Authors: Abhishek Choudhury, Bijay Kumar Das, Snehal Anshu
Certificate: View Certificate
Hill tourism has always been a part of the attraction because of its scenic beauty, better air quality and a favourable thermal environment. Although the north-eastern part of India has a plethora of tourist attractions, little has been done to explore the natural resources. Patkai,a range in the Himalayas, is home to a vast variety of wildlife and has a unique ecosystem that attracts nature lovers looking for exceptional experiences. In the setting of hill regions nestled in the Himalayas, the religious and socio-cultural components of the tourism resources are of equal importance to the many dazzling natural attractions and aesthetic beauty. Nature related activities and sports have transformed the hill recreation tour into an adventure tour. Mountaineering and adventure tourism alone generate significant revenue from tourism. The unrelenting influx of tourists to these hubs has upset the traditional demand and supply balance due to a lack of forethought. Acute problems with land use, environmental pollution and deterioration, demand on infrastructure, transport, and services. Arunachal Pradesh state lies in Eastern India and has a mountainous terrain with rich flora and fauna. Changlang district lies in south-eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh. A better planning and systematic regulation can improve the tourism and tourism management both.
Tourism is identified as an important parameter to boost development of a region which is economically backward and has a strong potential of tourist attraction. This attraction could be in the form of natural beauty (hills, seas, rivers), Religious, Cultural (desert of Rajasthan), Historic sites and precincts, or any other source of attraction. Leisure tourism is regarded as one of the biggest ‘peace industry’ attracting multi-ethnic and heterogenous population to a particular location. Entire Himalayan region is having a potential of leisure tourism. Value addition of these destination is done by adding multi activity zones for the tourists. North-eastern states boast of hygiene and cleanliness. Clean vegetable market and discipline in traffic on road is the way we see the North-eastern state on social media sites. Arunachal Pradesh is known as ‘dawn- lit mountains. 80 % of total area is covered by thick evergreen forest and five major rivers flow through the state which are Lohit, Siang, Kameng, Subansiri, and Tirap. 26 major tribes and more than 100 sub-tribes in Arunachal Pradesh, in which Singpho and Tangsa are founded in Miao. These tribes have their different traditions and customs(Gurung & Pant, 2013). The varied culture of tribes makes this state a truly diverse in nature and rich in tradition. Tourism in Arunachal Pradesh is specific for natural beauty, unique flora and fauna, wildlife, turbulent rivers, holy shrines, vibrant and colourful cultural festivals(R. Mandal et al., 2021). Changlang district lies in Arunachal Pradesh with its boundary touching Myanmar and morning Sun first rises in its hill. According to urban mythology, Changlang was named after the mountaintop CHANGLANKAN, where locals made the initial discovery of the toxic herb used to poison fish in the river.
Travel to and staying in different locations gave rise to the tourism industry. Travel to the destination and time spent there are two essential components of any trip. In a nutshell, the term "tourism" refers to the industry devoted to serving the needs of tourists(Rahman et al., 2010) The tourism industry is one that offers a wide variety of job opportunities to residents while also generating additional capital for governments(Chakma, 2011)
Tourism that takes place in a very small area, such as a mountain range, and that capitalises on the unique terrain, topography, climate, flora, wildlife, and local community is referred to as "mountain tourism. Clean air, unique landscape, wild life, scenic beauty and nature or snow base activities attracts the tourist. Living up in the mountains provides a respite from urban congestion and exposure to harmful pollutants, reduce the risk of heart disease, live at peace and keep active. Many residents in mountainous areas today depend on tourists for their livelihood. As a result of tourism, farmers have access to new sources of income and employment, have more prospects for advancement in their fields, and may sell their heirloom crops and locally crafted goods in new markets. Ecotourism is a form of sustainable tourism that helps local communities while also protecting natural regions."(R. K. Mandal et al., 2021). The picture beauty of Himalaya’s coupled with wide diversity of flora and fauna makes entire North-eastern India a favourite hot spot. The unique cultural diversity, customs, anthropological heritage and spiritual mysticism are the strength of the region. It’s a diverse land for Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity. The co-existence of multi-religion in this region can boast of intra region and cross boarder tourism. There is a lot of creative space in North-East India. These creative spaces can be used for cultural tourism, rural tourism, eco-tourism, educational tourism, and medical tourism. These resources must be converted to innovative product for the tourist to assimilate in most productive ways. (Barman, 2012) These innovative bundled product can be packaged as Leisure tour, wildlife safari, tribal life tour, tea and herb tourism, homestays and camping tour etc. Packages which attract the youth population is trekking, biking, hiking, river rafting, paragliding, bungee jumping etc. With the cooperation of people, government authorities, and NGOs, four major trek routes have been identified: the Trekking in Sibe to Pamu Yalang Trek, the Hakhe Tari Trek, the Dusu Kattu Trek, and the Talley Valley Trek.(Talukdar & Thakuria, 2019). Himalayas are known for high altitude lakes, often frozen in winters, waterfalls, caves, waterfalls, passes etc. Packaging has been done in a refined way. Trekking is now the accepted term for hill walking in "strange" locations once known as "adventure climbing" or "sport climbing.” (Beedie & Hudson, 2003, p. 626).
Many other forms of tourism can be experimented in the region. Village tourism and culinary tourism is gaining importance throughout the world. Village tourism showcases the life, art, culture, and heritage at the rural location, it is small-scale tourism, where the local people are actively involved in the process.
As a form of travel, culinary tourism is not always about fine dining but rather about eating adventurously in search of new gastronomic experiences. (Sarmah et al., 2021). Tribal tourism gives an insight to simple, mundane, inspiring and empowering life of tribal community to change a city dwellers’ mindset to something that regards kindness, care and tolerance towards our mother nature and surrounding(Raha & Tripathy, 2023). Geotourism involves significant geological, geomorphological, geographical and landform sites that are available for display(Grover & Mahanta, 2019). Eco-organic tourism and other novel approaches could help restore the youth of the community's faith in the agricultural sector, which has been eroded in recent years (Jena & Norbu, 2020).
II. I. PROJECT BRIEF
A. Site Description
The coordinates for Arunachal Pradesh are 26°30' to 29°30' north latitude, 91°30' to 97°30' east longitude. It has a size of 83,743 square kilometres, making it the largest of India's north eastern states. Changlang District is in the state's far southeast. It marks India's easternmost point which shares a border with Myanmar (Burma).
Miao town is located 30 kilometres from the Assam Border (Namchik). The Patkai Bum, the Himalaya’s eastern extension, rises over the city. Miao is roughly 213 metres above sea level, and one of the important rivers that flows through it is the Nao-Dihing. Tinsukia, Assam (125 kilometres from Miao), is conveniently accessible through air, rail, and road, and hence serves as a hub for the region.
B. Climate Analysis
The favourable season for tourists is from January to May and September to December. The temperature throughout the year is good and varies from 5°C to 27°C. As per the human thermal comfort indices, Heat Index calculation based on ambient temperature and relative humidity has been done. The base temperature taken for analysis is 22OC. As per Heat Index analysis, months from Jan-May and Sept.-Dec. are comfortable for tourists. Table 2 shows tourist footfall from January to December. Miao is situated in a part of north-east India that is subject to some of the highest precipitation on the continent. The region loses its tourist potential in the summer months of June, July and August due to heavy rainfall Fig. 5.
Mountain environments are very sensitive to climate change and slope degradation. The landscape can undergo sudden and drastic change due to natural disasters such as landslides, avalanches, earthquakes, and rock falls. Usually, landslides and mudslides can be caused by an excessive amount of rainfall because rain is heavy and adds more weight to the earth. The landslide causes a significant increase in the danger to both people and infrastructure. Major connecting roads can get damage at any time. During the catastrophic period food supplies and necessary required item get disrupted. Adventures and sports activities are banned to reduce the accident risk.
C. Tourism Potential
There are certain formalities that are to be completed before visiting Arunachal Pradesh and Changlang district, because of the sensitivity of border areas. These are the hindrances to the smooth movement of tourists. A valid Inner Line Permit (ILP) is required of all Indian nationals before they are allowed to visit any area of Changlang District. Foreign nationals must get a Restricted Area Permit (R.A.P.) from the Indian Ministry of Home Affairs before travelling to Arunachal Pradesh or the Changlang District.
Namdapha Tiger Reserve (also a National Park) is 26 km from Miao town. Prior to 1983, it was a wildlife sanctuary. Every national park, animal refuge, and other type of protected area in the country is required by law to have a one kilometre wide "eco-sensitive zone" (ESZ) surrounding their perimeter. These are the buffer zones, which act as shock absorbers for highly protected zone to the less protected zone. With the great diversity of flora and fauna, this national park has a great opportunity to attract tourists.
Government Guest house in limited number is available at Miao town which is listed below. Apart from this a few private hotels and guest houses are available for visitors.
a. Inspection Bungalow – 6 Rooms
b. Eco-Tourist Forest Guest House – 4 Rooms
c. Namdapha Jungle Camp – 4 Rooms
d. Circuit house – 4 Rooms
D. SWOT analysis
Following are the development proposal for the Miao Town
Miao Town has the potential to be developed in such a way that it serves not only as a gateway to Namdapha National Park but also as a tourist location for a variety of different tourist packages located in the immediate area. These packages include bungee jumping, trekking, paragliding, and river rafting as some of the activities available to participate in. The earnings generated by adventure tourism and sports have the potential to assist the local government and the local population economically. Also, it will be beneficial to environmentally responsible tourism. Conflict of Interest: There is no conflict of interest associated with this paper. There is no funding for this paper.
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Copyright © 2023 Abhishek Choudhury, Bijay Kumar Das, Snehal Anshu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.