Authors: Keertana Subramanian
Certificate: View Certificate
Edible substance adulteration is a serious problem for modern food safety. The obvious cause of concern may be that adulterants have detrimental impacts on human health. One of the most tainted food products is edible oils. The perpetrators are using strategies that successfully hide the presence of the adulterants from existing methods for detecting oil adulteration and human organoleptic limits. This review includes a thorough account of the research done over the past three decades on the falsification assessment of edible oils using chemical, biosensors, chromatography, spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, non-thermal plasma, and dielectric spectroscopy, as well as a collection of patented methods for detecting oil adulteration. The detection methods examined have certain benefits and some drawbacks, although chemical testing are straightforward; nuclear magnetic resonance and biosensors, dielectric spectroscopy is quick, portable, and compatible with the internet, but the findings can vary depending on the electric current frequency and internal parameters (moisture, temperature, structural composition). Copies are extremely accurate but have prohibitive costs. For scientists or those interested in learning more about the latest methods for detecting adulterated edible oil, this review paper can be helpful.
Food, which is made up of carbohydrates, water, fats, and proteins, is one of the fundamental necessities for all living things and can be consumed for both nutrition and enjoyment by all animals, including humans. Food products have always been susceptible to adulteration or fraudulent admixture with substandard inferior components. Food adulteration and contamination of necessary foods, which can serve as a potential source of disease infection or hazardous poisoning, are an increasing problem in India. The prevention of food adulteration depends heavily on customer awareness. Unawareness and unjust business practices could threaten customer health, and deception could result in poisoning. Therefore, the general public should be aware of simple screening procedures. The Canadian government issued a warning to its residents in September 1998 not to eat any food that had been cooked or processed in oil from India because it might have been tainted with argemone. In order to increase their earnings, dishonest traders in north India combined the lethal argemone oil to mustard oil, resulting in dozens of deaths or paralysis. In India, the value of human life is so low that it was just written off as another tragedy. Synthetic chemicals and detergent powder are being added to milk to adulterate it, which could result in permanent harm. It is yet another successful enterprise.
Your appetite almost becomes insatiable as you browse the market and witness the beautifully decorated sweets and other foods. That is exactly what it intends to do to you. entice you to shop and eat. But hold on! While doing so, you might be consuming "Metanil yellow," a prohibited coal tar dye also known as "Kishori Rang," "Rhodamin-B," "Lead Chromate," or even "Ultra Marine Blue." All of these are prohibited and illegal colours that pose serious health risks and may eventually lead to cancer. They cause cancer. We might be consuming harmful dyes, sawdust, soapstone, industrial flour, aluminium foil, and even, would you believe it, cow poo! Instead of promoting health, invite sickness.
Food adulteration is the reduction or degradation of food quality by substituting food ingredients, adding uncertified substances, or removing essential ingredients from food for profit or other random reasons. It is the process of making Food adulteration ultimately misleads consumers and leads to a variety of health risks. Finding a tamper-free food industry today is very difficult. For this reason, the growing number of food manufacturers and the pending levels of food imports mean that manufacturers may mislead or defraud consumers, so consumers may find common adulterants and its impact on health.
II. WHY FOOD ADULTERATION?
Adulteration has long existed in society but has been overlooked due to its low use and impact. According to studies conducted, 70% milk contains water, 43% turmeric powder contains chalk powder, 100% red chili powder contains artificial colours, and 37% sugar contains chalk powder found The main reason for attracting adulterers is to increase their cash income by increasing their volume. Even though increased profit margins by some self-serving manufacturers, processors and retailers have triggered counterfeiting, the main causes of counterfeiting are fraud and lack of random quality assessment of questionable products.
As the world's population grows at an alarming rate, food is often adulterated in order to meet the needs of this growing population and feed a large population. Another motivation for counterfeiting and adulteration of goods and services is outsourcing to offshore producers. Labour is relatively cheap in some countries making outsourcing possible. This also makes it easier to counterfeit products, as the cost of production is much less than the super-normal profits you get.
Food and beverages are generally adulterated for five reasons: these are:
A. Types Of Adulteration
While working on this project, I carried out some adulteration tests on different edible items using DART test book, chemical tests and some of the tests were performed using different types of instrumentations.
A. Dart Book Test
1) Detection Of Starch, Detergent And Other Chemicals In Milk-
Take some amount of milk in glass and add same amount of water to it
Shake them completely
If the milk is adulterated with detergent then it will form a dense lather
The milk in the image shows that it is a pure milk.
B. Some Chemical Tests Were Also Performed On Spices-
Approximately 0.1 g of turmeric sample was placed in a test tube and approximately 1 ml of propanol was added to dissolve the sample. We added 5-10 drops of HCl to the sample and observed the color of the sample. The presence of a pink tint indicates the presence of methanil yellow.
2. Test Procedure for Sudan Dyes
Take 1g of suspect chili powder in a test tube, add 2mL of hexane and shake well. I was able to calm down. Decant the clear solution into another test tube and shake well. The appearance of red color in the bottom acetonitrile layer indicates the presence of Sudan pigment.
3. Test Method for Artificial Colours
Fragrance samples are extracted with petroleum ether. 13 N sulfuric acid solution (88 ml concentrated Sulfuric acid diluted with 250 ml of distilled water. water). Red colour seems to remain even after adding Dist. Water indicates the presence of artificial colouring. If red when adding Dist. No colour distortion in water, sample.
IV. INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS
A. Preparation of Sample (Pesticides) for Honey, Milk, Oil (Mustard):-
B. Instrumental conditions
Instrument used : Agilent GC-7890 with Auto sampler.
Column used : HP-5MS UI 15m, 0.25µm, 25 mm ID Capillary column
Column temperature : 350 0C
Run time : 19.26 minutes.
C. Inlet Program
Mode : Split less
Flow : 1.0 ml/min
Mode : Constant Flow
Gas type : Helium
D. Auto Sampler Program
Sample washes : 3
Sample pumps : 6
Injection volume : 2.0 µl
Syringe size : 10 µl
Post injector solvent A wash : 4
Post injector solvent B wash : 4
Viscosity delay : 0 seconds
Plunger speed : Slow
Pre injection dwell : 0.00 min.
Post injection dwell : 1.00 min.
E. Oven Program
Rate (ºC/min) Value (ºC) Hold Time (min) Run Time (Min)
Initial - 70 1
40 180 0
5 220 0
10 285 1
Pictures (QuEChER Pouch)
V. LITERATURE REVIEW
"Economic Impact of Food Adulteration: A Review" is the title of the article. (Year: 2020)
Summary: The economic effects of food adulteration are the primary topic of this review paper. The financial effects on different stakeholders, such as consumers, producers, and the government, are examined. The report emphasises the costs of foodborne infections, diminished customer confidence, product recalls, and legal repercussions. In order to lessen the financial burden of food adulteration, the essay emphasises the necessity for strong regulatory measures and investments in food safety systems.
"Food Fraud: Types, Detection, and Prevention" is the title of the article. (Year: 2021)
Summary: This article examines many forms of food fraud and offers a detailed examination of each, including adulteration, mislabeling, and counterfeiting. It goes on the methods for spotting food fraud, including spectroscopy, isotope analysis, and DNA testing.
In order to effectively tackle food fraud, the report also offers preventive methods including stronger laws, supply chain transparency, and raised consumer knowledge.
"Food Adulteration and Food Safety in Developing Countries: A Review" is the title of the article. (Year: 2018)
Summary: The challenges related to food adulteration, notably in developing nations, are the subject of this review. It draws attention to the difficulties these areas confront, including their little resources, inadequate regulatory systems, and lack of enforcement. The research investigates the health effects of eating tainted food and highlights the necessity of international cooperation, information exchange, and capacity development to solve issues with food safety in poor nations.
HOW TO PREVENT THIS MENACE CALLED FOOD ADULTERATION-
Detailed root cause analysis reveals various reasons behind food adulteration clearly. The main problems that can be observed in this sector are related and possible solutions.
First, consumers should be encouraged to pay attention to the food they buy or are purchasing and consumption. DART books should be publicly available
Advertisements and housewives may be motivated to do these tests. Every slight instance of food adulteration they encounter. all such Efforts are possible only if consumers are aware of the negative effects of consumption Adulterated food. Second, FOSTAC training should be provided and educated to food vendors. Educate them about the ill effects of adulteration and the penalties they must pay If found guilty, we encourage you to engage in fair trade practices. Third, the government can open a "counterfeit intelligence agency" where people can report Food adulteration cases directly. Governments can also carry out raids or sudden. Visit warehouses and places where food is stored to see if conditions are correct appropriate. analyze food samples from various suppliers, Strict measures must be taken if contamination is detected.
Food adulteration can have a huge impact on our health without us even knowing it. Some prudent measures taken by our society can prevent that. Rising food prices should be controlled by the government. Consumers should avoid purchasing food from places where proper hygiene is not observed. Both local grocers and branded grocers are required to be inspected by government agencies. If we tend to be active participants in these changes, we can create a healthy and risk-free future for the next generation. Food adulteration has been a problem since the dawn of civilization as it not only reduces food quality but also has many adverse health effects. Determining value and protecting consumers from fraud requires authentic testing of food and proof of adulteration of various foods. Food safety and regulatory concerns have ensured the development of various techniques to detect adulteration in food, including physical, biochemical/immunological, and molecular techniques. Molecular methods are preferred for detecting biological contaminants in food, and physical and biochemical methods are preferred for detecting other contaminants in food. Providing health education to food manufacturers and consumers about the harmful effects of various contaminants in food is very important. Be careful not to purchase large quantities of milk or other foods from unauthorized sources. It is essential to conduct regular quality control tests to ensure that food intended for human consumption is free of adulteration. Food adulteration is an evolving concept due to improved contaminant detection methods (“we are finding more scams”) and increased opportunities for fraudsters to profit from their crimes (expanding global market). Food adulteration risks are considered across the spectrum of food protection, including food quality, food safety, food fraud, and food Défense. Foods that pose a public health hazard are classified because of adulteration, but there are many different types of causes and motives. Food fraud is a broader term that includes the causes of incidents. To stay ahead of the growing scope, scale and threats, new mitigation approaches are being developed to detect and mitigate them more efficiently and effectively.
 Food Forensics: Investigating Food Crime - IFT.org  Forensic Evidence Case Study Examples That Really Inspire | WOWESSAYS™  Food forensics: Techniques for authenticity determination of food products - ScienceDirect  (PDF) Food adulteration: A global public health concern (researchgate.net)  Mechanisms and Health Aspects of Food Adulteration: A Comprehensive Review - PMC (nih.gov)  Survey on Adulteration in Food Products and Image Processing Techniques used for its Detection – IJERT  (PDF) Food Adulteration: A Review (researchgate.net)  DART Book (fssai.gov.in)  https://Fssai.gov.in
Copyright © 2023 Keertana Subramanian. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.