Authors: Nithya Sree R M, Neha Singh, Pami Sutradhar, Dr. Premlatha
DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.22214/ijraset.2022.48038
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This research on environmental protection policies in India urges rethinking the entire paradigm of pollution control and sustainability. Its scope encompasses rights to life, liberty, a livelihood and a higher level of living, clean working conditions, and a pollution-free environment. Since the Indian Constitution mandates that both the State and its citizenry must safeguard the environmental improvement and the fundamental issues. According to the government, India\'s environmental pollution is largely embraced as a component of its economy built on greed and is willing to forgo both natural resources and public health in order to maintain rapid economic growth. This secondary research study investigates the environmental issues through industry analysis and sustainability.
Governments, organisations, and everyday people all participate in environmental protection to safeguard the environment. Its objectives are to protect natural resources and the environment as it is as well as to make good on harm and, when possible, reverse inclinations. Pressures from overconsumption, population growth, and technology are causing the biophysical environment to deteriorate, maybe irrevocably.
Environment consists of both living and non-living elements. Humans, trees, plants, creatures, animals, and birds make up the living components, while air, water, and land make up the non-living ones. Environmental pollution refers to any unfavourable alteration in the environment. The main factors that have been considered are the historical perspective of the environment, the quality of the environment, the Environment Protection Act of 1986, laws created after independence, environmental protection measures, environmental policies, the causes of environmental pollution, the advantages of the natural environment, the presence of forests in India, and the significance of natural resources.
A. Indian Laws on Protection
The obligation of the Central and State governments for environmental protection is divided by several articles in the Indian Constitution. Our constitution's article 48-A, which declares that "The states should endeavour to maintain and enhance the environment and to safeguard the forest and wildlife of the country," lays forth the state's obligations with regard to environmental protection.
In accordance with Article 51-A (g) of the constitution, which declares that "It shall be the duty of every citizen of India to safeguard and develop the natural environment, including forests, lakes, rivers, and animals, and to have compassion for living beings," environmental conservation has been elevated to the status of a basic obligation for all Indian citizens.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
Industrialisation, urbanisation, agricultural growth and massive intensification, and deforestation are the key drivers of environmental deterioration in India. The main factors considered are the historical perspective of the environment, the quality of the environment, the Environment Protection Act of 1986, laws enacted after independence, environmental protection measures, environmental policies, the causes of environmental pollution, the benefits of the natural environment, Indian forests, and the importance of natural resources.
Man's evolution was influenced by the natural ambient factors at the time of his early development, when he was largely ignorant. Even in the modern period, despite scientific developments and efforts to control nature and the environment, people are unable to do so and instead are heavily regulated and impacted by natural phenomena. The religious and cultural heritage of India reveals a steadfast dedication to the preservation and conservation of the environment. For the people who live in rural and tribal areas, they are crucial to sustaining their quality of life. The problem of poverty is advanced and maintained in large part by environmental degradation, particularly in rural regions. Air quality, forests, fisheries, soil fertility, and freshwater quantity and quality are all negatively impacted by the variables that lead to deterioration.
Government, business, non-governmental organisations, and people are all growing more and more concerned about environmental challenges. Environmental policies, strategies, programmes, norms, and standards are altering as well to address the escalating environmental issues. Env Management of environmental issues is inescapably cross-sectoral and multijurisdictional. The Ministry of Environment and Forests in India is the major agency of the federal government responsible for planning, promoting, administering, coordinating, and supervising the implementation of environmental and forestry programmes. Management of environmental problems must always be cross-sectoral and multijurisdictional. The Ministry of Environment and Forests in India is the major agency of the federal government responsible for planning, promoting, administering, coordinating, and supervising the implementation of environmental and forestry programmes. The Ministry's guiding principles include increasing human wellbeing and developing sustainably. The Ministry of Environment and Forests prioritises putting policies and programmes into practise to protect the country's natural resources, including its lakes and rivers, biodiversity, forests, and animals, as well as the prevention and reduction of pollution.
III. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR)
A. Corporate Social Responsibility- Concept
The newly popularised idea of corporate social responsibility (CSR) extends beyond charitable giving and calls on businesses to conduct themselves ethically. The company's dedication to functioning in a way that is sustainable on all three fronts—economically, socially, and environmentally—is emphasised by the triple bottom line approach to corporate social responsibility. The foundation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the belief that powerful, successful businesses should take on the burden of addressing societal problems while simultaneously maximising profit and stockholder wealth. The idea incorporates ideas of human welfare and highlights a concern with the social aspects of economic activities that are directly related to the standard of living in society. The concept of responsibility suggests that commercial organisations were seen to owe it to the society in which they operated to address social issues and provide more than just material products and services. It is a notion wherein businesses voluntarily incorporate social and environmental concern into their daily operations and relationships with stakeholders. The primary goal of a business is to produce value by creating the goods and services that the public wants and needs. This results in profit for the company's owners and shareholders as well as for the general welfare of the community, especially via the sustained creation of jobs. Social responsibility is the acknowledgment of a moral requirement to acknowledge the duties and obligations coming from a company's relationship with its clients, suppliers, employees, shareholders, and the general public beyond consideration of profit. It refers to commercial decisions that are influenced by moral principles, legal requirements, and respect for individuals, communities, and the environment.
B. Impact on Corporate social responsibility
India has a long history of being environmentally conscious. However, as time went on, ethical standards toward society deteriorated, and as a result, the judiciary stepped in to safeguard the environment. In light of the right to a pollution-free environment and the constitutional need to conserve and develop the environment, a concept known as corporate social responsibility evolved. The notion of corporate social responsibility was acknowledged in legislative enactments in order to realise the constitutional goal of conserving the environment. In the essay, the notion of corporate social responsibility and the Constitution's commitment to environmental preservation are introduced. By simplifying the defaulting institutions, judicial rulings make the notion of corporate environment liability clearer.
India is a socialist country. However, the Indian government has embraced globalisation, privatisation, and liberalisation over time. The public sector is steadily giving way to the private one. As a result, the new idea of corporate social responsibility (CSR) states that a business sector must carry out any charitable deeds towards society that are required to uphold the social interests of the society. The economic, legal, ethical, and charitable demands put on the organisations by the society at a certain period in time are what Carroll and Buchholtz refer to as "corporate social responsibility," according to them.
"The duty of a businessman to pursue those policies, to make those judgments, or to follow those courses of action which are beneficial in terms of the aims and values of the society," is how Browin H.R. defines social responsibility. According to some academics, CSR refers to a businessman's social commitment, social obligation, moral or ethical responsibility, or corporate social philanthropy. According to Mahatma Gandhi, company owners are trustees rather than proprietors of the societal wealth, and they are required to use a portion of it for charitable purposes. He used the phrase "enjoy the wealth, take what you need, and leave the rest to the wellbeing of the society" to explain the trusteeship philosophy. It cannot be regarded as charitable giving. India's pursuit of fair, inclusive, and sustainable growth depends on a strong and vibrant development industry. Over the past few decades, India's development industry has undergone significant change and is currently seeing unprecedented attention and investments along the whole value chain.
The requirement for corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been legally added to the dashboard of the Boards of Indian firms with the enactment of the 2013 Companies Act. The business community has reacted favourably to the government's reform initiative, showing both public and private businesses, as well as Indian and international corporations, a great deal of interest. It is everyone's obligation to create a society where everyone has equal access to opportunities, which eliminates inequalities.
IV. INDIAN CONSTITUTION OF ENVIRONMENT
V. INDUSTRY IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES
A. Manufacturing Industry
The United Nations's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development offers the international community a course of action for achieving the balance of economic, social, and environmental sustainability. The 2030 Agenda offers industry an important role to play in efforts to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), even though India has taken a deliberate lead in doing so. Given the growing challenges from a range of environmental concerns and their negative effects, companies in India place a high focus on ensuring an environmentally sustainable future. The Confederation of Indian Industries (CII) launched a recognition programme called the Climate Action Programme (CAP) 2.0° in 2018 to acknowledge businesses' efforts to mitigate climate change. Additionally, CII is focusing on improved policy frameworks for the sectors, such as Extended Producer Responsibility Rules of Plastic Waste Management.
GIZ and the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC), Government of India, are working together to implement the Sustainable & Environment-Friendly Industrial Production initiative. The project's goal is to reduce a variety of serious environmental issues facing the nation, with industrial waste water management receiving the most attention. The research shows how to improve resource efficiency in industrial production and reduce severe environmental pollution. In order to achieve beneficial outcomes and direct effects in terms of improved environmental conditions, this requires piloting technological solutions as well as commercial and management models at chosen sites.
The initiative further supports state and federal efforts to create an enabling framework. In order to achieve this, it suggests new laws, strategies, and support programmes for resource efficiency and pollution prevention in industrial zones. The initiative encourages participation from a variety of actors, including industry groups, operators of industrial sites, individual businesses, and pertinent federal and state agencies. When it comes to changing behaviour to address environmental issues, women are increasingly taking the lead.
In order to build realistic management and planning strategies for inclusive industrial zones that are sustainable, the project is aiming to include women.
B. Banking and Finance industry
Sustainable development is best achieved by allowing markets to operate within an appropriate framework of cost-effective rules and economic tools. Financial institutions, such as the banking industry, are one of the key economic agents affecting total industrial activity and economic growth. Industries and businesses in a globalised economy are susceptible to strict environmental regulations, serious legal actions, or consumer boycotts. Due to its significant involvement in the industrial sector, the banking sector may encounter credit risk and liability risk. Furthermore, over time, environmental effect may have an influence on banks' asset quality and rate of return. Therefore, banks should adopt a more environmentally conscious stance and take an active role in incorporating ecological and environmental considerations into their lending principles. This will compel businesses to make required investments in environmental management and the use of appropriate technologies and management systems. This essay examines the significance of "green banking," cites examples from other countries, and identifies key takeaways for India's sustainable banking and economic growth. Even while Indian banks and other financial institutions are actively involved in the country's rising economy, we find that they have not taken many initiatives in this direction. In order to encourage green banking in India, we provide potential policy measures and initiatives.
Environmental issues were not regarded as having any bearing on how banks and other financial organisations conducted their business until recently. In the past, the banking industry has viewed its concern for clients' ecologically harmful behaviour as an intrusion or meddling in their commercial concerns. However, it is increasingly believed that engaging with the environment exposes their firm to hazards. Although the environmental degradation does not directly harm banking and financial organisations, there are indirect costs to banks. Industries around the world are required to operate in accordance with a set of severe environmental regulations established by the relevant authorities. In the event of collapse, it would result in the closure of the industries, increasing the risk that the bank would experience a default. Determining the effects of their clients' investments requires financial institutions to actively engage with stakeholders on environmental and social policy concerns. In turn, that would compel the clients to manage their investment-related social and environmental policy challenges. This ought to include all actions involved in project finance in all sectors. By reducing the risks associated with the banking industry, green banking is crucial for the economy's banks as well as for the banks themselves.
Green banking, if done honestly, will serve as a powerful ex ante disincentive for the polluting businesses that sidestep the other institutional regulatory measures. Despite their active participation in India's expanding economy, banks and other financial institutions have not taken many initiatives in this direction. It is important to get the banking and financial industry on board with sustainable development. India's financial institutions and banks are falling behind the curve when it comes to green banking. Even for record-keeping purposes, none of our financial institutions or banks have followed the equator concept. They have not all signed the UNEP Financial Initiative declaration. It is therefore necessary for India to take significant initiatives to progressively. It is important for India to take some significant actions to progressively follow the equator principles and standards, which apply environmental-sensitive criteria in addition to financial ones to support projects.
C. Service Sector
The enormous expansion of the services industry in India is a direct result of the educated professionals' quick advancements. It is encouraging to learn that India is referred regarded as the world's services hub. India is no longer seen as a nation of beggars and snake charmers as it once was; instead, it is now seen as a nation of knowledge workers. Information technology enabled services, business processing, and outsourced services are the main drivers of this transition (ITeS & BPO). They have already made a big splash on India's coastline. The Indian government has implemented a variety of sector-specific initiatives to boost IT and ITeS as well as other emerging industries including telecom, organised retail, hotel, entertainment, and financial services. In terms of tourism, we are "Incredible India," and in terms of the economy, we are unmistakably "Opportunity India."
The situation in India's services industry is complicated and characterised by unequal growth across different service categories. From a global viewpoint, it is impossible to dispute the Indian economy's rising importance of the services sector. One of the greatest GDP growth rates in the world occurred in India in 2008–2009, which showed how resilient the nation's growth impulses were to a significant external shock and how India's policy reaction helped to limit the negative impacts of the global economic crisis on its domestic growth.
India has developed tactics for achieving rapid economic development, and during the past few years, has made significant progress toward economic liberalisation. There will be an increase in demand for educational services as a result of the rising standards in education, which is offered in India free of charge and is mandated till the age of 14 by the Indian government.
Due to the growing population and increased knowledge of the advantages of education, there is a greater need for elementary schools, secondary and upper secondary schools, and junior colleges. Demand for tuition, private coaching sessions, and other educational services is rising along with the number of students. The need for the services of professionals has increased along with the construction of technical colleges. With more commerce and business being conducted on the road, demand for transportation services has grown significantly, which has been advantageous for many automakers as well.
VI. IT & ITES
Government and supporting sectors must constantly work to please the IT/ITES industry, which is always evolving, demanding, and frequently cutthroat. It goes without saying that because of these businesses' virtual structure, which makes them susceptible to moving to other locations in pursuit of untapped resources or reduced prices, authorities must work to both attract and keep investment.
Businesses in the IT/ITES sectors are starting to relocate operations to greenfield locations around the nation as a result of growing negative externalities in existing industrial hubs. A number of smaller, less well-known cities now have the chance to draw early investments as a result of this. The difficulty they have is to afterwards encourage the growth of bigger, more durable clusters.
By resolving difficulties with collective action, providing communal amenities, and correcting some market failures, government policy may play a part in fostering an enabling environment and enhancing a cluster's "economic commons." Sub-national governments can thus, despite constitutional and financial limitations, play important roles in promoting local economic development. Sub-national governments can thus, despite constitutional and financial limitations, play important roles in promoting local economic development. play a part in addressing collective action difficulties, providing shared facilities, and correcting some market failures in order to foster an enabling environment and strengthen a cluster's "economic commons." Sub-national governments can thus, despite constitutional and financial limitations, play important roles in promoting local economic development. play a part in addressing collective action difficulties, providing shared facilities, and correcting some market failures in order to foster an enabling environment and strengthen a cluster's "economic commons." Sub-national governments can thus, despite constitutional and financial limitations, play important roles in promoting local economic development. challenges with collective action, offering communal facilities, and solving specific market failures.
VII. THINGS THE GOVERNMENT CAN DO TO HELP THE ENVIRONMENT
Here are four practical ways to be environmentally friendly in your municipality:
A. Encourage Environmentally Friendly Employee Practices
To promote energy saving within the team. Encourage employees to turn off the lights in vacant areas including bathrooms, break rooms, and storage areas.
At the conclusion of the workday, remind staff to switch off laptops, printers, and power strips. Ask staff members to wait until they need to utilise the office equipment and lighting the next day. Eliminate screensavers on computers and check that displays are set to their most energy-efficient settings.
B. Making Environmentally Friendly Changes in Local Government Facilities
Instead of incandescent lights, use LED or fluorescent ones. Place the office furniture so that as much natural light as possible may penetrate the workspace. Install window coverings as well.
Start up in the dining room or break room. Washable, reusable dishes for your personnel should be used in place of throwaway paper and plasticware. Place numerous recycling containers close together to serve as a visual reminder to recycle. Request that the companies who supply vending machine services fill the machines with healthy options such fruit juices, granola, fruit, and pretzels. Provide a water cooler to reduce the number of throwaway water bottles used at the office. Better lives and personnel who use fewer sick days as a result of healthy diet would help local governments.
C. Foster Clean Commute Initiatives
Local government workers typically live in the city. Encourage employees to consider alternate forms of transportation, such as walking or biking, rather than encouraging them to drive alone to work. Employees could prefer to rideshare or take the public transit. By giving employees who commute cleanly for a certain period of time an award for "clean commuting," you may raise the stakes.
D. Software Solutions Help to Reduce the Local Government Carbon Footprint
Although the basics of carbon reduction are generally relevant, many local governments have made it a priority to set regionally unique environmental, social, and governance (ESG) criteria. Think about going paperless as much as you can in your office. The development of board agendas and meeting minutes is made efficient with the help of board management software from iCompass, a Diligent brand. The tool helps local governments drastically cut wasteful ink and paper costs while producing board meeting records. The most current revisions may be viewed by public authorities in real time online, so last-minute changes are not a problem.
E. How the Government Helps in Saving the Earth
Saving the energy, using the car in a lesser frequency, and recycling more are our responsibilities in taking care of the Earth. Below are the ways the government is taking its part.
VIII. STEPS TAKEN BY THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
Five months ahead of schedule, India has reached its goal of blending 10% ethanol into gasoline, Prime Minister Narendra Modi declared on Sunday. In making the statement, Modi listed many actions his administration has made to save the environment, claiming that although playing a little part in climate change, its efforts have been comprehensive. The "Save Soil Movement" broadcast aired on June 5 in conjunction with World Environment Day.
In the previous eight years, according to Modi, India's forest cover has increased by over 20,000 sq km, and the country's animal population has increased at a record rate. Our dedication to environmental conservation is demonstrated by programmes like the Hydrogen Mission, the circular economy, and the scrappage policy, which have seen an 18-fold rise in solar energy capacity. The Swachh Bharat Mission, the waste to wealth programme, the decrease of single use plastic, one sun one earth, or the ethanol blending programme are just a few examples of the government's major initiatives during the past eight years that have an environmental preservation focus.
India\'s environmental issues are getting worse. The government\'s development strategy and policymaking in metropolitan areas do not adhere to the standards of ecological sustainability. Because of this, the future seems grimmer. The various chapters have made an effort to determine the flagrant mismanagement of India\'s environmental issues. In India, there are an increasing number of water bodies that are unsafe for human usage. A growing issue is air pollution. In India, water pollution has become one of the most serious environmental challenges. The two main sources are untreated industrial waste and sewage from cities that are dumped into waterways. Despite the government\'s best efforts, only 10% of the waste water produced in cities is treated, and the rest is discharged. On the other hand, the Indian government spends millions of rupees annually to reduce water pollution. Rough calculations show that the Indian government has invested close to 20,000 crore rupees in different programmes, including the Ganga Action Plan and Yamuna Action Plan, to reduce river water pollution. But so far, no fruitful outcomes have been attained. The government should understand that unless the process of untreated industrial and other effluent going into the water bodies is stopped, all efforts to get the river-bodies free from water pollution will fail. After all, despite numerous strong environmental rules and regulations, its rivers are poisonous. Furthermore, money is not the primary issue. India has invested 51 billion rupees ($1.2 billion) in cleaning its rivers since 1985, when an emergency plan to save the Ganges was introduced. Most of this money has been obtained by forcing state governments to construct sewage-treatment plants next to their rivers. More over half of this money was given to the Ganges and one of its principal tributaries, the Yamuna, which flows through Delhi. But just around half of it has been used. And even if it were being used properly, which it is not, the sanitation it has constructed would be miserably inadequate. Millions of people lived in poverty, and the rate of literacy was also quite low. The rate of population growth was disturbingly rapid. Each of these elements played a significant role in the serious environmental deterioration that resulted, with the poor and disadvantaged groups of society being the ones most negatively impacted. They were the first to suffer from inadequate hygiene, unhealthy air, tainted water, and a lack of food, fuel, and fodder. Environmental deterioration endangered the only resources and source of wealth for millions of Indians. The government should adequately apply the water pollution regulations in order to control the problem. The Water Pollution Control Act does not grant local authorities the authority to carry out law enforcement. One Water Pollution Control Board located in the State capital cannot be expected to properly administer water pollution control, hence the enforcement of these rules should be left to the local bodies since they exist in every large or small city. The Environment Protection Act of 1986 was passed by the Parliament with specific goals in mind and since there are already numerous laws addressing environmental issues. A general piece of legislation is required for environmental protection. Laws already in place concentrate on pollution types or classes of dangerous substances. Additionally, there are unfilled gaps in regions with significant environmental dangers. Therefore, if correctly applied, this rule is a good step in the direction of environmental conservation. According to a survey, the EPA of 1986 had little effect. because the appropriate authorities are not properly performing their tasks According to the analysis of the case Indian Council for Enviro-Legal Action v. Union of India, the Supreme Court ordered the Government and relevant agencies to carry out their legal obligations under the Environment Protection Act of 1986, the Water Act of 1974, and the Air Act of 1981. This study reveals that the issue is significant and complex, making it impossible for the court to safeguard the environment on its own. A diversified strategy is necessary. The public is in need of participation as well as the active involvement of state institutions to address the issue of environmental contamination. The government should adequately execute laws to tackle the pollution issue. The Water Pollution Control Act does not grant local authorities the authority to carry out law enforcement. One Water Pollution Control Board located in the State capital cannot be expected to properly administer water pollution control, hence the enforcement of these rules should be left to the local bodies since they exist in every large or small city. The government\'s development strategy must be in harmony with environmental sustainability principles and ecological concerns.
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Copyright © 2022 Nithya Sree R M, Neha Singh, Pami Sutradhar, Dr. Premlatha. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Paper Id : IJRASET48038
Publish Date : 2022-12-10
ISSN : 2321-9653
Publisher Name : IJRASET
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