Authors: Dr. Shyamala C, Ananya S, Anitha K M, Ankitha M, Janhavi H
Certificate: View Certificate
Disasters can disrupt economic and social balance of the society. Many people die while trapped under debris during natural disasters or manmade disasters. This is because their presence was not able to detect by the rescue team as many challenges arises in the disaster area. After any disaster, it is crucial to rescue defectors. Sometimes the rescue team cannot reach many parts of disaster affected area due to the inability to search for the live person in the debris. In order to detect a human body, a robot is equipped with a specific set of sensors that provide information about the presence of a person in the disaster areas. Passive Infrared Sensors (PIR) are the most widely used sensors for surveillance, it detects the alive person who is stuck in the damage caused by disaster. The temperature sensor analyses the temperature around the disaster area. Fire sensor alerts the system if there is any fire accident around the damaged area. Gas sensors alerts the system user so that they can take necessary protocol before rescuing someone. A wireless camera that can transmit live video in low light conditions to the rescue team outside the vicinity. When a human is detected, to get the location of the victim GPS and GSM module is used.
Now a day, Natural disaster like flood, earthquake and cyclone keep happening frequently because people are disrupting the natural balance by cutting trees, destroying hills and unplanned urbanization. During catastrophes, many people lose their life and property. After any disaster, it is crucial to rescue defectors. Police, fire service and paramedics are being deployed to minimize the loss of life and property. Sometimes the rescue team cannot reach many parts of disaster affected area due to the inability to search for the live person in the debris. In some situation, they themselves became the victim of the situation. To reduce losses of lives and for getting accurate information of the situation, a robotic system can be used and can be modified according to the needs of the situations. Developing a prototype of a robot using an Arduino uno and few sensors including PIR sensor, gas sensor etc, that it can detect human trapped under debris. The Robot consists of a four-wheel geared drive with dc motors attached to perform movement. The Robot can also send live images to the rescue team so that it helps to find the location of victims. Once a human is detected the software sends the message to the robot, the RF modem inside the robot receives the message and further process of acquiring the GPS location and notifying the relevant people using a GSM module is done using the help of the Arduino. Use of wireless sensor network will improve the savings of many lives. This robotic model is highly helpful for rescue operations and for military purpose. In critical situations, rather than sending human task force the robot can be sent to search and investigate the affected perimeter and give back location information via GPS and visual data via live feed on the wireless camera.
II. LITERATURE SURVEY
The paper proposes an IoT-based intrusion detection system using PIR sensors. The system aims to detect intruders in indoor environments using PIR sensors and send alerts to the user's smartphone. The paper describes the design, implementation, and experimental results of the system, demonstrating its effectiveness in detecting intruders. Overall, this paper presents a novel approach to intrusion detection using IoT and PIR sensors.
III. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY
The rescue robot is carried to the disaster area and connected. The batteries must be completely charged before the operation. A wireless camera that can transmit live video in low light conditions to the rescue team outside the vicinity, is mounted onto the robot. Camera must be synchronized with cell-phone or PC over wi-fi. Then the robot is powered on and the motor gets activated, which in turn causes the wheels to move. The robot can be controlled using a PC or a remote control, which helps in reliable controlling of robot. The robot is then moved to the vicinity to search for casualties or humans.
Whenever humans are detected within the PIR sensor range and LED glows and all these happen simultaneously. If the LED is ON that means a human casualty is around. The robot stops when the human is detected and moves backward for 10 seconds. PIR sensors can detect humans within the range of 10 meters i.e., 30 feet. Once a human is detected sensors sends the message to the robot and further process of acquiring the GPS location and notifying the relevant people is done using the help of NodeMCU processor. In case, if there is any fire or leakage of LPG the Fire and Gas sensors respectively detect this and a signal is sent to the rescue team, where a message is displayed on the PC or cellphone via blynk app. The disaster management team makes a consideration plan and enters the calamity area to rescue the victims.
IV. BLOCK DIAGRAM
The above Fig. shows the block diagram of human detection robot for disaster area. The robot has ESP Wroom 32 as the main controller which has Wi-Fi capability. Flame sensor, MQ2 Gas sensor and HCSR501 PIR sensor are all connected to the controller. when sensors detect fire, LPG gas or human then the LEDs connected to the respective sensors will glow which can be seen through the connected ESP32 camera module. The User gets the information about the disaster area from the blynk cloud server which gets the information from sensors through microcontroller. The camera module is also useful to navigate the robot in disaster area since the robot is remote controlled.
This system will be a great help indeed to rescuers in detection of the human beings at the disaster sites. This is also user friendly, economical, semi-autonomous, and efficient device for detection of humans. This proposed model system will be a combination of a stationary and a mobile robot system especially for the disaster affected chaotic areas. The robot can move in all directions by both PC and remote control and also automatically, which makes the system more effective to use. As the robot can move, it covers lot of distance that reduces the use of many robots or sensors. When the robot finds a human, it can notify the users by sending notification to the rescue team.
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Copyright © 2023 Dr. Shyamala C, Ananya S, Anitha K M, Ankitha M, Janhavi H. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.