Water treatment is a process of changing the quality for potable drinking water & domestic uses. This water treatment plant is designed for the city of Al-Bsaber. The supply of water comes from the Nile river, which passes near the city and extends across many countries. The treated water will be supplied to the residents of Al-Bsaber and the treatment plant is designed for 36 years. The treatment units of water treatment plant (WTP) were designed with step-by-step calculations and according to the quality of the water the future population of Al-Bsaber city from 2022 to 2058 was projected as 37736 and the average discharge for the population of 36years was estimated as 4339.6 m3/d. The detailed calculations and drawings were displayed, the results of each unit of WTP were tabulated. It is concluded that it is possible to use this work as a source for other WTP units to build. The removal performance of the WTP units was significantly affected by a variety of factors, such as the age of WTP, repair, economic and political circumstances, technical problems, and water demand.
Water is very important to our everyday life and key to our survival and undubiously is a basic human need. Providing safe and adequate quantities of the same for all rural and urban communities is perhaps one of the most important undertakings, for the public works Dept. Indeed, the well-planned water supply scheme is a prime and vital element of a country's social infrastructures as on this peg hangs the health and wellbeing of its people. Sudan2020population is estimated at nearly 40000000 people with growth rate of 3.0%. Sudan's main water resources are surface water, including rainfall, rivers, seasonal wadis and khors, lakes and wetlands.
Groundwater is also widely used, in addition to wastewater reuse and desalination as non-conventional resources In Sudan, only 68 percent of households have access to basic improved water, with disparities in access between rural and urban populations at 64 and 78 per cent respectively. There are also disparities between states, with just around a third of households having access to safe water in Red Sea, White Nile and Gedarif compared to 90 per cent access in Khartoum and the Northern States. Lack of funding, inadequate management and inadequate community participation are among the main reasons behind the system’s low functionality levels.
An estimated 13 million people are still using unimproved drinking water source (UNICEF, world water day). The Al-Bsaber area is considered one of the agricultural areas, but there are difficulties that the Al-Bsaber area suffers from due to the lack of water from the Nile due to the lack of modern methods of water delivery, and the residents still use primitive methods to get water from Nile. In addition to what was mentioned, there are health problems resulting from the lack or lack of water use, which causes some diseases and bacterial contamination for the area's population who are 13,000 persons.
The objective of design of water treatment plant is to treat the water and supply it to each and every house, commercial, public places etc. for AL-Bsaber. This design of treatment plant is proposed to treat the water up to the desired levels. This water treatment Plant design is proposed for up to 36 years including construction and settlement time of the treatment plant. The plant construction time may be 2 to 3 years, starting from the beginning of 2022 to the end of 2022 and it will be running from the end of 2022 to 2058 and it will provide the treated water to the people of Al-Bsaber city. This plant is designed to treat the water and supply it for present and future population as well. The plant is designed according to the characteristics of water, present and future water demand, present and future population, design period and design flow, and design criteria, design calculation and drawing of each component. This plant is consisting coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection and storage. The water is supplied to the plant through the influent pipe to the sump, coagulation, flocculation tank, sedimentation tank, filtration system, disinfection, contact tank, clear well and then effluent.
B. Study Area
Al-Bsaber area is located in the River Nile State, north of the national capital, Khartoum, at a distance of 110 km between longitude N (16 5167516) and latitude (32.9916478) to the east. To 25 mm in the north per year and the temperature ranges from 47 degrees in the summer as a maximum to 8 degrees as a minimum in the winter, and its population is estimated at about 13000 people, and the livestock in large numbers estimated at 10,000 heads. We find that most of the population depends on agriculture as a main source for their income, it is inhabited by the tribes of the Ja’aliyn, the Kababish, the Shaiqi, the Batahin and some other tribes, and it has many service facilities, where there is a large mosque and a police point to extend security, 2 km from the Nile River, and the residents obtain water from the Nile through the use of primitive methods such as fetching Water by animals, and this process takes a lot of time.
C. Population Forecasting
There are different methods of population forecasting like geometric increase method, arithmetic increase method, incremental increase method etc. Here, we use the simplified method for population forecasts.
C. Design Period
The plant is considered for 36 years and it will run in the end of 2022 after its completion, because many months will be taking by plant to be constructed, so the construction of the plant will start from the begging of 2022 to the end of 2022 that is why I did not consider this construction period with running time of the plant. So, population which was projected 13000 and the future population for 36years was projected 37667
D. Types of Demands
There are so many factors involved in demand of water; it is not possible to determine the actual demand. Based on certain empirical formula and thumb rules are employed in determining water demand which may be nearly to the actual demand. Following are the various types of water demand of a city or town
E. Current Water Use in Sudan by Sector
There are no official data on the total water use by sector or region, and data collected by international institutions and United Nations’ (UN) agencies are scant. Agriculture is the main consumer, although cultivated areas have shrunk significantly. For example, only a seventh of the area of the Gezira Scheme is currently being farmed, whereas the Blue Nile and the White Nile Schemes have been dismantled (Figure 1 and Table 1
II. WATER COLLECTION WORKS
The aim of water treatment is to produce and maintain water that is hygienically safe, aesthetically attractive and palatable, in an economical manner. Albeit the treatment of water would achieve the desired quality, the evaluation of its quality should not be confined to the end of the treatment facilities but should be extended to the point of consumer's use. The method of treatment to be employed depends on the characteristics of the raw water and the desired standards of water quality
A. Design of Intak
The intake used is the pipe Intak for collecting water, and given the available data, as well as because the source is the Nile River, which must extend the Intak to a third of the stream. Use Pipe Intake, because the source is the Nile and it is navigable.
An exemplary design for WTP units was presented. Procedures and detailed calculations were made. The average discharge of 4339.64m3/day and a population of 37736 were used in the design of WTP. The quality and quantity of the surface water source affected the WTP design. Surface water resource such as the water coming from the Nile river to Al-Bsaber city through a pipeline needs treatment due to the concentration of pollutants. The parameters of each unit and the whole WTP by using the pilot scale should be optimized. Populations should be predicted using various methods to use WTP services without any problems. Based on the obtained calculations and details it is concluded that, the study can be used as a base reference for the future works and to design of any WTP units. Several factors such as age of WTP, maintenance, economic and political situations, technical problems, and water demand had a great impact on the removal efficiency of the WTP units.
 Abdelhadi, A. W., Hata, T., Tanakamaru, H., Tada, A., & Tariq, M. A. (2000). Estimation of crop water requirements in arid region using Penman–Monteith equation with derived crop coefficients: a case study on Acala cotton in Sudan Gezira irrigated scheme. Agricultural Water Management, 45(2), 203-214.?
 Baruth, E. E. (2004). Water treatment plant design. ASCE.?
 Devrajani, S. K., Lund, A., Kumar, M., Dahri, J. A., Memon, Z. A., Ali, M., & Kapri, A. G. M. Design of Water Treatment Plant for the City of Mithi District Tharparkar.
 Hussein, K. B., & El-Sharkawy, H. S. Hydrological Study of Groundwater and its Appropriateness for Irrigation.?
 Hall, W. A., & Dracup, J. A. (1970). Water resources. Systems Engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.?
 International institutions and United Nations’ (UN) agencies.
 LAWLER, D. F., O\'MELIA, C. R., & TOBIASON, J. E. (1980). Integral water treatment plant design: From particle size to plant performance.
 Mays, L. W. (2010). Water resources engineering. John Wiley & Sons.? Engineering Department, SGI Atigre, Shivaji University.
 Mohamed-Ali, S., Luster-Teasley, S., & Nzewi, E. (2009). Water resources in Sudan: enhancing rainfall harvesting methods for water supply. In World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2009: Great Rivers (pp. 1-11).?
 Omer, A. M. (2010). Water resources management and sustainable development in Sudan. International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, 2(2), 190-207.?
 UNICEF, World Water Day. Khartoum 22nd March 2017.
 USGS science for change world, Water Science School HOME.
 Vesilind, P. (Ed.). (2003). Wastewater treatment plant design (Vol. 2). IWA publishing.