Authors: C. Syed Aalam, S. Arul Selvan
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This review is anthology of education system of India since independence. The British imposing rule in India implanted into the Indian society the education system which was proposed by the British government for the safeguarding of their colonial admin in India, termed the Macaulay education scheme. The Indian higher education started inflating and was promoted time and another time through different national policies and configuration of various committees and commissions, like the University Education Commission (UEC) in 1948, the University Grants Commission (UGC) in 1956, Kothari Commission (KC) in 1964, the first National Policy on Education (NPE) in 1968, et cetera, and now, an initiative of the Indian government is on to direct in and implement a New Education Policy (2019). The present reviews discussed the committees and commissions formed from 1945 to 2011 taking into consideration.
In the Indian higher education system, the different Committees and Commissions formed since independent to increase the standards and quality of education. Maulana Azad, first education minister of independent India gives emphasis to the importance of heritage and culture whereas making his educational policies and plans. Azad believed so as to the literary substance in conventional Indian education policy like Macaulay education scheme was very low in British government ruling and necessitates to make stronger using new curriculum . Azad launched the majority of the foremost literary and cultural academies like Sahitya Academy, Lalit Kala Academy, Indian Council for Cultural Relations and the Sangeet Natak Academy. As the proposal of Sarkar Committee in 1945, the higher technical institutes were made under the Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Cambridge within the four provinces of India . This leads in the development of the five Indian Institutes like IIT-Kharagpur in 1950, IIT-Bombay in 1958, IIT-Kanpur 1959, IIT-Madras in 1960 and IIT-Delhi in 1961. The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) was initially formed in 1945 to supervise all technical institutes like diploma, degree and post-graduate institutes in India.
The Indian government formed the University Education Commission (UEC) in 1948 to discuss all features of Content and curriculum of university education, and the University Grants Commission (UGC) was formed in 1953 based on proposal from UEC for the synchronization of maintenance and expansion of measures in higher education system. Kothari Commission acquiesce a report in 1966 which introduced in NPE in 1968 . The NPE is the foundation of developments that facilitated and strengthen the higher education system of India. Centralization Agenda of Indira Gandhi during internal Emergency is a significant development that followed was the 42nd Amendment which created Education is a one of the main subject in Indian Constitution [4-6]. At present education turned into a mutual responsibility of the both central and the state governments, whereas previously it was exclusively in the control of the state governments. In this paper, commissions and committees, appointed by the Government of India to make recommendations for improving educational facilities and to establish effective education system in the country were reviewed.
II. MAJOR EDUCATION COMMISSIONS IN INDIA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
A. Dr. Radhakrishan - University Education Commission
In the Prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru Period (1947-1964) was more focused on heavy industrialization which gave force to develop of higher education and technical institutions. The first Commission on education was appointed under the chairmanship of Dr. S. Radhakrishan as University Education Commission (UEC) in 1948. According to University Education Commission; the aim of universities should be to produce proficient people who can acquire national responsibilities in various fields. University Education Commission insists the universities have to capable staff and workers in various occupations and industries. The UEC proposed that the admission process to University courses should be based to that of the intermediate examination . The UEC wish for that school should expand its results in such a way that many people could take up jobs or self-employment but in real only very few people would persist their study beyond school.
B. Dr. Lakshamanaswami Mudaliyar - Secondary Education Commission
In concern to improve the school education, in 1952 a new education commission (Secondary Education Commission - SEC) was assigned under the chairmanship of Dr. Lakshamanaswami Mudaliyar. This commission addresses the issues related to school education. The Commission Report had predicted schools to play a key role in increasing self-governing citizenship, highlight that “democracy is based on faith and in the dignity and worth of every single “individual”, where the innate worth fullness cannot be eclipsed either by economic or racial or social consideration (SEC, 1952, p.20). The SEC submitted its testimony in 1953 which had suggestions on secondary education. The installation of higher secondary system, making of diversified courses, three language formula, emphasis on education and vocational guidance, improvement in methods of teaching, text books and system of examination and improvement in building and equipment were the important recommendation by the Secondary Education Commission.
C. Shrimati Durgabai Deshmukh - National Committee On Women’s Education
The National Committee on Women’s Education was formed by the Government of India in the Ministry of Education under Government Resolution No. F. 34-12/57-B.5 of 19th May, 1958 under the chairmanship of Shrimati Durgabai Deshmukh. The Committee specifically stated that women’s education should be indulgenced as a main programme in the field of education and the gaps between boys’ and girls’ education must be bridged in no time . Also the Committee urged upon the centre and the state Governments to set up several special schemes and create special body to perform them. The Committee recommends securing women teachers, predominantly, in rural areas. The Urban women should be given unique incentives like quarters and rural allowance to work in those areas.
D. D.s. Kothari Commission - National Policy on Education - 1968
Prime Minister Shrimati Indira Gandhi taking over leadership in 1964, the spotlight shifted to poverty and rural concerns and the same tenor is seen to be imitated in education too.
The third education Commission Set up in 1964, under the chairmanship of D.S. Kothari, the Commission submitted its brief report in the year of 1966 which commence as the National Policy on Education (NPE) in 1968, still deemed to be a landmark history in education system of India. Through the suggestions of the Dr. Kothari Commission, the National Policy on education of 1968 marked a significant step in the history of Independent India. The Commission was re-evaluated all aspects of the Indian education system without restrictive itself to any specific aspect. This commission was attempt to project a blueprint of a national system of education and also dealt with comprehensive approach to educational reconstruction. As said by the Commission, education was proposed to strengthen democracy, modernise the country and improve social, ethical and spiritual values. The decisive responsibility of education in national development emerges in all its brilliance throughout in the commission report and suitably titled as “Education and National Development”.
The commission forced for an essential modernization of the education system to enhance its eminence at all stages and focused to Science and Technology, the development of moral values and improve the relation between education system and the day to day life of the common people of India. The commission proposed that appropriate curriculums should be made to decrease the prevailing ‘excess’ and ‘stagnation’ in schools and to make sure that every child who is joined in school effectively completes the course. The NPE also highlighted improvement of curriculum and enhancement teaching methods. Also it promotes the reinforcement of Science in education at the school level and speeding up and issues the scholarships for backward and scheduled sections. The NPE became the source of restructurings that facilitated improved higher education system in India. The Centralization Agenda of Indira Gandhi during internal emergency made the education system a synchronized matter in Indian Constitution, to be exact, now education became a joint conscientiousness of the central and the state governments, despite the fact that before it was exclusively in the controls of the state governments.
The National Policy of Education of 1986 is approved in the budget session of 1985 when Sri Rajiv Gandhi was the prime minister of India. The NPE-1986 was proposed to improve the educational standards and enhance admittance to education. Simultaneously it would preserve the values of secularism, socialism and equality, being endorsed since Independence. The government intended to look for financial support from the private to balance government finances. The Central Government also announced that it would recognize a big task to implement the national and integrative quality of education to improve the quality and standards of education. The State Governments, conversely, maintained a major role in formation of the curriculum. NPE-1986 proposed a national system of education with recognized constitution of 10+2+3. Concerning the crumble of the first 10 years, it proposed an elementary system consist of 5 years of primary education and 3 years of upper primary education after those 2 years of high school education. NPE-1986 proposed that +2 be recognized as part of school education all over India. The Policy recapped the importance to take valuable measures for performance of common school system suggested in the NPE-1968 Policy.
A committee was set up under the chairmanship of Acharaya Rammurti in May 1990 to reassess the National Policy of Education (NPE) and to create suggestions for its amendments. The Central Advisory Board of Education, a committee set up in July 1991 under the chairmanship of Shri N. Janadhana Reddy, Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh; deemed some amendments in NPE taking into considerations the report of the Rammurti Committee. This Committee produced its report in January 1992, which is known as National Programme of Action (NPA) of 1992. The NPA policy planed to endorse national progress, a sense of common citizenship and culture, and to make stronger national integration. It put pressure on the require for a essential reconstruction of the Indian education system, to get better its quality, and therefore gave much greater thought to science and technology and the life of the people .
A series of National and state level educational commissions and committees were assigned to survey, data collection, review the implementation of policies and recommend the corrections are to be made to improve the quality of education. Earlier to Independence of India, the responsibility of educational administrators was merely to perform the limited educational programmes formed by the British Government. Subsequent to independence, Indian Government developed very much developed the educational programmes with significantly transformed and attained the objectives. Based on this review, it is concluded that the past national educational policies had clear vision and mission.
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