Knuckle is subjected to time varying loads during its service life which may lead to fatigue failure. The steering knuckle accounts for maximum amount of weight of all suspension components, which expedites the necessity of weight reduction. In the design optimization of the knuckle component, weight should be minimized, while design factors such as strength, stiffness and durability should be satisfied with design targets. An effective design is one which performs the required task efficiently and is safe under extreme operating conditions, while being economical in the material used as well as the manufacturing process needed yet having an aesthetic appeal. Analysis aids in understanding the behavior of a component under a particular loading cycle for both failures and redundancies. Therefore, analysis gives us a mathematical model which indicates scope for optimization and weight reduction for an overdesigned component.
The main objective of this project is development of structural design and weight reduction of vehicle knuckle using shape optimization which will reduce the cost and to avoid complex steering assembly which will enhance it performance.
To study original Knuckle.
Structural analysis is carried out using finite element analysis.
From the simulation results, it have been found that regardless of the material selected the maximum stress induced in the steering knuckle remains same, but the maximum displacement varies. Material EN 24 having minimum deformation so we can replace cast iron with EN24 material for knuckle.
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