This research aims to establish the design and properties of crumb rubber aggregates additive in hot mixture asphalt concrete. Rubber crumb is rubber waste which is processed through mechanical grinding or tire milling into small splinters. The objective of this research is to have high durability of flexible pavement with different percentages of crumb rubber. The experiment was done respectively through several phases as follows: preparation, quality examination of materials such as aggregate and asphalt, mixed-planning, and specimen testing implementation with Marshall Test. Properties of crumb rubber-like type stability and flow of durability can affect the different stability and flexibility of pavement. The data collected from the laboratory experiments were presented in different forms like tables, charts, diagrams, etc. The results from the crumb rubber asphalt mixture show that there is an increase in the amount of crumb rubber in a mixture of hot mix concrete asphalt. This mixture can increase the Marshall stability by 2.5 % crumb rubber higher than the other mixtures with crumb rubber.
Roadways are an important part of the infrastructure for transportation in many countries. Road construction engineers should take into account both the safety requirements of Vehicle drivers and the economic considerations of road construction. In general, to achieve safe and economical road design road designers have to implement the safety and economy into three basic requirements for designing good roads, which are: environmental factors, traffic flow conditions, and pavement mixtures quality (Peralta, 2009).
A properly designed road will endure to the end of the road designed life without so much maintenance. However, due to certain distress such as fatigue failure, rutting, and other pavement deteriorations, the pavement performance will be greatly affected by time, the pavement characteristics change with time, and this may lead to pavement cracking (Mahrez, 1999). The discomforts on the pavement surface generally are more associated with the properties of pavement binder and pavement mixture, in which an asphaltic binder of the flexible pavement is the most common in causing poor pavement performance. Rutting, fatigue cracking, and water-related damages are among the main distress that causes the pavement surface to fail permanently.
The purpose of this analysis is to realize the feasibility of using crumb rubber as an additive in modified hot mix asphalt with some contrast to improve the quality of asphalt and learn the properties of crumb rubber asphalt. Comparing the two types of properties of the hot mix asphalt (without and with crumb rubber). Comparing the two types of the hot mix asphalt materials (without and with crumb rubber) to the Marshall properties (stability, flow, Marshall Quotient (MQ), Void in Total Mix(VITM), Void Filled with Asphalt(VFWA), and air void for optimum asphalt contact (Mashaan, 2013).
II. MATERIALS AND PROPERTIES
The primary materials used in this analysis are: coarse aggregate asphalt AC 60/70, fine aggregate, and CR All the key properties of the materials used were tested for further research; multiple experiments were carried out to determine their properties in compliance with the AASHTO, and Bina Marga 2014, Britsh standard conditions referred to as standard AASHTO and Bina Marga specifications (Bina Marga, 2014).
Asphalt Properties Test AC 60/70 produced by CO. PERTAMINA. The table presents the results of properties test asphalt AC 60/70, Table.1 shows some properties of the bitumen 60/70. This test was conducted according to (Bina Marga, 2010) presents the properties test results for each form of 60/70 asphalt.
C. Marshall Quotient (MQ)
Marshall Quotient (MQ), also represents the strength of asphaltic mixture against tire-induced stresses, especially heavy truck traffic. The higher MQ also means the stronger pavement against tire stresses. Yet, the MQ values are restricted to certain upper and lower limits (in this case is 350 Kg/mm and 250 Kg/mm, respectively). Too high MQ also means the pavement is too rigid and too brittle, so that it may be more prone to cracking. Whereas, too low MQ means the pavement is more easily to undergo permanent deformation under repetitive loading of heavy truck traffic. Therefore, MQ is the reflection of the toughness and resilience of the mixture against stress and deformation. Because MQ = Stability/flow, the same Stability of specimen tested but with the lower flow will yield higher MQ. This means, even if the Stability values are the same, the AC pavement with higher MQ will have more resistance to deformation after subjected to repetitive loading than those with lower MQ. Therefore, higher MQ values mean better AC mixtures, providing that the values are still within the corridors of the specified upper and lower limits.
VIM represents the amount of air still remains inside the AC mixture after the mixture is compacted to become pavement. The amount, in this case, is limited to 3.5% to 6%. The lower limit 3.5% is the minimum air still needed inside the mix so that bleeding will not occur in the pavement after the pavement is subjected to many years of repetitive heavy truck traffic. Repetition of truck traffic will cause the pavement will become further densified, so that when no more enough void of air remaining inside the pavement, bitumen binder will be forced to flow outside to the surface of the pavement and to cause bleeding. Bleeding is not permitted in the asphaltic pavement because it may cause the pavement more slippery and hazardous to the traffic. On the opposite side, the higher limit of VIM, 6%, is the limit for the pavement not to become too porous so that water may enter the pavement and dwell inside the pavement. This condition has been known to cause the pavement to deteriorate and crumble more easily so that the pavement is more likely to be damaged prematurely. Therefore, the better quality of AC mixtures is those with VIM values closer to the average value of the specification, which is (3.5 + 6)/2 = 4.75%.
To find the better quality of the AC mixtures with different content of CR, each of the results of the Marshall Properties should be given scores. The score is 1 for the best one, 2 for the second one, 3 for the third, etc. The scores are finally accumulated by just simple addition and the CR content with the least value is chosen as the best AC mixtures for all the Marshall properties describes above.
It should be noted here that the VMA and the VFWA are not included in the qualitative analysis, because the VMA and VFWA are only for the initial condition for the aggregates and gradation; they are not related to the asphalt content or CR content. Therefore, as long as the VMA and VFWA specifications are already met according to the specification, the other Marshall properties should be used as the determining factors.
Several measurable chemical properties are believed to be associated with the mechanical or organizational resistance of a pavement. From the result, the comparative outputs of the elastic and viscous behavior differed with the structure. The conclusion as follows: the best CRMA mixture for overall condition according to the criteria of the Marshall Test is the one with the CR content = 2.5%. This 2.5% CR will exhibit the best mixture for hot mix asphalt concrete against fatigue cracking and rutting.
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