Authors: Prof. Sandesh Gotekar, Aniket Waghmare, Archik Pakhare, Aniket Kumbharkar, Saurabh Upadhye
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Chitosan (CS), an antibacterial biopolymer with the ability to form films, has been used topically to preserve foods like fruits, vegetables, and even seafood. We must look for more materials with these qualities if we are to have a variety of options for preservation. Sapindus mukorossi, often known as soap nut (SN), is a plant with similar characteristics. The main substance in soap nuts, known as saponin, is what gives them their antibacterial and film-forming properties. There are numerous reports that suggest saponin can be utilised for culinary purposes up to a point.2This study assessed the synergistic preservation effect of soap nut and chitosan aqueous solutions on fruits and vegetables. The antibacterial effects of CS, SN, and [CS+SN] are initially seen. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the first microorganisms against which the antibacterial effects of CS, SN, and [CS+SN] in film form were investigated. As anticipated, the film CS+SN demonstrated greater antibacterial action, with zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli of 25 mm and 23 mm, respectively. Spraying different regional fruits like lemons, bananas, tomatoes, and oranges with a known concentration of CS+SN allowed researchers to assess the substance\'s potential as a preservative. The control was water. Different concentrations of [CS+SN] -250ppm and 125ppm, together with CS-500ppm, SN-500ppm, and water, were compared. In comparison to control fruits, fruits sprayed with [CS+SN]-250ppm solution displayed a considerable delay in the change in weight loss, decay percentage, and pH. Additionally, it kept its visual quality better than CS, SN, and control samples.
Natural way of preserving food is the need of present situation as number of untreatable diseases is growing day by day. The ill effects of utilizing chemicals, synthetic polymers and radiations to preserve food are threatening our livelihood. We need alternative natural ways of preserving food for a sustainable living. Traditionally salt, turmeric, tamarind, oil, and lemon were added to food in order to preserve them in the form of pickles. For preservation of fruits and vegetables which are easily perishable commodities topical application of preservative will be preferred. A preservative should be selected in such a way that it should preserve the colour, texture, flavour and nutrients present in the fruit or vegetable. At the same time it should be harmless even if it is present in it. Biopolymers are being explored to find out their potential as natural preservative. As they can form film, that will act as a shield and protect the food from microbes. Chitosan (CS), the 3-8edible polysaccharide, derived from marine waste is being studied for this purpose. It has 9antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal properties. It can be dissolved in vinegar, which is nothing but naturally derived acetic acid. Dilute solutions of chitosan with concentrations ranging from 500-1000 ppm to 1-2% are utilized. These solutions can be sprayed on the fruit or it can be dipped into the solution, to give a coating of chitosan. The demerits of chitosan is that if high concentrations were used the film restricts the respiration of the fruit. In order to enhance its property and also to utilise a new material for preservation, soapnut (SN), with botanical name Sapindus mukorossi is used. Many research works have been published on the 10-14antimicrobial and anticancer activity of Sapindus mukorossi. But not even a single report has been published about the preservative effect of soapnut. Traditionally this natural surfactant has been used for bathing and washing purposes as it exhibits amphiphilic nature. 15The hydrogel nature of chitosan and soapnut will be an added feature to enhance their activity as topical preservatives. In the present study for the first time soapnut (SN) solution was studied for its preservative effect along with chitosan (CS) solution. They were used as topical preservative agents. The hydrogel 16-17nature of CS, SN, [CS+SN] was evaluated based on the values obtained for the % equilibrium water content of the materials in the film form. The antimicrobial effects of CS, SN, [CS+SN] films were also evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia Coli. The potential of [CS+SN] as topical preservative in different concentrations viz. 250 ppm and 500 ppm was compared with CS (500 ppm), SN (500 ppm) and water. For this purpose different regional fruits like lemon, tomato, orange and banana were sprayed with the above mentioned solutions. Properties like change of weight loss, decay percentage fruit gloss and pHwere evaluated at regular time intervals.
II. MATERIALS AND METHOD
Lemon, orange, banana, tomato, and sapindus mukorossi (soap nut) were bought at grocery stores in Chennai, India. Chitosan (MMW) was obtained from Aldrich (CAS 44-8869) and utilised as received with a deacetylation percentage of 75–85% and a Brookfield viscosity of 20 cps. Purchased from Merck (India), acetic acid (glacial, 99–100%) and sodium bicarbonate were used without further purification. Throughout the investigation, all solutions were prepared using double-distilled water.2% w/v of chitosan was dissolved in 0.5M of aqueous acetic acid, and the mixture was stirred at 65°C for 16 hours to create a homogenous stock solution. Using double distilled water, diluted solutions with concentrations of 125, 250, and 500 ppm were created from the stock. The pericarp of Sapindus Mukorossi was dried out in the sun to make the soapnut solution (SN). It was processed via a laboratory mill to create a fine powder with a 40 mesh size. Overnight stirring was used to create an aqueous solution of the Sapindus Mukorossi at 20% w/v. To remove all unextractable material, the extract was filtered through a plastic tea strainer.The gravimetric method was used to assess the extract's water soluble matter content percentage. The pH of the SME solution remained constant (7.2) both before and after extraction, and it was discovered to contain 8% solid. Following the preparation of a 1% w/v stock solution, additional dilutions of 125, 250, and 500 ppm concentrations were made.
III. PREPARATION OF [CS+SN] SOLUTION
The [CS+SN] solution were prepared by simply mixing chitosan and soapnut solutions. It the data on the preparation of different concentrations of [CS+SN]solutions using CS and SN solutions. Chitosan + Soapnut Chitosan (CS) Soapnut (SN)[CS+SN]125 125 ppm125 ppm[CS+SN]250 250 ppm250 ppm. Preparation of [CS+SN] Preparation ofCS, SN and [CS+SN] films:15ml of 1% w/v of CS, SN and [CS+SN] solutions were stirred separately in three different beakers along with 0.1 ml of 25% glutaraldehyde, adjusted to pH 7 with sodium bicarbonate solutions were cast into films and dried using vacuum desiccator. The photographs of CS, SN and [CS+SN]films. The equilibrium water content (EWC) of CS, SN and [CS+SN] films were measured by the weight difference between the swollen hydrogel film and the dehydrated film as described previously.
A. Antibacterial activity
Nutrient agar was prepared and poured in the sterile Petri dishes and allowed to solidify. 24 h growing bacterial cultures (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) were swabbed on it. Then, the test samples was been placed on the nutrient agar plate using sterile forceps. Chloramphenicol was used as standard. The plates were then incubated at 37ºC for 24h. After incubation the inhibition diameter was measured. Topical application of CS, SN and [CS+SN] solutions on the fruits. Regional fruits like lemon, orange, banana and tomato were washed with tap water and the excess water on the surface was absorbed by tissue paper. The fruits were placed into a 500 ml plastic container. The CS-500ppm, SN-500 ppm, [CS+SN]-125 & 250 ppm and water were sprayed onto the fruits until wet. Such spraying was done in every alternate day. The observation of morphological features, fruits decay over time was recorded in a notebook and also photographed every day by a digital camera.
???????B. Fruit Quality Studies
For the first time, the main hypothesis that the mixture of chitosan and soapnut solution will act as an environmentally benign, palatable preservative has been proven. This was demonstrated by using local fruits as models. Topical use of a 250 ppm solution of soapnut and chitosan has produced positive outcomes. This synergistic preservation effect is caused by the hydrogel, antibacterial, and film-forming properties of chitosan as well as soapnut. Out of the fruits used, orange has produced the best outcomes, followed by tomato, lemon, and banana, which has been preserved the least.
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