The need for a linguistic representation of a concept that contributes to the effective functioning of language in a certain subject area of scientific knowledge, which arises in connection with the constant updating of the reference space, suggests that serious attention should be paid to the development of terminological culture and the improvement of professional communicative competence of specialists in various fields of knowledge. To date, the term-formation processes have taken on a global scale, as there is a constant international exchange of terms.
The scientific discipline dealing with the study of terms has been called “terminology”, which is understood as a complex scientific and applied discipline, “the subject of which are terms and their aggregates (terminological systems and terminologies), as well as the laws of folding, construction, functioning and use of these aggregates” .
The term (from - Lat. terminn – “border, limit”) is a word or phrase denoting the concept of a special field of knowledge or activity. The term is included in the general lexical system of the language, but being only a means of a specific terminological system. Namely: the terms exist not just in the language, but as part of a certain terminology.
Thus, terminology is a set of terms of a given branch of production, activity, knowledge, a special sector of vocabulary formed in the language, the most accessible to conscious regulation and ordering.
The term is also closely related to concepts such as terminosystem and terminopole. If the terminology is spontaneously emerging (established) set of terms [1, 3, 4, 6, 7], the term system is a consciously formed set of terms, and sets of terms are formed on the basis of one theory (concept), and their interrelations reflect the relationship of concepts of a certain field of science, technology or field of activity [4: 107; 2: 65]. Terminology itself is a spontaneously formed set of terms reflecting the historical process of accumulation and comprehension of knowledge in a certain area. Terminology is replenished at the expense of common vocabulary and, in turn, enriches it. A terminological system appears when some area of knowledge or activity has developed sufficiently, has its own theory, has identified and realized all its basic concepts and the connections between them.
Unlike terminology, a terminological system is constructed by specialists in this field from consciously selected, and in some cases specially created words and combinations of terms, as well as terms borrowed from another language, to present the theory describing this area.
Having a specific scope of application, the terms are part of a certain terminology. Terminology is represented by the most actively developing part of the vocabulary of any language, reflecting progressive changes in science and society. Without studying the structural and semantic composition of terminology and the changes taking place in it, it is impossible to correctly understand the laws of the development of the language as a whole. Thus, the terms constitute the main, most significant and informative part of the lexical system of the general literary language .
Terminology is understood as: a set or a certain set of terms in general; a set of terms (concepts and names) of any particular branch of knowledge or activity (medical terminology, geographical, military terminology, etc.) [7:14].
V.M. Leychik speaks of terminology as “a set of lexical units of natural language, denoting the concepts of a certain special area of knowledge or activity that spontaneously develops in the process of the origin and development of this area” [2: 65].
We adhere to the opinion of A.V. Superanskaya that such a set of lexical units can relate not only to a certain special field of knowledge, “but also to the whole set of fields of scientific knowledge” , since any science presupposes special knowledge.
For the first time, the question of the consistency of terminology was raised by D.S. Lotte, in whose works it was emphasized that the consistency of terminology requires compliance with three conditions:
The terminological system should be based on the classification of concepts;
It is necessary to identify terminable features and concepts based on classification schemes;
Words should reflect the commonality of the terminating concept with others and its specificity [5: 10].
The language is constantly undergoing the process of formation of new words, in particular, the names of a professional figure, which corresponds to the ongoing process of complicating the conceptual sphere of professional communication in connection with the ongoing quantitative and qualitative changes in human experience, human practice in the process of evolution of production spheres of activity.
A systemically comparative description of terminology, on the one hand, is closely related to the identification of those relations that correlate various elements in terminology and that characterize it as a structure with a special system of organization. In this regard, the interlanguage comparison of terminology is aimed at identifying the general typological properties of terminology.
At the same time, it is important to analyze terminologization and the specific features of its manifestation in the compared languages: determining the degree of development of the terminology system and the coverage of the conceptual field of the construction science branch by this lexico-thematic terminological group in both languages.
Classes of terms unite the largest groupings of terms in hierarchical relationships in construction terminology and actually reflect the conceptual categories of independent sections of the construction industry.
The absolute majority of terms are characterized by unambiguity and correspond to the linguistic foundations of lexical and semantic formation of terms.
Multi-lexeme terms, or terms correlated with one motivating basis, represent a significant group according to the method of education. The formation of multi-lexeme terms is based on the addition of affixes, suffixes and prefixes to the generating base.