Authors: Dharamveer Singh, Gaurav Sharma, Ashok Kumar Yadav
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Present study represents the environeconomic and exergoeconomic analysis of a double slope solar desalination unit (DSDU) coupled with N identical compound parabolic concentrator collector (N-CPC) with helically coiled heat exchanger using Al2O3 nanoparticles. The analysis is observed for a yearly based for the atmospheric situation of New Delhi with the help of analytical program fed in MATLAB. The input data required for the mathematically calculation has been taken from Indian Metrological Department, Pune, India. The average value of annual energy output will be computed based on the energy outputs of summer and winter seasons followed by the evaluation of economic, enviroeconomic and exergoeconomic for the system and compared with previous system. Furthermore, based on annual as well as life of 15 and 20 years it is found 8.5% greater yield, annual exergy 7.31% greater, CO2 mitigation/ton energy 3.9% and 2.85% less, annual productivity 5.17% greater, and exergoeconomic parameter 4% greater respectively. It will be concluded that the proposed system is better than other system based on energy enviroeconomic and exergoeconomic parameters.
As all of us known water is one of the most important thing on our planet because it is required for or biotic or abiotic reaction living and nonliving things and for all industrial and domestic use our Earth is full of water on which 97% of the total surface area is covered with water but very small amount it is available as in form of freshwater.
As 97% water on earth if we assume it 100% percent then 97.2 percent water is sea water and 2.1 5% water is glacier water that are not usable only 0.65% water is available for drinking purpose and for industrial for industrial use so it is required to develop such type of technologies or methods. Which purify the water without or with minimum use of conventional power self sustainable system like non-conventional power sources like solar power. As we know that by the consumption of dirty water or polluted water many types of the disease are developed in human body is due different type of virus and bacteria that are is transmitted through the agriculture fishery industries food industries and let to different types of ailments disease and led to death. Lawrence and Tiwari  developed the empirical relations for the inside coefficients of heat transfer from the natural flow with a heat exchanger in a solar distiller unit. Popiel and Wojtkowiak  studied the thermo-physical properties of the base fluid. Pak and Cho  evaluated various correlations for different properties. G. N. Tiwari  studied the fundamental design of solar still. Hwang et al.  analyzed the heat transfer coefficient for Al2O3 nanofluids. Barden  improved the thermo-physical properties of base fluid; the heat transfer coefficients can also be improved. The nanoparticles (1-100) nm are suspended simply in base fluid (ethylene glycol, thermal oil, water, etc.) due to their better thermo-physical properties. The nanofluids are embryonic fluids with ultrafast heat transfer capabilities. Further, by tailoring the size and shape, the properties can be improved in the base fluid. Tiwari and Tiwari  expressed few merits of solar distillers over other distillation technologies such as filters, membranes, batteries, no definitive resource of energy, and primarily low investment. Ho et al.  numerically analyzed nanofluids for natural convection in a square enclosure: effects due to uncertainties of viscosity and thermal conductivity. Otanicar and Golden  analyzed the enviroeconomic aspect of solar collectors using nanofluid and found it neutralizes 74 kg for the life span of 15 years. Patel et al.  found the thermal conductivity of nanofluids. Singh et al.  theoretically investigated entropy generation for nanofluids. Elzen et al.  analyzed emission reductions, abatement costs, and carbon price. Khanafer and Vafai  this work presented thermophysical properties of nanofluids. Khullar and Tyagi  analyzed and reported emissions of 103 kg approx./household/year reduced for a solar heating device for nanofluids. Faizel et al.  analyzed based on the cost of flat plate collector (FPC) using tin oxide, copper oxide, titanium oxide, and aluminum oxide ) nanofluids. It is found that the performance of CuO nanofluid is better credited to its high density, low specific heat, and thermal conductivity. Liu et al.  have evaluated the economic analysis of the integrated solar distiller unit of the evacuated tube. Kabeel et al.  analyzed the sole inclined solar distiller unit with vacuum as water-based nanofluid. Elango et al.  analyzed practically single slope solar distiller as thermal energy, exergy, and productivity using different nanofluids. Omara et al.  analyzed the performance of corrugated wick type and simple solar distiller unit using nanofluids. Tiwari et al.  analyzed experimentally on active solar distiller the exergoeconomic and environeconomic using water-based nanofluid the photovoltaic thermal flat plate collector is met potable water requirements daily. It has been observed that the environmental cost of 6.29 dollars annually. Sharon and reddy  analyzed the annual economic performance of an active solar distiller loaded with saline water. Sahota et al. [22, 24] analyzed the passive double slope solar distiller unit performance using nanofluids and concluded that the aluminum oxide-based nanofluid gives better performance than others. Singh et al.  analyzed the energy matrix and existence cycle conversion efficiency for conventional single and double slope distiller units and found 0.144. and 0.137 per unit cost, respectively, and exergoeconomic parameters. Singh and Tiwari  analyzed the energy matrices and life cycle cost of an active partly PVT-CPC solar distiller. Shashir et al.  analyzed the performance of nanoparticles like copper oxide and graphite micro-flakes on solar distiller units with different cooling on the cover of toughened glass. It is concluded that 47.8% and 57.6% solar distiller yield increased with graphite and copper oxide micro-flakes. Sahota et al.  studied the performance of PVT-FPC double slope solar distiller unit with or without helical coil heat exchanger using nanofluid and found water-based nanofluid performance was better with a heat exchanger. Saleha et al.  analyzed the effect of solvent and found it effective in solar distiller units. Chen et al.  analyzed that experimentally found stability of weak luminous was very good with nanofluid in solar distiller unit and the effect of brackish water's constancy, ocular and thermal properties using nanofluid feasible. Mahian et al.  investigated experimentally and found that the heat exchanger was not significant at a temperature lower than 50 °C, and the amount of water was two times greater than without a heat exchanger. Furthermore, nanoparticles with water give better evaporation at low temperatures. It is vital to evaluate its cost-effective viability in design, construction, life cycle cost, net present value, annual cost, and payback time of renewable energy systems. Sahota et al.  analyzed environeconomic and exergoeconomic for passive double slope solar distiller with water-loaded nanofluid (CuO , Al2O3 , TiO2 ) and found payback time of energy of the system is low and the cost of environmental per annum is higher on mitigation with nanofluid. Singh and Tiwari  analyzed the augmentation in energy matrices of N-PVT-FPC partly double slope solar distiller. Joshi and Tiwari  analyzed a single slope N identical PVT-CPC single slope solar distiller. Dharamveer et al.  reviewed nanofluid-loaded desalination. Kumar and Singh  analyzed Energy and exergy of active solar stills using compound parabolic concentrator. Shanker, et al.  analyzed performance of C.I. engine using biodiesel fuel by modifying injection timing and injection pressure. Anup et al.  analyzed using FEA of refrigerator compartment for optimizing thermal efficiency. Kumar and Singh  Optimized thermal behavior of compact heat exchanger. Zhang et al.  presented in the area of sustainable energies focuses on utilizing green and clean technologies. Dhivagar et al.  analyzed grate crude shrewd heat storage single slope solar still energy, exergy, and economic assessment. Dharamveer and Samsher  studied the active and passive solar still behavior on energy matrices and enviroeconomics. Arora et al.  studied incorporating with carbon nanotubes using N-PVT-CPC double slope solar still. Dharamveer et al.  analytical studied Nth identical photovoltaic thermal (PVT) compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) active double slope solar distiller with helical coiled heat exchanger using CuO Nanoparticles. Dharamveer et al.  analyzed performance of N-identical PVT-CPC collectors an active single slope solar distiller with a helically coiled heat exchanger using CuO nanoparticles. Kumar and Singh  comparative analyzed of single phase microchannel for heat flow Experimental and using CFD. Subrit and Singh  performed thermal analysis of coal and waste cotton oil liquid obtained by pyrolysis fuel in diesel engine. Till date many researcher have research on integrated solar stills which produce pure water. The extant literature survey shows that many works have been done on passive and active solar stills. However, not much literature is available on the analysis of active solar still loaded with nanofluids based water. Dharamveer et al. analyzed only Compound parabolic concentrator collector integrated double slope solar still based on energy and exergy. Analysis of double slope solar still integrated with compound parabolic collector having different nanofluids based water, energy matrices, exergoeconomic and environeconomic effects have not been reported by any researchers. Further, basin type solar stills incorporating compound parabolic concentrator collectors/evacuated tubular collectors loaded with nanofluid based water have not been analyzed by any researchers. Hence, the proposed research will analyze exergoeconomic and environeconomic effects of double slope solar stills integrated with compound parabolic concentrator collector and loaded with nanofluid based water. Solar desalination systems will be through analyze in terms of energy metrics, exergoeconomic parameter, enviroeconomic parameters, various efficiencies and productivity. The performance of the proposed system will also be compared with results of earlier researchers.
II. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
Fig. 1 shows, when solar radiation is fall on the PV module and concentrating parabolic collector. After receiving the heat PV module generate electricity and concentrating collector start increasing the temperature of nanofluid which is flow through the heat exchanger tube. As fluid passes from the first PV module and CPC collector it gain some heat and enter in the second PV module and CPC collector then it gain again some heat here a simple question is arise same fluid is passes through first and second CPC collector and a constant solar constant 1367 what how flute gain the energy. The reason behind for gaining the energy in second CPC collector because fluid have some heat storage capacity in first module the capacity is not fulfilled so it gain again some amount of heat through second third and fourth PV module CPC collector. After gaining the maximum amount of heat fluid is enter into helical coil heat exchanger which is made of high quality copper. This heat exchanger is placed in the water tank and open to Sun portion is covered by glass plate which is inclined to both directions. When fluid enter in the heat exchanger start losing their heat because of contact by surrounding water in the tank by the process of sensible heating as solar radiation is incident on the glass cover passes through the inside the water tank they also increase the temperature of water in water tank approx 100°C temperature is achieved in this process for evaporation of the water. Vapor from the water start move in upper direction and reaching the glass cover is condense due to temperature difference inside and outside of glass cover. As glass cover is sloped on both sides proper arrangement should be make to collect these drop in a external container by sliding these drop on the glass cover in both direction. Now the working fluid is exit from the outlet of the heat exchanger and re-circulated through for next cycle. A DC motor is used to make the continuous forced flow of working fluid. The energy required for running to this DC motor is obtained from PV module which is individually have capacity of 250 watt and extra energy is stored in battery that is used for other purposes. The schematic is shown in figure-1
The proposed systems have been studied based on the temperature of the basin, collector outlet temperature, thermal energy, exergy, electrical exergy, and yield to be higher using CuO nanoparticles in the order followed as CuO > Al2O3 > TiO2 > water. Moreover, the proposed system is better than the previous system. The temperature differences are also better than in the previous study. The following concluding remarks are observed by annual analysis of the proposed systems energy, exergy, and yield with CuO nanoparticles. 1) System-A performance is better than system-B, and as per cost of distillate. The distillate cost on an annual basis and life span of 30 years at rate of interest 5% for system-A is 1.27?/kg, and system-B is 1.33 ?/kg. 2) System-A is environ-economic than system-B, on an annual basis and life span of 30 years at rate of interest 5% CO2 mitigation per ton for 30 years system-A 90.67, and system-B 92.36. 3) According to carbon credit earned ($) based on energy, system-B is more environeconomic than system-A, and system-B is more environ-economic than system-A, respectively. For 30 years, system-A 453.36, and system-B 461.81. 4) Exergoeconomic analysis based on exergoeconomic parameter (Rex) kWh/?, for 30 years at rate of interest 1%, 3%, and 5% for system-A is more economic than system-B. Therefore system-A is better than system-B. 5) System-A productivity is greater than system-B for 30 years at rate of interest 5%. system-A is 394.37%, and system-B 374.98 %. Therefore system-A is better than system-B. 6) System-A present value is greater than system-A for 30 years at rate of interest 5% for system-A is 40.86 ($), and system-B 39.6 ($). Therefore system-A is better than system-B. 7) System performance on 0.02 kg/s flow rate, which is less than prior system 0.03 kg/s flow rate shows that reducing the pump work correspondingly reduces motor power to drive the pump hence reducing the requirement for electricity. The overall best design is active N-PVT-CPC double slope solar distiller incorporating a helically coiled heat exchanger using Al2O3 nanoparticles because of its annual performance based on economic, enviroeconomic and exergoeconomic. A. Future Scope 1) The present work can be further expanded by doing intensive research in CPC-PVT-PCM utilizations up to their optimum level. The partly covered FPC can be increased beyond 25% to run the system at night with additional supportive electrical subsystems. The profile of CPC may further increase the mass water temperature and can be further utilized by the PCM at night. It can be another cause for the system performance enhancement, and to quantify that, further research is needed. 2) The energy matrices, environeconomic and exergoeconomic assisted with different nanoparticles, and nanofluids can be studied. The effect of mass flow rate, size, and shape of nanoparticles can be investigated. PCM materials can also be used to store energy in the daytime when the sun is shining, which can further utilize when the sun is absent.
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