Authors: M. Aravindasamy, M. Manikandan, P. Somiyadevi
Certificate: View Certificate
This paper emphasis on the study of using lathe scrap as fiber reinforced concrete in the innovative construction industry. Every day about 3 to 4kgs of lathe waste are generated by each lathe industries in the Pondicherry region and dumped in the barren soil there by contaminating the soil and ground water, which creates an environmental issue. Hence by adopting proper management by recycling the lathe scrap with concrete is considered to be one of the best solutions. The test were conducted as per the Indian standard procedure for its flexural, split tensile and compressive strength and compared with FRC and conventional PCC. Also the workability of fresh concrete that containing different ratios of lathe scrap was carried out by using slump test. The result showed that addition of lathe scrap in to PCC mixture enhanced its compressive strength while it decreased the workability of the fresh concrete containing the lathe scrap.
Great quantities of steel waste fibers are generated from industrial lathes. This really represents an environmental problem since that steel waste fibers are difficult in biodegradation and need a large area if it is stored. Furthermore, with increasing in population and industrial activities, the quantity of waste fibers generated from various industries will increase manifold in the coming years. These scraps can be effectively used in concrete to increase its ductile property by incorporating after chopping the raw wave into small pieces. Lathe scrap is a composite material consisting of hydraulic cement, sand, coarse aggregate, water and lathe scrap. In this composite material, short discrete fibers are randomly distributed throughout the concrete mass.
The behavioral efficiency of this composite material is far superior to that of plain concrete and many other construction materials of equal cost.
Due to this benefit, the use of lathe scrap has steadily increased during the last two decades and its current field of application includes: airport and highway pavements, earthquake-resistant and explosive-resistant structures, mine and tunnel linings, bridge deck overlays, hydraulic structures, rock-slope stabilization. Extensive research work as done on lathe scrap has established that addition of various types of fibers such as steel, glass, synthetic, and carbon in plain concrete improves strength, toughness, ductility, post-cracking resistance, and etc .
Literature survey indicated that very limited studies have been conducted on lathe scrap using industrial waste fibers. Furthermore, with increasing in population and industrial activities, the quantity of waste fibers generated from various industries will increase manifold in the coming years.  These industrial waste fibers can effectively be used for making high-strength low-cost FRC after exploring their suitability. With the addition of lathe scrap, the crack widths are smaller at service load in the case of lathe scrap concrete beams as compared to plain concrete beams. To study and compare the performance of concrete using steel fibre and lathe scrap and also determine the optimum percentage of lathe scrap in concrete. To determine and compare the rate of corrosion on steel fibre and lathe scrap.
II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The investigation reported in this paper was carried out to study the feasibility of application of industrial scraps for achieving high strength concrete. They collect the waste from wire winding industries and wire drawing industries. The literature survey indicated that very limited studies have been conducted on lathe scrap using industrial waste fibers.  The study of the prism to tensile loading, it clearly seen that adding lathe scrap to a concrete matrix significantly reduces the crack width. To better understand the cracking behavior and be able to predict crack widths, it is necessary to increase the knowledge of bond slip behavior of robbed bars embedded in lathe scrap concrete and also to gain better understanding of how to accurately the characteristic length. 
A. Lathe Scraps
This paper is achieved to study the effect of using industrial steel solids wastes that resulted from lathes as fibers reinforced concrete. That steel waste is representing an environmental issue and its management by recycling it with concrete is considered to be a good solution. These results showed that the addition of lathe steel waste scrap into the plain concrete mixture enhanced its compressive strength while it decreased the workability of the fresh concrete containing the steel waste scrap. 
B. Steel Fiber
Steel fibers have been used in concrete since the early 1900s.The early fibers were round and smooth and the wire was cut or chopped to the required lengths. The use of straight, smooth fibers has largely disappeared and modern fibers have either rough surfaces, hooked ends are crimpedorundulated through their length .Modern commercially available steel fibers are manufactured from drawn steel wire, from slit sheet steel or by the melt-extraction process which produces fibers that have a crescent-shaped cross section. Typically steel fibers have equivalent diameters (based on cross-sectional area) of from 0,15 mm to 2 mm and lengths from 7 to75 mm.
Aspect ratios generally range from 20 to 100. (Aspect ratio is defined as the ratio between fiber length and its equivalent diameter, which is the diameter of a circle with an area equal to the cross-sectional area of the fiber ).Carbon steels are most commonly used to produce fibers but fibers made from corrosion-resistant alloys are available.
Stainless steel fibers have been used for high-temperature applications .Some fibers are collated into bundles using water-soluble glue to facilitate handling and mixing. Steel fibers have high tensile strength (0, 5 – 2 GPa) and modulus of elasticity (200 GPa), a ductile/plastic stress-strain characteristic and low creep. Steel fibers’ have been used in conventional concrete mixes, shotcrete and slurry-infiltrated fibber concrete. 
Typically, content of steel fiber ranges from 0.25% to 2.0% by volume. Fiber contents in excess of 2% by volume generally result in poor workability and fibber distribution, but can be used successfully where the paste content of the mix is increased and the size of coarse aggregate is not larger than about10 mm. Steel-fiber-reinforced concrete containing up to 1, 5% fiber by volume has been pumped successfully using pipelines of 125to 150 mm diameter. Steel fiber contents up to 2% by volume
.From the experimental studies and subsequent pavement analysis carried out as per IRC: 58-2002, it is concluded that the compressive strength of SSFRC increased when compared to plain cement concrete. Addition of steel scraps increases the flexural strength of SFRC to great extent. The mechanical properties of the concrete are increased by increasing the proportion of the steel scrap up to 1.5%. From 1.5% to 2.0%, it shows slight decrease in mechanical strength. At 2.0% of steel proportion, there is considerable reduction in the mechanical strength of SSFRC. It the pavement thickness is decreased by 41% and which is economical when compared to plain cement concrete slab. 
Corrosion is defined as the degradation of a material or its properties due to a reaction with the environment. Corrosion exists in virtually all materials, but is most often associated with metals. Metallic corrosion is a naturally occurring process whereby the surface of a metallic structure is oxidized or reduced to a corrosion product such as “rust” by chemical or electrochemical reaction with the environment.
The effect of immersion time of all the plant extracts at the optimum concentration showed maximum efficiency in 3h immersion time at 30oc and found sufficient for pickling process. 
III. MATERIALS USED
The materials which are used in this experimental investigation are:-
IV. EXPERIMENT WORK
In this study work, a total 60 numbers of concrete specimen were casted with and without lathe scraps and also we were casted for with and without steel fiber for finding the comparisons result. The specimens considered in this study consisted of 150mm cubes. A total 24numbers of beams and cylinders were casted with lathe scrap, with steel fiber and without fiber and lathe scrap. The specimen considered for beam and cylinders consisted of 100x100x500 and 150x300mm. The nominal mix proportion used for casting the specimen was.
The reason for selecting a variable weight fraction of fiber is due to find strength of concrete. Cement, sand and coarse aggregates were mixed in dry state using a laboratory mixer machine and then lathe scrap were added (with the addition of percentage with total quantity) in small quantities and mixed further.
The samples were casted and proper compaction will done then they are curing for various Days 7 and 28. After curing days the compression, flexural testing were conducted to obtain the strength. [25-32]
The pretreated specimens’ initial weights were noted through weighing machine and were immersed in the experimental solution by pickling process method. The experimental solution used was in 1N Nacl and 1NHcl solution. The specimens were curing for 14days than after that we immersed in the Nacl solution. Than we remove from the specimen through Nacl solution and again we immersed in Hcl solution for three hours the specimens were taken out, washed out thoroughly with distilled water, and dried completely, and their final weights were noted. From the initial and the final weights of the specimen, the loss in weight was calculated.
V. RESULT DISCUSSION
This paper presents the result and conclusions based on the available literature. The adding of lathe scrap in plain concrete enhances its strength under compression.
Addition of lathe scrap and steel fiber in concrete has some significant effect in the increase of compressive, flexural and split tensile strength when compared with P.C.C .At 0.5% of lathe scrap and steel fiber in concrete has shown no considerable increase in the strength when compared with P.C.C. About 20% to 30% increase in compressive strength of concrete mixed with lathe scrap and 50% increases in compressive strength of concrete mixed with steel fiber for 1%, 1.5% and 2% of lathe scrap and steel fiber when compared with strength of P.C.C. Additional increment of lathe scrap and steel fiber in concrete has shown no significant effect in the compression strength. From the above study it was concluded that usage of lathe scrap in concrete can reduce the waste in a large volume and thereby it may lead to a good environmental management. The lathe scrap of concrete can be used in the pavement construction, door/window frames in cost effective building.
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Sriram .\"Experimental Investigation on Fully Replacement of Steel Slag as Course Aggregate in M30 Grade Concrete\", Volume 5, Issue II, International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology (IJRASET) Page No: , ISSN : 2321-9653, www.ijraset.com  J. Vengadesh Marshall Raman, R. Senthil Raj.\"Mechanical Studies of Self Compacting Concrete Using Plastic Aggregate\", Volume 5, Issue II, International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology (IJRASET) Page No: , ISSN : 2321-9653,www.ijraset.com  J. Vengadesh Marshall Raman, R. Kirubakaran.\"Experimental Investigation of Partial Replacement of Sand by Laterite Soil in Concrete\", Volume 5, Issue II, International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology (IJRASET) Page No: , ISSN : 2321-9653, www.ijraset.com  J.Vengadesh Marshall Raman, M. Sriram.\"Study on Replacement Level of Concrete Waste as Fine Aggregate in Concrete\", Volume 5, Issue II, International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology (IJRASET) Page No: , ISSN : 2321-9653,www.ijraset.com  J.Vengadesh Marshall Raman , K.Jaiganesan , \"Durability Study on Replacement Level of Concrete Waste as Fine Aggregate in Concrete\" Vol. 2 - Issue 2 ( January - February 2017), International Journal of Research in Engineering Technologys (IJRET) , ISSN: 2455- 1341 , www.ijretjournal.org  J.Vengadesh Marshall Raman , K.Jaiganesan , \"Non-Destructive Test and Durability Studies of Self Compacting Concrete Using Plastic Aggregate\" Vol. 2 - Issue 2 ( January - February 2017), International Journal of Research in Engineering Technologys (IJRET) , ISSN: 2455- 1341 , www.ijretjournal.org  J.Vengadesh Marshall Raman and K Ajeeth Kumar , “Studies on Partially Replacement of Municipal Solid Waste Ash as Cement in Concrete” Vol. 2, No. 2, April 2017, International Journal of civil engineering and construction structures (IJCECS), ISSN: 2455-7714, www.trpubonline.com  J Vengadesh Marshall Raman and R Kirubakaran,” Durability Properties on Fuel Dispenser Hose Pipe Rubber as a Coarse Aggregate in Self Compacting Concrete” Vol. 2, No. 2, April 2017 , International Journal of civil engineering and construction structures (IJCECS),ISSN:2455-7714, www.trpubonline.com  J Vengadesh Marshall Raman and S Kirubakaran, “ Study on Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate by Crushed Waste Bottles in Concrete” Vol. 2, No. 2, April 2017, , International Journal of civil engineering and construction structures (IJCECS),ISSN 2455-7714, www.trpubonline.com  J.Vengadesh Marshall Raman, V.Murali Krishnan \"Partial Replacement of Cement with GGBS in Self Compacting Concrete for Sustainable Construction\", SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering(SSRG-IJCE),V4(3),24-28March2017.ISSN:2348–8352. www.internationaljournalssrg.org/IJCE/index.html. Published by: Seventh Sense Research Group  J Vengadesh Marshall Raman and K Chellaperumal,” Study on Mechanical Properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete” Vol. 2, No. 2, April 2017, International Journal of civil engineering and construction structures (IJCECS),ISSN:2455-7714, www.trpubonline.com  J. Venkatesh Marshall Raman “Planning and Design of Seismic Resistant Structure using Base Isolation Technique” Vol. 6, Issue 02, 2018, IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development, ISSN (online): 2321-0613, www.ijsrd.com.  J.Vengadesh Marshall Raman and N.Vijay “Experimental Study On Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete Using Metakaolin As Mineral Admixtures” Volume 10, Issue 5, May-2019 ,IJSER - International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, ISSN 2229-5518 , http://www.ijser.org  J.Vengadesh Marshall Raman and P.Soundarya “An Experimental Study On Rapid Hardening Cement Concrete Paver Blocks By Using Corundum As A Mineral Admixture” Volume 16, Issue 3 Ser. I (May. - June. 2019),IOSR- Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) e-ISSN: 2278-1684,p-ISSN: 2320-334X, , PP 01-09 www.iosrjournals.org  J.Vengadesh Marshall Raman and P.Soundarya “Planning, Designing and Estimation of High Ceiling Residential Building(G+1)” Vol. 9,Issue 5 (Series -V) May 2019, pp 60-75 ,Journal of Engineering Research and Application w.ijera.com ISSN : 2248-9622 Vol. 9,Issue 5 (Series -V) May 2019, pp 60-75  J.Vengadesh Marshall Raman, V.Gnanadevi and V.Anitha “Experimental Investigation on Quarry Dust and Recycled Aggregates in Concrete”, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Applications. ISSN 2249-426X Volume 9, Number 1 (2019), pp. 1-9 © Research India Publications http:// www.ripublication.com  J.Vengadesh Marshall Raman, R.Rajesh and P.Sabari Velswaran “Study on Strength of High Performance Concrete by Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate by Copper Slag” International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 14, Number 11 (2019) pp. 2795-2798 © Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com  J. Vengadesh Marshall Raman “Sustainable Technological Solutions For Faster And Cost Effective Construction Of Mass Housing (A Case Study Of Rapid - Monolithic - Disaster Proof Technology) “Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (JCIET) Volume 06, Issue 01, January - December 2019, pp. 01-16,ArticleID:JCIET_06_01_001Availableonlineat http://www.iaeme.com/jciet/issues.asp?JType=JCIET&VType=6&IType=1 ISSN Print: 2347-4203 and ISSN Online: 2347-4211 © IAEME Publication  Vengadesh Marshall Raman, J. & Ramasamy, V. (2020). Various treatment techniques involved to enhance the recycled the recycled coarse aggregate in concrete: A review. Material today proceedings. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.10.935  Vengadesh Marshall Raman, J. & Ramasamy, V. (2021). Augmentation of dissimilar Technique for Enhancing the Concrete properties with Recycled Coarse Aggregate and Manufactured Sand. Journal of material research and technology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2021.06.094
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