Authors: Namrata Jaiswar, Soham Deodhar, Harish Gupta, Prof. Dnyaneshwar Kapse
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Designing a voting system that ensures fairness, privacy, and security is a significant challenge. The lack of trust in election systems among large sections of society worldwide is a major concern for democracy. Flawed voting systems pose a threat to democracies, including governing bodies, co-operating societies, and student councils. Vote rigging, hacking of electronic voting machines (EVMs), election manipulation, and booth capturing are the key issues with the current electoral system. To address these issues, we propose using novel technologies such as blockchain and Merkel trees, which are well-known for their security benefits. Our system builds on popular blockchain frameworks that provide blockchain as a service, while preserving participants\' anonymity and enabling public scrutiny. Blockchain is a unique technology of our time that promises to enhance the resilience of digital voting platforms. It presents an opportunity to leverage the benefits of blockchain, such as cryptographic foundations and transparency, to achieve an efficient digital voting system.
The block-based digital voting system is a solution that has been designed to address several security risks related to electronic voting machines and online voting platforms. This system employs a closed, private Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network and is capable of functioning in a decentralized manner. The primary objective of this voting system is to provide a fair and secure election process for organizations. Users will be able to register as voters and cast their votes after completing the necessary security and login procedures. The administrator will oversee the maintenance of the blockchain during downtimes, live hot fixing, creating backups, and managing the voter list. The administrator will also be capable of customizing the voting portal's Graphical User Interface (GUI) as per the organization's requirements. The entire voting system will consist of a limited number of terminals (such as laptops), typically 3-5, joined in a P2P network, built using the Ethereum framework. During the voting process, users may cast their votes using these terminals, and a copy of the vote blockchain will be stored locally on each terminal. Administrators may use these terminals to add or delete voters to the voter registration list. At the end of the voting period, the administrators may disclose the election results. The system's design ensures that the entire process is transparent and tamper-proof, with the blockchain serving as an immutable record of all votes. Additionally, the system's decentralized nature eliminates the risk of a single point of failure or cyber-attack, thus enhancing the overall security of the voting process In summary, the block-based digital voting system offers a secure and transparent method for organizations to conduct fair and reliable elections. Its decentralized design, coupled with the use of blockchain technology, ensures that the system is tamper-proof and immune to cyber-attacks.
II. LITERATURE SURVEY
III. EXISTING SYSTEM
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 Elections for Secretary and other members in Colleges or Organizations are often challenging due to candidates being from different departments, which makes coordinating votes difficult. To address this issue, a web-based polling system has been developed that enables candidates to vote confidentially from any department, using Visual Cryptography to ensure security. The College E-Voting System Using Visual Cryptography (VC) is designed to provide a secure platform for casting votes for critical and confidential internal college decisions. The system allows voters to cast their vote remotely and ensures full confidentiality by applying appropriate security measures. A unique password is generated by merging the two shares (Black & White dotted Images) using VC scheme, and only authorized voters can log into the system to cast their vote.
 The E-voting system is based on the Prêt à Voter approach and aims to provide a secure digital voting experience that does not compromise usability. The system considers specific requirements such as privacy, eligibility, convenience, receipt-freeness, and verifiability.
It uses a web-based interface with finger printing to protect against double voting and has a user-friendly administrator interface to manage voters, constituencies, and candidates. The system ensures all voters have equal rights of participation, develops a fair and healthy competition among candidates, and keeps the anonymity of voters preserved. The cryptographic hash of the transaction (ID) is emailed to the voter as proof of their vote, which can later be tracked outside the constituency.
 The current e-voting system does not support local languages, which are essential for voters in suburban and rural areas. Additionally, the system lacks an authentication process for users and verification of Aadhar cards, both of which are crucial steps in ensuring the integrity of the voting process. As e-voting is a critical part of our democratic process, it is imperative that the security of the system is a top priority.
 The drawback of this proposed e-voting system is that it assumes all nodes are trustworthy and operate with good intentions. However, there is a risk that some nodes may be compromised or manipulated, leading to inaccuracies or manipulations in the voting results.
Additionally, the reliance on private and public keys can also be a weakness, as these keys can be stolen or hacked. Another potential issue is the lack of anonymity in the voting process, as each node's public key is shared with all other nodes, making it possible to trace the vote back to a specific individual or group. Finally, the system does not address the issue of voter coercion or influence, which can still occur in the electronic voting process.
 The electronic voting, including the proposed blockchain-based approach, is the potential for cybersecurity risks. Hackers or other malicious actors could attempt to manipulate or compromise the system, potentially altering or even invalidating the results. Additionally, there are concerns about the privacy and anonymity of voters, as well as the potential for technical glitches or errors that could affect the accuracy and fairness of the election. The cost of implementing and maintaining such a system may be prohibitively expensive for some organizations or governments, which could limit its accessibility and potential impact.
V. PROPOSED SYSTEM
Blockchain technology is widely used for recording and maintaining a tamper-proof database. In the context of e-voting systems, permissioned blockchain is used, which differs from the independently random nodes used in Bitcoin. Before the election process starts, each node generates a private key and a public key, and shares the public key with all the nodes in the election process. This ensures that each node has a list of public keys of all the nodes involved in the process.
During the election, each node collects the votes from the voters and validates the incoming blocks to ensure their authenticity. Once a valid block is received, the database is updated with the data in the block.
After the database is updated, the node checks whether it has the turn to submit the next block. If it does, the node creates and submits a block that includes its node ID, the next node ID to be used as the token, a timestamp, the voting results, the hash of the previous node, and the digital signature of the node.
This method aims to maintain the integrity of the election data and prevent any tampering or manipulation of the process. By using a permissioned blockchain, only authorized nodes can participate in the election process, and all actions are recorded and stored in a secure and immutable database. This ensures that the election process is transparent and trustworthy.
VI. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
An e-voting system is a digital platform that enables citizens to cast their vote in an election or referendum using the internet or other electronic means.
However, traditional e-voting systems have been subject to security concerns, and blockchain technology provides a secure and transparent platform for implementing e-voting systems. Here is an overview of the system architecture for an e-voting system using blockchain technology an e-voting system using blockchain technology provides a secure, transparent, and tamper-proof platform for conducting elections. The system architecture includes a user interface, smart contracts, blockchain network, security features, and results verification.
A. SHA-256 Algorithm
The SHA-256 algorithm is a cryptographic hash function that takes an input message of any length and produces a fixed-size output (256 bits). Here are the steps involved in the SHA-256 algorithm
B. Proof of work
Proof of Work (PoW) is a consensus algorithm used in blockchain networks to validate transactions and create new blocks. Here are the steps involved in the PoW algorithm:
Difficulty adjustment: If the hash value is lower than the target threshold, the miner has successfully solved the PoW puzzle and can broadcast the block to the network. If the hash value is higher than the target threshold, the miner adjusts the nonce and repeats the hashing process until a suitable hash value is found. Reward distribution: Once a miner successfully creates a new block, they are rewarded with newly minted cryptocurrency and transaction fees.
???????C. The RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman)
The RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) algorithm is a widely used asymmetric cryptographic algorithm for secure communication. Here are the steps involved in the RSA algorithm.
An e-voting system using blockchain technology can ensure the integrity and transparency of the voting process. The methodology involves creating a blockchain network that consists of a decentralized ledger where each block contains a record of all votes cast. The voting process would begin with voters registering their identities on the blockchain network, which would be verified by multiple nodes in the network. When a voter casts their vote, it would be recorded on the voting results would be calculated by counting the number of votes for each candidate based on the hashes stored on the blockchain. The decentralized nature of the blockchain network ensures that the voting results cannot be altered, and the transparency of the system allows for audits and verification by any interested party.
To prevent double voting or voter fraud, the blockchain network can implement smart contracts that restrict a voter from casting multiple votes or verifying that the identity of the voter is genuine.
IX. FUTURE ASPECTS
The use of blockchain technology in e-voting systems has the potential to revolutionize the way we conduct elections, making them more secure, transparent, and accessible. Here are some future aspects of e-voting systems using blockchain:
Increased Security: Blockchain technology provides a decentralized and tamper-proof platform for e-voting. It ensures that the votes are recorded and counted accurately and cannot be altered or manipulated. In the future, e-voting systems using blockchain will likely become more secure using advanced cryptographic techniques and multi-factor authentication.
Improved Transparency: The use of blockchain in e-voting systems will enhance the transparency and auditability of the electoral process. Every vote cast will be recorded on the blockchain, and the entire transaction history will be available for scrutiny by anyone. This will help build trust in the electoral process and prevent any attempts to manipulate the results.
Greater Accessibility: E-voting systems using blockchain will increase accessibility for voters who are unable to physically attend polling stations. Voters can cast their vote from anywhere using a mobile device or computer. This will increase voter turnout and make the electoral process more inclusive.
In conclusion, the use of block chain technology for e-voting systems provides several technical advantages, such as tamper-proof and transparent record-keeping, decentralized consensus mechanisms, and increased security through cryptographic protocols. By utilizing a distributed ledger, the block chain can ensure that votes are immutable, auditable, and anonymous, providing a more secure and trustworthy voting system. However, there are still technical challenges that must be addressed, such as scalability, interoperability, and user accessibility. Overall, the use of block chain technology has the potential to revolutionize the e-voting landscape, but careful consideration and further development are necessary to ensure its effectiveness and practicality in real-world scenarios.
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Copyright © 2023 Namrata Jaiswar, Soham Deodhar, Harish Gupta, Prof. Dnyaneshwar Kapse . This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.