Authors: Sameerjeet Singh Chhabra, Dr. Shubhrata Nagpal
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Farming is a very important part of our country in different manners. Traditional methods are not effective for matching today’s world requirements in farming. The world requires efficient & effective technological advancements in farming that are smart, cheap, effective as well as durable & can increase significantly yield. This need gave birth to the idea of a cable suspended farming robot, called \"FarmPet\". FarmPet is based on a simple mechanism which helps to hover a robot over the field with the help of multiple rope supports. Idea utilizes calculus equations, software programming & inverse kinematics to move the central robot. Through arrangement of four poles (minimum) with a stepper motor mounted on each, cables are driven from each motor and a central robot is fixed at the common end of the cables & is moved around the field supported by these cables. Software algorithms make the central robot move with constant velocity in a circular or straight line path over the field by continuously changing cable lengths in coordination. Robot is designed to perform agricultural tasks like pesticide sprinkling, insecticide sprinkling, spreading seeds, field surveillance, surveying crops & land mapping for efficient cropping without touching crops on ground or even disturbing sensitive crops. Practical testing on the model proved successful, calculations were found efficient and the algorithm worked.
As per today’s world requirements, cable-suspended agricultural robot can prove to be very durable and a daily use all in one machine for farming. Its life is expected to be around 8-10 years theoretically because of simple mechanisms & less complicated hardwares used. The robot assists in many involved field processes in agriculture. It is supported by four cables (minimum) that are connected to winches on respective poles at the same time. It has a lifting capacity of up to 50 kilograms.
It serves several functions, including phenotyping (the study of crops), manure sprinkling, fertilizer sprinkling, pesticide sprinkling (a daily activity) and field surveillance (which isrequired). It is capable of performing a wide range of farm-related tasks on a daily basis. It can be controlled manually for the farmer's convenience, as well as automatically. It is an Internet of Things that can be controlled remotely. Farmers can work in any weather condition by remotely controlling it. The required power for the robot is generated by renewable energy sources such as solar panels and wind turbines. Further advancements of the robot will enable it to perform previously unknown tasks in the field of farming in the future.
Sensors such as lidar, ultrasound , camera, and so on will allow the robot to collect data for farmers to inspect crops. The robot is designed to carry many different attachments one at a time at the suspended end for various uses, allowing the farmer to do different activities as needed.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
Many researchers have been working for the betterment of agriculture around the world. Some of their work has been reviewed and considered for further research .
7. Rahaman et.al.: In this research paper researchers discuss the necessity of high yielding crops and crops that can adapt to the future climate changes as these properties are required with the increase in population and simultaneous food demand. According to them, to solve these global challenges, novel approaches are required to identify quantitative phenotypes and to explain the genetic basis of agriculturally important traits. These advances will facilitate the screening of germplasm with high performance characteristics in resource-limited environments. High-throughput phenotyping platforms have also been developed by researchers that capture phenotype data from plants in a non-destructive manner. In this review, they discuss recent developments of high-throughput plant phenotyping infrastructure including imaging techniques and corresponding principles for phenotype data analysis.
8. Newman et.al.: In this review, researchers work on the design of a cable-suspended robot or cable-driven parallel robot for phenotypic study of crops without interfering with their natural growth. Researcher does analysis on design of robot, derivation of mathematical equations to study position of robot, simulation, control of robot's cable, pole positions, navigation of robot, disturbances that may be caused to robot, Power system design and has also developed cable system control software based on mathematical research. Researcher also designs a scaled down model to work with and has proven that the robot is useful.
9. Sharma et.al.: Advancements in smart farming and precision agriculture provide vital instruments to address agricultural sustainability concerns in order to handle the ever-increasing complicated problems in agricultural production systems. Machine learning, big data analytics, cloud computing, and blockchain are examples of disruptive information and communication technologies that can help with issues like productivity and security. The study demonstrates how ML approaches can improve ASCs and contribute to ASC sustainability.
It has been concluded that there is still a big scope of work in this field and the world is moving towards automation .
III. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
From a modern perspective, agriculture is one of the most vital and crucial sector. As the world's population grows, so does the demand for food. In such a setting, small-scale farming is ineffective; instead, we must modernize agricultural practices, improve them, and invent new ones.
For large-scale farming, common or traditional methods are ineffective, thus we must develop and implement new approaches. The next generation will be the science generation; advancements will make our lives much simpler, yet agriculture is still lagging behind in terms of modernity.
Maybe not that much, but the current equipment available today, such as drones, sprayers, and other extra possibilities, is highly expensive and difficult to operate for low-level farmers; there's also the matter of availability, and if they are even accessible. Even if it is available, it is an issue if the facilities for timely maintenance and repair are available at the appropriate time and in the right place when they are required.
A. Basic Procedures
B. Robot Installation
V. WORKING OF THE SYSTEM
VI. METHODS FOR SMOOTHER MOVEMENTS
VII. MANUAL CONTROLLING OF THE ROBOT
A. In Horizontal Plane
B. In Vertical Plane
The length of rope is to be pulled or released in an time interval of journey can be calculated as we know the instant speed of the rope. Journey time can also be calculated by knowing the length of the path.
VIII. APPLICATIONS OF THE FARMPET ROBOT
A. Liquid Sprinkling
Crops regularly require manure, fertilizer, pesticides & insecticides to keep themselves healthy. Farmpet robot is designed to efficiently accomplish this task.
B. Manure, Seeds Spreader & Soil Tester
6. Soil Analysis: this attachment has soil testing tools & sensors, which is very useful for planning to produce better yield.
C. Surveillance & Phenotyping
D. Load Carrier
The following results have been found from experiment :
a. Model worked flawlessly over the model field with the help of equations derived, and the designed algorithm also helped to simplify and smoothen the movement of the cable suspended robot, that too in a very cheap and less featured microcontroller with low RAM (Arduino Uno) .
b. With various modifications in equations derived earlier, the model was able to travel in Spiral path, Helical path, Circular path (in vertical and horizontal plane) & Straight line path in 3D of course.
Let's take an example of a field of area 200x300m2 .
X. FUTURE SCOPE
FarmPet can prove to be a century changer in the field of agricultural science. As it is clear, this is a very simple, accessible and efficient technology, on this basis we have the freedom of modification and upgrade from it. It provides a flexibility that other functions can also be done in it. Just as various operations can be done by changing the tools of the tractor, as various operations can be done by changing the cutting tool of the lathe machine, in the same way with different types of arrangement of the center robot of FarmPet many different activities can be doneFrom a business point of view also FarmPet is a very golden choice. Available at low cost compared to all other machines available in the market, compatible with renewable energy sources like solar energy, low repair & maintenance cost, with many features like less skill requirement to operate, hardly any other tool can provide the ability to do so many tasks.
Agriculture is one of the most essential and important sectors from the point of view of modern times. The modern equipment available for use today such as drones, sprayers or other additional options are very expensive and difficult to use by low level farmers, the same is the question of their availability. The design of “FarmPet” has been done by keeping these requirements in mind. It is easy to operate, effective and cheap among other available devices. It is a setup made up of very simple mechanics which is easy to operate, effective and cheap among other available devices. According to our research farmpet is effective, efficient & profitable in the field of agriculture in various manners. It can be used for different purposes like, to provide fertilizers like nitrates to the crop, to apply manure to the soil and to provide pesticides as per requirement, with ease and on time just with the help of farmpet. It will be more effective when it is used in large scale fields although it can be used in any field, size of field will not be the barrier. Costing of the arrangement will also depend on the size of the field so it can also be available for farmers who do farming on a smaller scale.
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Copyright © 2023 Sameerjeet Singh Chhabra, Dr. Shubhrata Nagpal. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.