Authors: Korukanti Ashray, Kavali Poornoday, Yeravelli Manideep, T. Venkata Rao
Certificate: View Certificate
Agriculture is the backbone of India\'s economy. In the eyes of the villagers, the agricultural sector is highly significant. The key factor that determines the productivity of agricultural fields is water supply. Irrigation is a technical procedure that involves artificially delivering water to cultivated land or soil. Irrigating the land with an agriculture motor involves pumping groundwater to the surface. This concept makes farming easier for farmers by allowing them to manage their field\'s Motor from their mobile devices. A Control system, according to a wise scientist, is a system that will enable us to shut down the machine at any time. That is the distinction between a machine that is controlled and one that is not. It is the goal of our project to make this control system more efficient and dynamic. The automatic control, as the name implies, is used to regulate the Motor from a remote location, monitor its working parameters, and get input from the Motor itself. Our goal is to control the Motor from afar using a mobile DTMF tone and receive feedback via SMS when it is on or off. These feedbacks are also sent to us by SMS. Because the GSM network is available everywhere in our country, we decided to use it to control our Motor and send feedback. We also use the GSM network because it eliminates the requirement for additional networking equipment. We utilize a GSM modem at the motor end to transmit feedback signals, and we generate control signals using mobile DTMF because it is very simple to generate DTMF using a mobile station and send feedback SMS using a modem. In the industrial sector, we expect that our project will be useful and cost-effective in operating motors.
India is primarily an agricultural country, with agriculture providing all of the country's resources. Even in the modern era of industrialization, agriculture remains the most important factor in determining the country's economic progress. Agriculture also contributes for 8.56 percent of the overall exports of the country.
Agriculture is the most significant field in India. However, compared to other fields, the subsurface water level is slowly declining, and rainfall is also decreasing as a result of deforestation. In order to get the highest possible production in the agricultural process, the appropriate amount of water must be delivered on a regular basis. Only a well-planned irrigation system can accomplish this.
Irrigation is the science of planning and designing an effective, low-cost, and cost-effective irrigation system that is tailored to the needs of the environment.
Crop yield will be increased by constructing a proper distribution system and providing an appropriate water supply. These days GSM based project works are gaining popularity because of the unique facilities provided by the GSM network. The term GSM stands for Global System for mobile communications, and the network is designed based on European standards. Many concepts from simple to complex systems are designed based on this technology for various applications, but where the system designed with the GSM module is quite unique, and it is quite useful for domestic as well as commercial applications to control the appliances and get the information of accidents.
In our project, we are controlling the agricultural Motor manually and with mobile. When the power supply is given or made ON, the owner of the field receives SMS, and he also receives the level of the water in the tank. Thus, in our project farmer's one of the problems is solved. i.e., A farmer can control his field's Motor with his mobile from anywhere at any time. Here power conservation is also done.
A. Owner Receiving SMS Format
Alert water is empty Motor is OFF.
Alert, water is 10%
Alert, water is 50%
Alert, water is 90%
Alert, Motor is ON
Alert, Motor is OFF
III. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
A. Hardware Requirements :
The hardware requirements for the system are as follows:
Specifications of 0-9 750mA Center Tapped Transformer:-
2. Arduino Uno: The Arduino ATMega 328p is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328p. A 16 MHz crystal oscillator is provided, as well as 54 digital input/output pins (of which 15 can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analogue inputs, 4UARTs (hardware serial ports), a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It includes everything you'll need to get started with the microcontroller, including a USB cable to connect it to a computer and an AC-to-DC adapter or battery to power it. The ability to control several appliances from a single board is a huge plus.
3. GSM Modem: A GSM modem is a phone that accepts SIM cards from any GSM network operator and has its own phone number. This modem contains an RS232 interface that may be used to connect with and develop embedded programs, which is a big plus. GSM can be used to perform SMS control, data transfer, remote control, and logging applications.
RS232 can be used to link the modem to the Arduino microcontroller. It can send and receive SMS messages as well as make and receive phone calls. It can also connect to the internet through GPRS and run a variety of data logging and control applications. This SIM900A GSM modem is a plug-and-play quad-band modem that may be utilized with RS232 applications.
4. 5V Relay Module: A 5v relay is an automatic switch that is typically used to regulate a high-current utilizing a low-current signal in an automatic control circuit. The relay signal's input voltage varies from 0 to 5V. The single-channel relay module is used to control high-voltage, high-current loads such as solenoid valves, motors, AC loads, and lighting. This module is primarily intended for use with micro-controllers such as the PIC, Arduino, and others.
5. 12-8V Straight DC Motor: A DC motor, also known as a direct current motor, is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy by creating a direct current magnetic field. A magnetic field is formed in the stator of a DC motor when it is turned on. The field causes the rotor to rotate by attracting and repelling magnets on the rotor. The commutator, which is hooked to brushes connected to the power source, supplies current to the Motor's wire winding to keep the rotor turning. One of the advantages of DC motors over other types of motors is their ability to precisely adjust speed, which is essential for industrial machines. DC motors can start, stop, and reverse quickly, which is critical for controlling the operation of manufacturing equipment.
B. Software Requirements
Once the message is received, a remote control program will assist or guide the farmers in doing operations like turning on and off the Motor. The Motor may be turned on and off automatically by sending a text message or making a phone call using a mobile phone. The input power is supplied using a 9V step-down transformer, which is then converted from AC to DC using a bridge rectifier, and the power is regulated to a steady output of 5V using a voltage regulator.
A GSM-based Arduino Uno model is designed to control the Motor and monitor the level of the Well (water body). With the help of 3 Level indicators connected at three different levels of the Well with respect to a reference node at the bottom of the Well, the user is able to monitor the water level from a remote location by an alert mechanism when the water crosses the respective levels.
Basically, in the agricultural irrigation, the Motor is connected to the Relay, which is further connected to Arduino Uno. When an SMS or a phone call is received at the GSM module, it sends a signal to the Arduino, which then sends a high digital pulse to the Relay to turn on the Motor. Similarly, to turn off the Motor, the user can either send an SMS or make a phone call. In order to prevent the dry running of the Motor, the Arduino, with the help of level indicators, automatically turns off the motor when the water level crosses past the 10% mark.
V. RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS
The GSM-based irrigation system may offer users the flexibility to regulate and control the operations of their irrigation systems with little intervention to reduce runoff from over watering for improvement in crop yield. This enables users to take advantage of the globally deployed GSM networks with their low alerting service cost to use mobile phones and buffer to manage their irrigation system. It will be possible for users to monitor the conditions of their farmland directly and schedule the water. Needs of crops, automatically control watering and set operational control conditions in accordance with the water needs of crops. This will help minimize over-watering and crop production costs.
The system has been designed and tested using a 12-8v DC water pumping motor, and it has functioned successfully. Despite the water being pumped by the Motor, we have received timely alerts about the status of the water in the Well from the system.
As a result, the created system optimizes motor control in the field via wireless using GSM. The mechanism protects the Motor from overloads, dry running, and phase inversions. It also allows motors to be restarted automatically. The fundamental benefit of this system is that water is provided at regular intervals, and labour costs are reduced. Farmers are increasingly using mobile phones. Due to the capacity of remote control using a mobile phone, the system proves to be of immense benefit to farmers whose pump sets are located far away from their residences. Any mobile model or network can be utilized for communication, increasing the system\'s versatility. The system\'s main selling point is its low operational costs because of the use of messaging.
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Copyright © 2022 Korukanti Ashray, Kavali Poornoday, Yeravelli Manideep, T. Venkata Rao. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.