The text explores the multifaceted applications of synthetic biology, highlighting its role in revolutionizing various industries. It delves into the production of green biopolymers through microbial engineering, the sustainable synthesis of indigo dye, and the potential of biodesign to address environmental challenges. The mention of HGP-Write underscores the initiative\'s significance in advancing synthetic biology. The text emphasizes the broad impact of synthetic biology across diverse sectors, from pharmaceuticals to environmental protection, urging the need for ethical considerations in this rapidly advancing field.
Genetic engineers can produce crops that are resistant to hungry larvae or human insulin-producing bacteria with a single gene movement. However, in order to produce algae or crops that produce biofuels without fertilizer, dozens of genes must be manipulated and even new molecular machines that do not have nature must be produced. We are not yet there, but synthetic biology is approaching. Microalgae have a unique diversity, rich in biomass and oil. Genetic tools and synthetic biology allow for an expansion of algae engineering. Carbon capture and light optimization improve the optical efficiency. Metabolic engineering has increased the production of lipids, terpenoids and H2. Scientific society considers microalgae to be the most economically viable technology as a source of renewable energy. Algae have a biomass capacity of more than 50,000 kg per year. In addition, most algae can be easily converted to fuel. Fat accumulates. There is still time to create economic value from fossil fuels.
II. GREEN BIOPOLYMER PRODUCTION
Traditionally, biopolymers (including fuels and other petroleum compounds) are obtained from natural sources. This requires extraction from mining, drilling or harvesting plants and animals and, often, harsh chemicals. For example, Chitin, which is used in medical, food processing, cosmetics and agriculture, is extracted from marine crustaceans and chemically processed to achieve the desired structure. Biopolymers based on polysaccharides are employed in several industrial and medicinal applications, such as medication delivery systems, adhesives for healing wounds, and stabilizers and additives for food. Polysaccharides are often derived from natural sources. Microbial synthesis presents exceptional substitutes for environmentally friendly manufacturing. Microbial engineering has several opportunities for enhancing product quality. Synthetic biology techniques may be used to manufacture a variety of Green Biopolymer examples, such as thickeners, chitin, cellulose, chitosan, a polysaccharide derived from chitin, and hyaluronic acid. Researchers in synthetic biology are working to provide substitute sources for several polymers. For instance, the petroleum precursor required to make the indigo dye used in blue jeans must go through a number of steps that pollute wastewater with cyanides and formaldehyde.
Synthetic biologists at the University of California, Berkeley have discovered how bacteria can make the same dye. Indigo is a unique dye that can produce blue denim's signature colour; however, the dye process requires chemical steps that are harmful to the environment. Synthetic biology describes a sustainable dyeing strategy that avoids the use of toxic residues in dyeing chemicals and eliminates the need to reduce dye solubility. This strategy uses glucose molecules as a biochemical protective group to stabilize the indoxyl precursor of reacting indigo as a marker and prevent spontaneous oxidation to crystalline indigo during microbial fermentation. The application of -glucosidase eliminates the protection group from the indicator, resulting in the formation of indigo crystals in cotton fibres. A new method was developed by identifying the gene code for PtUGT1 glucose transferase in Polygonum tinctorium indigo and solving the structure of PtUGT1. The differential expression of PtUGT1 in Escherichia coli promoted the conversion of high-level indicators, and biosynthetic indicators were used to color cotton samples and clothes. Other biopolymers synthesized by synthetic biology are biofuels and bioplastics.
One of the greatest potentials of synthetic biology is the use of biological systems to solve environmental problems. Synthetic biology is a very short history of solving many problems without harming the environment through biodesign. Since the 1970s, efforts to improve the ecosystem have led to the development of bacteria that can eat oil components. This microorganism, which had developed the first biotechnology patent to prevent oil spills, therefore obtained the first biotechnology patent. Since then, studies have accelerated, and in 2008 J developed the first synthetic bacterial genome. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). Mycoplasma Genitalium JCVI-1.0 is the first DNA structure produced by humans. In 2010, JCVI researchers developed the world's first synthetic living form. The annual Conference on Synthetic Biology in London in 2013 attracted the attention of many scientists around the world and drew their attention to this field, as this field showed undeniable progress and realized its potential. In 2016, three years after the conference, a group of important scientists established a comprehensive synthetic biology initiative. This initiative led to the formation of the Human Genome Project Writing (HGP-Write). DNA helix in pills (huffpost.com) Synthetic biology provides a way to restructure almost everything we consume, with the potential to radically reduce our impact on the environment. Synthetic biology has created enormous opportunities in the pharmaceutical industry, environmental biotechnology and industrial materials and its application is relatively wide. For example, synthetic biology is used in many areas such as biotechnology, drug development, production of biological energy, environmental protection, agriculture and food production, biological sensors, and biological computers. In particular, many important advances have been made in synthetic biology in recent years as the potential of living machines has begun to be realized. These include the creation of more complex biological systems, the creation of synthetic cells, the improvement of biological systems, and the integration of synthetic biology with other technologies such as machine learning and artificial intelligence. Synthetic biology-generated microorganisms can be used for biological correction to eliminate water, soil, and air pollution. Similarly, new products supported by different vitamins can even create natural immunity in the fight against diseases. Overall, synthetic biology can make a difference or offer potential in many areas. As safer synthetic biological products are investigated, more uses are likely to occur in the future. But synthetic biology offers countless opportunities, but also many challenges. Therefore, it is important that scientists working in this field comply with ethical standards and monitor their research.
 \"Synthetic Biology: A Primer\" (2006) - Julian Davies, Vivian M. Marx
 \"Synthetic Biology: A Lab Manual\" (2014) - Josefine Liljeruhm, Paul S. Freemont, Richard I. Kitney
 \"Synthetic Biology: Tools and Applications\" (2009) - Huimin Zhao, Michael R. McElroy
 \"Synthetic Biology: An Introduction\" (2013) - Geoff Baldwin, Drew Endy