Authors: Rujuta O. Kambli
DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.22214/ijraset.2022.40297
Certificate: View Certificate
For the transportation sector, vehicle electrification is a game changer due to major energy and environmental implications driven by high vehicle efficiency i.e. EVs are approximately 3–4 times more efficient than comparable internal combustion engines vehicles (ICEV), zero tailpipe emissions, and reduced petroleum dependency as great fuel diversity and flexibility exist in electricity production. Far-reaching implications for vehicle grid integration extend to the electricity sector and to the broader energy system. The Indian Government is also planning to increase the electric vehicle in the automobile industries. In this paper the future and challenges of the electric vehicles in Indian market is discussed. The different factors like economic, social, technical and environmental which are affecting the electric vehicles market in India are discussed in this paper. The battery and infrastructure development are related to economic and technological factors. Based on the challenges, recommendations are made and it also helps to promote the market growth of electric vehicles.
India is the fifth largest car market in the world and has the potential to become one of the top three in the near future with about 40 crore customers in need of mobility solutions by the year 2030.However, as per the Paris agreement, the increasing number of automobile customers shall not imply an increase in the consumption of conventional fuels. To ensure a positive growth rate towards achieving India’s Net Zero Emissions by 2070, a transportation revolution is required in India which will lead to better “walkability”, public transportation; railways, roads and better cars. Solution of “better cars” are likely to be electric.
II. TAXONOMY OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES
In general, EVs they are sorted in five types according to their engine’s technology (Refer Figure 1).
Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs): vehicles 100% are propelled by electric power. BEVs do not have an internal combustion engine and they do not use any kind of liquid fuel. In order to give the vehicle an acceptable autonomy, BEVs normally use large packs of batteries. A typical BEV will reach from 160 to 250 km, although some of them can travel as far as 500 km with just one charge. An example of this type of vehicle is the Nissan Leaf , which is 100% electric and it currently provides a 62 kWh battery that allows users to have an autonomy of 360 km.
Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): hybrid vehicles are propelled by a conventional combustible engine and an electric engine charged by a pluggable external electric source. PHEVs can store enough electricity from the grid to significantly reduce their fuel consumption in regular driving conditions. The Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV  provides a 12 kWh battery, which allows it to drive around 50 km just with the electric engine. However, it is also noteworthy that PHEVs fuel consumption is higher than indicated by car manufacturers .
Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs): hybrid vehicles are propelled by a combination of a conventional internal combustion engine and an electric engine. The difference with regard to PHEVs is that HEVs cannot be plugged to the grid. In fact, the battery that provides energy to the electric engine is charged thanks to the power generated by the vehicle’s combustion engine. In modern models, the batteries can also be charged thanks to the energy generated during braking, turning the kinetic energy into electric energy. The Toyota Prius, in its hybrid model (4th generation), provided a 1.3 kWh battery that theoretically allowed it an autonomy as far as 25 km in its all-electric mode . Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs): these vehicles are provided with an electric engine that uses a mix of compressed hydrogen and oxygen obtained from the air, having water as the only waste resulting from this process. Although these kinds of vehicles are considered to present “zero emissions”, it is worth highlighting that, although there is green hydrogen, most of the used hydrogen is extracted from natural gas. The Hyundai Nexo FCEV  is an example of this type of vehicles, being able to travel 650 km without refuelling.
Extended-range EVs (ER-EVs): these vehicles are very similar to those ones in the BEV category. However, the ER-EVs are also provided with a supplementary combustion engine, which charges the batteries of the vehicle if needed. This type of engine, unlike those provided by PHEVs and HEVs, is only used for charging, so that it is not connected to the wheels of the vehicle. An example of this type of vehicles is the BMW i3 , which has a 42.2 kWh battery that results in a 260 km autonomy in electric mode, and users can benefit an additional 130 km from the extended range mode.
III. MARKET OVERVIEW
The market of EV is growing more after the implementation of FAME (Faster Adoption and Manufacture of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles) scheme in 2015 by Ministry of Heavy Industry and Public Enterprises. The India electric vehicle market was valued at USD 5.47 Billion in 2020, and it is expected to reach USD 17.01 Billion by 2026, growing at a CAGR of 23.47% over the forecast period (2021-2026) . The government of India has undertaken multiple initiatives to promote the manufacturing and adoption of electric vehicles in India, to reduce emissions pertaining to international conventions, and to develop e-mobility in the wake of rapid urbanization .
The Indian Electric Vehicle Market is classified as Vehicle Type and Power Source. By Vehicle Type, the market is classified into Passenger Cars, Commercial Vehicles, Two-Wheelers, and Three-wheelers. By Power Source Type, the market is classified into Battery Electric Vehicle, Plug-in Electric Vehicle, and Hybrid Electric Vehicle.
IV. ELECTRIC VEHICLES AND INDIA
The government of India has taken various measures to develop and promote the EV ecosystem in the country such as:
4. EV Sales Trends
The overall EV sales in January 2022 clocked 49,672 units .
As depicted in the figure (3) below, EV registrations in January 2022 were driven by electric two-wheelers and passenger-type electric three-wheelers, which together accounted for 89.8% of total registrations in the month. The shares of these categories were followed by e-cars (6.1%) cargo-type electric three-wheelers (3.8%), and so on .
Among all the states and UTs, Uttar Pradesh continued to have maximum monthly registered EV sales with a 20% share in overall sales in India in January 2022. Maharashtra had the 2nd highest sales at 12% share, followed by Karnataka (10%), Tamil Nadu (9%), Delhi (7%), and Rajasthan (7%) .
V. CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH EV
a. Lack of charging stations makes it unsuitable for the consumers in covering long range.
b. Moreover, it takes up to 12 hours for a full charge of a vehicle at the owner’s home using a private light-duty slow charger.
c. Also, the cost of a basic electric car is much higher than the average price of a car running on conventional fuel.
3. Policy Challenges: EV production is a capital-intensive sector requiring long term planning to break even and profit realization, uncertainty in government policies related to EV production discourages investment in the industry.
4. Lack of Technology and Skilled Labour: India is technologically deficient in the production of electronics that form the backbone of the EV industry, such as batteries, semiconductors, controllers, etc. EVs have higher servicing costs which require higher levels of skills. India lacks dedicated training courses for such skill development.
5. Unavailability of Materials for Domestic Production: Battery is the single most important component of EVs. India does not have any known reserves of lithium and cobalt which are required for battery production. Dependence on other countries for the import of lithium-ion batteries is an obstacle in becoming completely self-reliant in the battery manufacturing sector.
VI. OPPORTUNITIES IN EV
EVs hold great promise to replace ICEVs for a number of on-road applications. EVs can provide a number of benefits, including addressing reliance on petroleum, improving local air quality, reducing GHG emissions, and improving driving experience. Vehicle electrification aligns with broader electrification and decarbonization trends and integrates synergistically with mobility changes, including urban micro-mobility, automation, and mobility-as-a-service solutions. The effective integration of EVs into power systems presents numerous opportunities for synergistic improvement of the efficiency and economics of electromobility and electric power systems, with EVs capable of supporting power-system planning and operations in several ways.
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Copyright © 2022 Rujuta O. Kambli. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Authors : Rujuta O. Kambli
Paper Id : IJRASET40297
Publish Date : 2022-02-10
ISSN : 2321-9653
Publisher Name : IJRASET
DOI Link : Click Here