Authors: Rumi Brahma
Certificate: View Certificate
The government of India characterizes a startup as an element under seven years youthful with a yearly turnover of under 250 million rupees and settled in India. The Startup India driven by the country\\\'s Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion helps construct a positive, powerful biological system in the nation, transforming business thoughts into a reality for a prospering startup climate. States and associations domains the nation over presented startup arrangements following the public authority\\\'s drive. In the case of traditional and older companies in India, there is a sudden urge for these companies to adapt to the changing market environment to tackle this situation in a good manner. In this paper, we reviewed the various studies done on the economic growth of the Indian startups and older companies in India in the last decade. From this, it was clear that there is a sudden emergence of individual entrepreneurship among the youngsters of India. This indicates that the startup culture in India is booming in this period which can play a vital role in the emerging Indian economy and also in the global markets.
For th beyond 25 years, India's economy has developed at a typical pace of almost 6% yearly (Ahmed, et al., 2016). The broadly embraced contention that this development speed increase results from the Indian state's reception of a supportive market procedure is insufficient for two reasons: the higher development rate started an entire 10 years before the changing 2reforms in 1991, and post-1991 modern development has not sped up. All things being equal, India's economy has developed energetically because the Indian state has focused on development since around 1980, and gradually embraced Indian capital as its vitally managing partner. This business development methodology is probably going to have unfriendly distributional and political results. Starting around 2000, development has arrived at the midpoint of around 7% each year, up from a yearly normal of 4½ % over the past forty years (Gregova & Dengov. 2016).
To some extent, this improvement mirrors a progression of financial changes that have fundamentally opened up the economy and energized ventures. Accordingly, India's economy is currently the fourth biggest on the planet, representing almost 5% of worldwide GDP. The construction of the Indian economy contrasts in a few significant regards with that of generally other creating economies. Specifically, the administration area of the economy is bigger than in other nations with comparative degrees of per capita payments. India's industrialization has happened all the more bit by bit, with a significant part of the decrease in farming's portion of GDP being consumed by the administration area (Thomas, et al., 2019). And also, the emergence of numerous startups in India is playing a vital role in increasing the productivity of the Indian economy.
The Government's Action Plan will assist with speeding up the development of Startups all through India, across exceptionally significant areas - in Tier 1, 2, and 3 urban areas, including semi-metropolitan and rustic regions - and incorporates advancing business among SCs/STs and women networks. Startup India is tied in with making thriving in India. Numerous venturesome individuals who fantasize about going into business miss the mark on assets to do as such (Bindal, et al., 2018). Therefore, their thoughts, ability, and capacities stay undiscovered - and the nation misses out on abundance creation, monetary development, and work. Startup India will assist with helping business and financial turn of events - by guaranteeing that individuals who can advance and go into business are energized - with proactive help and impetuses at different levels. These emerging companies also give more competition to the traditional and older companies in India. So there is a need for the older companies to change their business models and strategies toward the changing economic environment. This article talks about advancements in the Indian economy throughout the last 10 years and the expanding significance of startups and older firms in India as an exchanging accomplices for the world economy.
II. INDIAN ECONOMY IN PRE- AND POST-INDEPENDENCE
India experienced unprecedented success ever. The total national output of India in the sixteenth century was assessed at around 25.1% of the world economy (Roy & Swamy. 2016). A gauge of India's pre-pioneer economy puts the yearly income of Emperor Akbar's depository in 1600 AD at £17.5 million (as opposed to the whole depository of Great Britain 200 years after the fact in 1800 Advertisement, which totaled £16 million). The total national output of Mughal India in 1600 AD was assessed at around 24.3% of the world economy, the second-biggest on the planet. By this time the Mughal Empire had extended to incorporate right around 90% of South Asia, also, authorized uniform traditions and duty organization framework. In 1700 AD the exchequer of Emperor Aurangzeb detailed a yearly income of more than £100 million. The British East India Company whose political power steadily extended in India from 1757 onwards, utilized tremendous income produced by the areas subject to its authority for buying Indian unrefined substances, flavors, and products (Ratcliff. 2016). Subsequently the ceaseless inflow of bullion that used to come into India because of unfamiliar exchange halted by and large. The Colonial government involved land income for taking up arms in India and Europe leaving little for the advancement of India. With limited ability to focus 80 years (1780-1860 AD) under Colonial rule, India changed from being an exporter of handled merchandise for which it got installment in bullion, to being an exporter of unrefined components and a purchaser of fabricated merchandise. All the more explicitly, during the 1750s, for the most part, fine cotton and silk were sent out from India to business sectors in Europe, Asia, and Africa; by the 1850s unrefined components, which mostly comprised of crude cotton, opium, and indigo, represented the vast majority of India's products. The merciless abuse under British pilgrim rule crushed India’s economy (Baten. 2016). India’s populace was likely to visit starvations, had one of the world's least futures, experienced unavoidable unhealthiest, and was generally uneducated. According to British financial specialist, Angus Maddison India's portion of the world pay went from 27% in 1700 AD (contrasted with Europe's portion of 23%) to 3% in 1950. After India got freedom from pilgrim rule in 1947, the most common way of modifying the economy began. India went for concentrated arranging. The Five Year Plans which effectively changed the recent USSR were made an instrument for advancement. An initiative-year plan for the improvement the of Indian economy came into execution in 1952 (Bode & Jalal.2017). Being generally an agrarian economy, speculations were the ade in production of water system offices, development of dams, and laying foundation. Due significance was given to the foundation of present-day businesses, current logical and innovative establishments, advancement of room, and atomic projects. Be that as it may, notwithstanding all endeavors on the monetary front, the nation didn't create at a fast speed generally because se of the absence of capital arrangement, cold conflict legislative issues, protection consumption, and ascend in populace and deficient framework. From 1951 to 1979, the economy developed at a typical pace of around 3.1 % a year with inconsistent costs or a yearly pace of 1.0 % per capita. During this period, industry developed at a typical pace of 4.5 % a year, contrasted and an early normal of 3.0 % for farming. The pace of development worked on during the 1980s. From FY 1980 to FY 1989, the economy developed at a yearly pace of 5.5 %, or 3.3 % on every capita premise (Balasubramanyam. 2019). Industry developed at a yearly pace of 6.6 % and agribusiness at a pace of 3.6 %. A high pace of speculation was the main consideration in superior monetary development. Speculation went from around 19% of GDP in the mid-1970s to almost 25% in the mid-1980s. Private reserve funds had supported the vast majority of India's speculation, however by the mid-1980s further development in private investment funds was troublesome because they were at that point at a seriously undeniable level. As an outcome, during the last part of the 1980s India depended progressively on acquiring from unfamiliar sources. This pattern prompted an equilibrium of installments emergency in 1990; to get new advances, the public authority had no real option except to consent to additional proportions of financial progression. This obligation to monetary change was reaffirmed by the public authority that came to drive in June 1991 (Cassen. 2016).
III. ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION
The rise of India as a significant monetary power on the planet is one such thought". From that point forward economy has advanced massively with GDP advancing at the rate of 6-8% per annum. The GDP (ostensible) has developed from US$ 267.52 billion in 1992 to US$ 1.85 trillion in 2012. India is the third biggest economy in the world and has a favored FDI objective. India?s unfamiliar exchange arrived at US$ 785 billion in 2012. India?s major ventures incorporate data innovation, media communications, materials, synthetic compounds, food handling, steel, transportation hardware, designing merchandise, concrete, mining, oil, and hardware, programming, and drugs. Major agrarian items incorporate rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes, steers, sheep, goats, poultry what's more, fish. In 2011-2012, India's best five exchanging accomplices are China, United Arab Emirates, the US, Saudi Arabia, and Switzerland. In this, Sridharan. (2020) have analyzed the development of the working classes in India since the 1980s, to comprehend its suggestions for the course of monetary progression which started in 1991.
And he stated that to the extent that the connection between monetary advancement and the working classes was worried, in Bardhan's system, public endeavors were accustomed to conveying support like agreements and occupations, raising political money, and were by and large exposed to lease looking for exercises by the experts. Padhan, et al. (2022) inspected the impacts of unfamiliar capital inflows (i.e., settlement and unfamiliar direct venture) on financial development by controlling defilement, the government’s last utilization consumption, and exchange balance over the period from 1995-1996 to 2016-2017. And they have stated that the incorporation of an open economy (i.e., outside capital inflows and exchange balance) significantly affect territorial (homegrown pay) improvement since the inception of monetary changes in the last part of the 1990s in India, while the shut economy boundaries, for example, government consumption is staying a possible giver for development in both homegrown and public turn of events. Rising debasement is generally a danger to the Indian economy, and control of defilement is presently really difficult for an arising economy to support its development and advancement. Li, et al., (2020) contend that an instructive foundation assumes a significant part in molding pioneers' thoughts and convictions, which thus matter for strategy making over the long haul. Utilizing a cross-country information covering 137 nations and locales north of 1960-2005, it was clear that a vigorously sure connection between pioneers instructive achievement and quicker liberal changes, paying little heed to system type. The impacts are more remarkable for pioneers who studied financial aspects, sociology, and innate science. Also, the impacts of instruction appear to be symmetrical to elective channels like hardliner legislative issues, international variables, and popular sentiments. Sharma. (2021) studied the modalities through which the country state has advanced in contemporary fiction and the dynamic of its portrayal. With a particular spotlight on three books distributed over the most recent thirty years, the author states that there will zero in on three manners by which the Indian country state is portrayed in Indian English books after the 1990s. These incorporate the depiction of the neo-liberal state and administration in contemporary fiction, the treatment of human bodies as residents in these books, and the modes wherein sectionalism is depicted.
IV. ADVANCEMENTS IN THE INDIAN ECONOMY
Over this period, genuine per capita salaries have expanded four-crease. India's portion of worldwide results has multiplied to 7 %, furthermore, it is presently the world's third-biggest economy in buying power equality terms. This development has been essentially determined by a development of the administration’s area, rather than the assembling drove development that portrayed the improvement of a large number of India's quickly developing east Asian pioneers. Sharma. (2016) stated in his study that, monetary changes unequivocally occurred in India accordingly to the opening up of the economy to coordinate the country with the worldwide economy. With progressions in innovation, there have been changes in the approach to deals. India, being a fast connector of innovation, and if there should arise an occurrence of IT being a significant base of innovation application is a speed with the ongoing situation of electronic information trades that have taken to online business. In the background of this situation, this paper presents a depiction of the development of internet business, the characterization of internet business, and the effect of e-business on the economy. In terms of non-IT sectors, The clothing enterprises’ job in approaching perilous natural effects has worldwide consideration. The remediation of material gushing is frequently difficult due to the presence of a wide assortment of contaminations like colors, acids, bases, metal salts, and microorganisms. The utilization of natural reusing strategies is considered to moderate the perilous contaminations from material gushing to decrease ecological contamination, undermining the supportability of living organic entities. Srivastava & Bandhu (2022) have explored the understanding of the new headways and difficulties in biotechnological processes zeroing in on financial and state of the art advances in the treatment of material effluents. Late patterns utilizing coordinated biotechnological approaches and bioprocess designing address key open doors for monetary material emanating from the executives. Also, they stated that Concentrates on cutting edge in-silico and multi-omics (proteomics, genomics, metabolomics) approaches have been featured. A few contextual analyses on squander emanating treatment and it is likewise answered to reuse rehearses in India. Significant regulation and regulations for controlling and it are additionally depicted to control material waste profluent. With the expansion in the populace, food requests additionally increment. In this manner, the exercises of horticulture must be expanded to supply and satisfy expanding needs for the food. The increment of horticultural exercises with ill-advised arranging has an unfriendly impact on our environmental variety. Likewise, with the presentation of new techniques, climate contamination is turned into the principal issue that human is confronting today. Sudian, et al., (2020) have studied the benefits and disservices of new inventive farming practices and they’re their sequence on the climate to make sense of how a rural framework has been changed from the Vedic time frame to current mechanical cultivating rehearses with new logical development and innovation. And they have concluded that likewise referenced the most recent man-made brainpower that could be utilized in the horticultural field to make the agribusiness savvy and support the climate.
With such countless created and emerging nations quick to go into the worldwide space race by sending off their special satellites, space progressions have turned into an extremely essential methodology for a country to understand a remarkable monetary development. In this Shah. (2019) have investigated the advantages that space investigation has on the Indian economy involving monetary markers and measurable figures quite far. And he has stated that there will be an inspection of the impacts of room investigation and exploration with unique accentuation on regions critical for India's turn of events - schooling, fisheries, horticulture, and media transmission.
V. THE EMERGENCE OF THE IT INDUSTRY IN INDIA
Much has been composed on the marvelous ascent of the Indian information technology industry, which is a subset of the more extensive classification of data innovation (IT). The greater part of the clarifications presented for its prosperity has taken monetary, business, or advancement viewpoints. Few have applied a political-economic system to make sense of the ascent of the business or dissect the spatial what's more, formative results of this development, particularly the distributive component of this development on the more extensive society. Moreover, few have scrutinized the certain worldview of improvement cherished in the IT area as far as its suggestions for India's monetary and social advancement. Scholastics have tested the more extensive neoliberal model taken on by many agricultural nations, yet, basic treatment of the IT area has remained inadequate. Therefore, the rapture encompassing programming trade development has been taken to an unreasonable end, specifically, that India's turn of events possibilities lie in administration trades, particularly programming. India has arisen as one of the lean toward Information Technology objections by drawing in significant data innovation-related exercises. Devadas. (2008) made a study to figure out the strength of a few Indian urban areas taking into thought revaluating order and assessment has been done in four levels framework, in light of different variables including framework, ability accessibility, abilities maintenance, access, the cost for most everyday items, political help and personal satisfaction. He stated that there is sufficient motivation to accept that Tier-II urban communities the nation over can likewise become the focuses of this movement. If appropriately taken care of, it tends to be the slim finish of the wedge used to change the Indian urban communities, and if seriously taken care of, the worldwide intensity will be obliterated, yet India will plunge into metropolitan hellfire. Albeit compelling International Human Resource Management during a worldwide task comprises a huge variable in guaranteeing the outcome of an exile task, there has not been a lot of exploration that concentrates on the exile rehearses related to the worldwide conveyance model that has come to be related to worldwide reevaluating. Shah, et al. (2017) studied the exile practices of Emerging Market Multinational Corporations (MNCs) in the Indian IT area, by looking at the encounters of Indian IT laborers shipped off work on global client projects in a western country by utilizing subjective semi-organized interviews with 47 Indian IT exiles from Indian IT MNCs working at client locales in Australia. They observed that there is deficient consideration paid to exile both preceding migration and keeping in mind that specialists are abroad and utilized at client locales. Such human asset inadequacies might be inborn in the worldwide conveyance model that is a significant component of the Indian IT business. Erumban & Das. (2016) studied the wellsprings of financial development in the Indian economy since the 1980s, with a specific spotlight on the job of the ICT (Information and communication technology) sector. The effect of ICT on monetary development is broken down into two primary channels. The immediate commitment of ICT speculation to the total economy and assembling development. And they recommend a rising job of ICT interest in driving total monetary development in India, however to a great extent restricted to the help area. Besides, the economy has not been fruitful in spreading the ICT overflow impact in all cases, subsequently restricting the efficiency gained from ICT use. While we see a further developing efficiency development in ICT utilizing market administrations and their commitment to total efficiency development, the assembling areas fall very behind. To be sure, India?s trade arranged ICT area has helped gain productivity improvement in its quickly developing assistance economy, while there is still enormous potential for ICT use in the assembling area.
VI. THE STARTUP CULTURE IN INDIA
Before jumping into how India developed as a center for new businesses, we ought to initially know what a startup is. A startup is an endeavor or an organization that is begun to give answers for specific issues that have never been replied to or to give improved answers for the ones that are now existing. The word startup is much of the time connected with Silicon Valley in the U.S., which saw the ascent of countless extraordinary new companies like Facebook, Google, and so forth. Nonetheless, presently the elements all over the planet are changing, and that too quickly. New businesses are presently even connected with Shanghai in China and Bangalore in India. Truth be told, India positions third in the worldwide rundown of nations with the biggest startup biological systems, just after the U.S. furthermore, U.K., and it appears as though there is no halting this development.
Our nation kept increases of roughly 1300 new companies in the year 2019, with the figure for the quantity of tech new businesses coming to around 8900-9300. Business and exchange are something that has been in the blood of Indians all through. This is the sort of thing that should be visible in our set of experiences course books also. Nonetheless, there are sure touchpoints in history that truly helped in speeding up the startup development. Thus, assuming we attempt to diagram an unpleasant course of events of when did this development truly start, we could presumably say that a significant defining moment would have been during the 1980s. This was when Rajiv Gandhi, the then Prime Minister, presented the Liberalization of the Computer Industry, and it was during the 1980s that N.A.S.S.C.O.M. was additionally sent off. This truly prompted the development of advanced business in India. Jain. (2016) studied the development and possibilities of Startup frameworks in India. He stated that India is a growing south Asian country. It is the most crowded and seventh biggest country by region. A huge populace infers a huge forthcoming business sector in India and places more tension for work in the country. In the current ten years, India has attempted a fundamental shift towards startup inviting arrangements and a climate that welcomes businesses. India is a populated nation having to expand requests which are putting a serious climate constraining the making of imaginative frameworks. One of these frameworks is a Startup environment. Advancing cutting-edge business is broadly acknowledged as an impetus for monetary development, yet all the same outside of created nations, there has been close to nothing free appraisal of these arrangements. Utilizing a complete arrangement of information sources, Tiwari, et al., (2021) evaluated the "Startup India" program sent off in 2016. They observe that Startup India has had a positive sway in diminishing territorial innovative incongruities however, has been less fruitful in giving monetary support through its asset of assets for new companies. Besides, the arrangement has neglected to perceive and address the under-portrayal of underestimated station gatherings and women’s business people in the Indian fire-up biological system. India is a nation of numerous extraordinary legends that were well known all around the world as a result of their work, sharp psyche, and high expertise. Rani. (2017) made a study on the Start-up India conspire, potential open doors accessible under this plan as well as difficulties that might need to be confronted and ideas to conquer the difficulties to make the Start-up India program effective. She stated that adolescents in India are extremely capable, highly talented, and brimming with imaginative thoughts. In any case, they don't get an open door because of the absence of strong help and legitimate direction in the right course. This program is a beginning begin to empower Startups through monetary help with the goal that they can involve their inventive the ought in the right bearing. There are enormous open doors for Start-up business visionaries in India. The key regions are Like Textile, Media, Health Sector, Event Planner, Tourism, Automobile, and so forth. So there are different open doors where business people startups their Startups. However, alongside open doors, there are a few difficulties additionally that startup business people might need to confront like Infrastructure Deficit in India, Risk Factors and Right Talent Acquisition, and so forth. Regardless of these difficulties, the Government also Startup business visionaries ought to need to cooperate to confront these difficulties and make this program powerful.
VII. OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR THE INDIAN ECONOMY
Gandhi, et al., (2019) stated in their study that, after an event that was as yet intense in 2015, the nation's young and sprouting finance managers got a temperament lift when the Prime Minister of India affirmed on January 16, 2016, the Start-up India, Standup India system, improving on necessities and facilitating charge regulations. Based on the huge numbers, a considerable lot of the great new companies have proactively had an extraordinary beginning to the year. Three weeks into 2016, nearly $300 million has previously been spent on the nation's new companies. ShopClues stood out as truly newsworthy fourteen days prior as, after its new speculation drive, it joined the sought-after unicorn bunch and is currently worth $1.1 billion. As of now, work searchers are done running for corporate positions and need a situation at the beginning upmarket. Youthful ability is progressively entering the pioneering adventures that bring forth imaginative new businesses, alongside gigantic it being raised to finance adjusts. Even though commercial centers will more often than not keep on being the greatest cash spinner, other web-based business portions, like web-based food merchants, lodging reservations, inns, transportation, and so on, do appear to grow. Notwithstanding, no single player is by all accounts responsible for any business. With sufficient space to help numerous players, all ventures are inviting further new companies from supermarkets to extravagance. Korreck. (2019) stated in his study that, throughout recent many years, more new businesses arose in India and the related biological system has grown progressively. Subsequently, support has expanded in many aspects: office space and foundation, business support concerning coaching and systems administration, as well as the accessibility of monetary capital. There is discernible positive thinking that the biological system will keep on developing. By the by, Indian new businesses face critical difficulties. Conquering such obstacles will require endeavors of all partners, for example, the biological system entertainers, legislative specialists, also as the new companies themselves. Likewise, changes in the more extensive social milieu would be useful to support individuals facing challenges and potentially create significant arrangements.
Kurode, et al., (2016) stated in their study that a startup is conceptualizing a decent business thought into a powerful plan of action and executing something similar with the utilization of pioneering abilities. New companies are progressively arising in and around India over the last 10 years. New businesses are generally looked having enormous development potential. However, other than this, a business visionary needs to confront gigantic difficulties to change that business thought into a benefit-making organization. Among different difficulties, there are not many exceptionally basic difficulties engaged with the executives of new companies. Sarkar. (2016) stated in his study that, as per the most recent Asia Pacific Human Development Report, India is confronting a serious shortage of occupation market; development in joblessness among youthful alumni and it will keep going for the next 35 years. As per Labor Ministry information, around 1 million individuals enter the labor force in India consistently. To kill this shortage of occupation market, our own Honorable Prime Minister Dr. Narendra Modi, reported on the fifteenth August 2015, "Begin-Up India, Stand Up India" to advance Bank Financing for new businesses and proposition motivations to flaunt business and occupation creation. Manshani & Dubey. (2017) stated in their study that, one might say that today India is in a superior position, wherein women’s investment in the field of business is expanding at an impressive rate. Fire up India by the Prime Minister of India has brought loads of inspiration among the lady’s business visionaries in India. Endeavors are being taken by the government for correspondence of chance in all circles to the Indian women, and regulations ensured equivalent freedoms of investment in instruction and work were established. Presently, it's aged significantly accept that women become business visionaries on account of push factors such as husband neediness', passing and need for extra pay, and so forth, but since chance-taking capacity, imaginative reasoning, and need for accomplishment as the central point for women to become business visionaries. At this stage, viable advances are required to have been taken for enterprising mindfulness, direction, and ability improvement programs for women. It is to be seen that things have changed emphatically, and presently women are not one-sided on an orientation premise and everyone likes them similarly as another prime supporter.
By reviewing the various research papers and observing the Indian economy’s various markets it was clear that the financial framework was overwhelmed with liquidity, prompting financial backers to swarm developing business sectors like India, where they ordinarily get exceptional yield on ventures. Private market ventures, similarly to open market speculations, consequently, got a lift in India beginning around 2020. VC Circle in December, detailed that all unicorns of 2021, set up, had raised more than $12.7 billion. Numerous new businesses and particularly trendy innovation organizations likewise got recorded on the stock trades during the year. In April-November 2021, ?89,066 crores were raised using 75 IPOs, a lot higher than in whatever year in the last 10 years, and Their numbers are on the ascent and they are currently being generally perceived as significant motors for development and occupations age. Through the advancement and versatile innovation, new businesses can produce effective arrangements, and in this way go about as vehicles for the financial turn of events and change. The Indian startup environment has developed powerfully throughout recent many years. Some fruitful exits happened in the last part of the 2000s and over the most recent decade, the number of new businesses expanded quickly and more help has opened up in all aspects.
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