Authors: Mohit Kumar, Suvendu Mohapatra, Atyasha Nanda, Bibhabasu Mohanty
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At present in world, the number of handicapped individuals is increasing each year. Their mobility has become a serious problem and it poses a great challenge before the engineering and scientific community. It demands conceptualizing and developing effective solutions in the form of mobility aids. Various mobility aids play a crucial role to empower their disabilities and bringing them back to normalcy. These tools help them in transportation and also act as a viable substitute for physical walking in indoor and outdoor environments. Out of all the equipment, the most common are stretcher and wheelchair. Wheelchair finds its usage in hospitals, railway stations, airports, shopping malls, and even in household activities. Primarily it is used in hospitals along with stretchers. Owing to its large-scale application in commercial and domestic purposes, it needs a modification in terms of flexibility and interconversion ability so that the problems which are arising in individual devices can be eliminated and particularly it will be more beneficial in medical industries. This paper presents an idea about developing such a mechanism so that we can integrate the advantages of both wheelchair and stretcher. It should be ergonomically designed and all the safety standards should be met. This paper also reviews the various areas of development made in the past about mobility aids for the comfort of both patients and hospital staff.
A. Wheel Chair
It is a device having a chair with large wheels that a person who cannot walk can move through this due to his/her illness, injury or disability. It comes in different forms that allowing manual propulsion by the seated user turning the wheel of chair by hand i.e., manually or electric propulsion by motor. So, therefore this device is useful for the people who have facing problems in sitting and walking can make use of this device i.e., wheelchair. The wheelchair is consists of several parts which are described below: - Head Rest: It is used for posture and head alignment. It also adds comfort to patients. Hand Grip: It is used to push a wheelchair for attendant propelled wheelchair. Armrest: It can be fixed, detachable, or swing away. The detachable or swing away types allow greater ease in sliding board or sideways transfer. Backrest: It facilitates good posture and a removable backrest facilitates Back transfer. High backrest prevents the patient to hook his elbow and low backrest allows patients to lean over it. Seat: Seat is made up of fabric, resin, or solid materials. Caster: It is defined as two front wheel of the wheelchair which can turn in every directions and it also stabilize the wheelchair. Hand rim: It is defined as the part of wheel of a wheelchair where the user comes into direct contact with to move the chair. Calf pads: It is defined as the part of wheelchair which is attached to leg rest to keep the foot from striking with the front wheel. Footplates: It is defined as the part of wheelchair which is fixed and used to keep the foot while moving the wheelchair. The figure 1. Shows the different parts of wheelchair.
A wheelchair is classified as follows:
Manual Wheelchair: It is defined as the wheelchair which can be move manually by the user by turning the rear wheel of chair by hand and also by grabbing the handle of the wheelchair by the other person who can push the chair to move the user who is seated in the wheelchair. The figure 2 shows the manual wheelchair.
Powered Wheelchair: It is defined as the wheelchair which can be move electrically propelled by a battery or motor operated. By the powered wheelchair the user can control the chair by sitting on it and can move forward or backward by the controls which are fitted in the wheelchair. The figure 3 shows the powered wheelchair.
Paediatric Wheelchair: It is defined as the wheelchair which is specially developed for the benefit of children. This section consists of different kinds of chairs that can be operated manually and electrically. Some functional paediatric wheelchairs are planned and developed to accommodate exact mobility disorders to help children have independence with assistive technology. The figure 4 shows the Paediatric Wheelchair.
Positioning Wheelchair: It is defined as the wheelchair which offers the patient the capability to move in different areas on their wheelchair. These are operated electrically for mobility’s as well as positioning. The figure 5 shows the positioning wheelchair.
B. Stret Cher
It is defined as a moving bed which is attached with wheels to transfer the patients who can’t walk or stand with the help of others assistance. In case of accidents or emergencies and the people who are in critical stages can be transferred by the stretcher for one place to another place. It is simply designed with the metal bed supported by a metal frame with swivel caster wheels and at the top of metal bed where the patient is laying to transport to hospitals. Stretchers have been used since ancient times on battlefields and in emergencies to transfer the patients. Stretchers are classified as follows:
Portable stretcher: It is defined as the stretcher which is lighter than a simple wheel stretcher and it makes easier to moving a patient downstairs or out of tight spaces. The figure 6 shows the portable stretcher.
Scoop stretcher: It is defined as the stretcher which splits vertically into two pieces which can be used to scoop the patient up and helps in transferring to hospitals. The figure 8 shows the basket stretcher.
Stair chair stretcher: This type of stretcher helps the rescuers to move the seated patients down stairways and through compact places where the normal stretcher not fit to lift the patients. The figure 4 shows the stair chair stretcher. The figure 9 shows the basket stretcher.
II.. LITERATURE REVIEW
A. WHEEL CHAIR
Around hundreds of years wheelchairs are there, but these were done only to support a handicapped individual to shift from one area to another area. As the community progressed and handicapped Individuals became more integrated and the role of the wheelchair began to change as well. Nowadays these are treated not only a means of transit but also a way to allow the patient to convey their individualism.
Harry Jennings and Herbert Everest are two friends where, Herbert Everest is a disabled person and both where mechanical engineers and they invented their first wheelchair in 1933 which is made up of steel and it is light in weight and the chair can be collapsible. In a mining accident the back of Mr Everest was broke. They saw that the employment potentiality of their design is turn into early mass manufacturers of wheelchairs. Their “x-brace “design is still in simple in operation even if with modified materials and new advancements.
The first mechanized wheelchair was invented in the 1950s and a motor is used to power the wheelchair. In that same time where the wheelchair sports were first introduced. The first Paralympics games which was held in Tokyo, Japan in the year 1964. Now the modern day wheelchair is made up of light materials with microprocessor-controlled and many other arrangements were used. There is an innovation of wheelchairs are accessible present-day operate by requirements and inclinations of the user. In the forthcoming we expect an exceptional scope of wheelchairs that could suit the interest of the individual minds and deliver to the needful one.
B. Stret Cher
The paper was purposed for making a review on design and fabrication of multiutility wheelchair that can prevail over the conventional wheelchair. By assuming different research processes which helped us to recognize the different points of the matter, priority of security along with hygiene, and understanding of materials and manufacturing process involved in the development of whole product. Therefore this project mainly focuses on cost-effectiveness and easy acceptance. The design of a wheelchair cum stretcher allows the easier transferring and handling of patients in hospitals without causing any damage to patient’s bodies externally and internally. The mechanisms which are used in the design and fabrication of wheelchair are simple and can be easily controlled.
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