The stairs have significant influence on the seismic lateral stiffness, vibration mode and internal force of frame beam column of the reinforced concrete frame structure. In this paper, 3 analysis models have been made by E-TABS. In these models, relevant analysis has been made about the influence of stairs in 10-storey building while it has no staircase, it is near the middle of the building and while it is near the corner of the building. Results from linear analysis show that in concrete structure, it is essential to consider the modelling of staircase as it causes additional stiffness and change in coordinate of center of rigidity. These effects can be evaluated in period, stiffness, base shear, lateral load and displacement of the structure.
Staircase is an architectural element which has high potential to change structural behaviour especially moment frames against lateral forces, while it is usually neglected in structural design and it is not included in the model of structure. In fact, what is included in modelling structure of conventional buildings, are beams and columns around the staircase as a void and applied dead and live loads. Due to importance of the staircase in crisis and disasters as a way of escape and rescue routes and maintaining its function after the earthquake, it is necessary to pay special attention to the effects of the staircase in structural analysis and design, in a way that not only does no damage to structures, but also in the event of damage to the structures, this part of building remains intact and in service.
Earthquake is an impulsive event and acts quite differently. The force generated by seismic action of earthquake is different than other types of loads, such as, gravity, Dead load, Live load and wind load. It strikes the weakest spot in the whole structural frame building. Ignorance in structural design and poor quality & maintenance of construction result many weaknesses & faults in the structure member and Structural Building also, thus cause vulnerable damage to life and Structural property of building. In RC frame structural buildings, the primary structural system to resist Lateral & Gravity load are beams and columns. Besides, primary frame structural system, some structural member also contributes to lateral load resistance. These elements fall in the category of secondary systems. Secondary system can be structural secondary like staircase, structural partition etc and non-structural secondary like storage tanks, machinery etc. A special case of structural secondary members which are normally designed for non-seismic force; are concrete staircase.
Due to the complex modeling of the staircase, it is designed separately for non-seismic and seismic forces. From a geometrical point of view, a stair is composed of inclined element (beam and slabs) and by short column. These elements contribute to increase stiffness of the building.
The effect of the staircase on the RC frame structure found in literature may be summarized as imparting discontinuity in the modeling, variation in failure of allied structural elements, contributing in non-linear performance of buildings, modification of various seismic parameters such as change in the time period, storey stiffness, and storey displacement of the building have been considered.
The seismic analysis of structures by computer should meet the requirements of establishment of computation model, the necessary simplified calculation and processing should be consistent with the actual working condition of structure and should be considered the influence of staircase construction in calculation. This paper compares and analysis the frames structures at different positions of the staircase as per the provisions made in Indian seismic design code IS:1893-2016 and using linear static analysis methodology.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
The main aim of this research is to study the effects of staircase on structure in design phase. In the following paragraph, the previous research is briefly reviewed.
Hoseini and Jafarnejad’s research on two reinforced concrete structure has shown that staircase causes the increase of the stiffness of the structure, base shear and internal force of structural elements around the staircase and reduction of the natural period of structure. Moreover, changing center of rigidity may lead to significant torsional effect. 
Cao et al. reported that the staircase increases the lateral stiffness, storey shear and overturning moment and decreases the period, based on the studies along the length of the staircase on two reinforced concrete structures. 
Pratik Deshmukh presents the effects of staircase on the seismic performance of the RCC frame buildings of different heights and different plans have been studied. Generally, the stair model is not included in the analysis of RC frame buildings. Due to the rigidity of inclined slab and of short columns around staircase, beams and columns are often characterized by a high seismic demand. 
Results of Bastami et al. studies on a reinforced concrete structure with three different types of construction details of staircase have shown that bracing behaviour of staircase in longitudinal direction and its inclined shear wall behaviour in transverse direction causes the reduction of the natural period of structure and lateral displacement and increase in the stiffness of the structure. By increasing the structure height, effect of staircase on stiffness reduces. Eliminating the staircase from the model of structure is safe for columns and beams away the staircase, but it is unreliable for the ones near the staircase. The behaviour model with suspended stair is similar to the models without stair, but stair with this construction detail will be unstable during earthquakes.
Singh and Choudhary’s studies on two types of geometrical plan configuration with RC structure and on 4 different heights have shown reduction in period of structure, increase in internal forces of landing beams and columns and reduction in inter storey drift ratio along two directions of models with staircase.
Feng et al. analysed 18 RC structure models. They concluded that in the direction parallel to ladder running the stiffness of structure increases and the storey displacement ratio reduces, but in the direction perpendicular to the ladder running effects of staircase on structure can be neglected. Irrational layout of staircase may lead to torsional effect on structure. Staircase increases the internal forces in the members of structure, especially the columns at the location adjacent to the landing platform, where short column formed, while in the frames away the staircase the internal forces are reduced. To avoid the detrimental effects of staircase on structure, they proposed two details for isolating the staircase including full-isolated staircase and semi-isolated staircase.
Tegos et al. studied five different types of staircases in a model. They concluded that staircase increases the stiffness of the structure, decreases structure’s natural period vibration and relative displacements in longitudinal direction and the influence of the vertical component of the earthquake in staircases with a free landing and helical one, is significant.
The algorithm for determining IS:1893-2016 seismic loads is based on Sections 6.4.2, 7.6.1 and 7.6.2 of IS:1893-2016 code. A period is calculated as described in IS:1893-2016.
The value of seismic base shear is computed using the following expression.
I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude & respect for my Guide Prof. R.K. Grover, Jabalpur Engineering College, Jabalpur for his evergreen expertise and inspiring guidance during the period of my entire course.
It gives me an immense pleasure and pride to express my sincere thanks to Dr. Rajeev Chandak, HOD, Department of Civil Engineering and all Staff members of department for encouragement and helping me during my project work & for making all the facilities available in college.
This paper found that the presence of staircase tremendously influences the design of beam & column in the periphery of staircase. Stairs have a significant contribution to the bidirectional lateral stiffness of the structure. Some of the major conclusion can be drawn from above analysis are listed below:
1) When staircase is in corner position the base shear in X-dir. is 1575 KN and 1225 KN when stair is in centre position, so it can be concluded that the base shear is more (approximately 28.5% in this model) in corner staircase position.
2) Maximum storey displacement due to earthquake in X-direction (EQx) when staircase is in centre is 20.332 mm & 22.361 mm when stair is in corner so it can be concluded that displacement is more in corner position of stair (approx. 10% more).
3) When stair is in corner position the lateral load on 10th storey in X-dir. is 437 KN & 303 KN when stair is in centre position due to EQx, so it can be concluded that the lateral load is more (approximately 44% in this model) in corner stair position.
4) When staircase is provided it contributes significantly in stiffness of structure.
The stair models yield less displacement at the center position rather than the corner ones in the study. Similarly, while considering the case of lateral load, greater values are evolved for corner positions of stair which implies that the structure could be stiffer by assigning the staircases at centre positions rather than corner
 Hoseini, M. H., Jafarnejad, H. (2015). Evaluating the performance of stairs’ elements in reinforced concrete structure during earthquakes, 2th National Conference on Earthquake, Qazvin, Iran.
 Cao, Z.W., Bian, C., Xu, C. Y. (2014). Analysis of the Interaction between Stair and Frame under Horizontal Earthquake Action Based on ETabs, In 2014 International Conference on Mechanics and Civil Engineering (icmce-14), Atlantis Press.
 Pratik Deshmukh, M. A. Banarase, \"EFFECTS OF STAIRCASE ON THE SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF RCC FRAME BUILDINGS\", International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development, Volume 4, Issue 4, April -2017.
 Bastami, M., Talaeitaba, B., Salahi, S. (2011). Effects of modeling the staircase on conventional steel structure in the earthquake, 6th National Congress on Civil Engineering, Semnan, Iran.
 Singh, N. S., Choudhury, S. (2012). Effects of staircase on the seismic performance of RCC frame building, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology.
 Feng, Y., Wu, X., Xiong, Y., Li, C., Yang, W. (2013), Seismic performance analysis and design suggestion for frame buildings with cast-in-place staircases, Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 12, 209–219.
 Tegos, I. A., Panoskaltsis, V. P., Tegou, S. D. (2013). Analysis and design of staircases against seismic loadings, 4th ECCOMAS thematic conference on computational methods in structural dynamics and earthquake engineering, Kos Island, Greece.
 IS:1893 (Part – 1) – 2016, “Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures”, Part – 1 General Provisions of Buildings, 6-th Rev., BIS, New Delhi.