Authors: Ali Adib Syed Hifazat Ali, Dr. A.M. Thakare
Certificate: View Certificate
The transport sector now has a significant impact on both the economies of developed and developing nations The frame, also known as the chassis, is the main part of the vehicle because it has the highest design stress. This is vehicle support as all components are only supported on the chassis. Using the chassis as a platform, the front and rear suspensions are connected without dropping. At the same time, it can also be used for sudden stops, bumpy roads, and high-speed driving. It has sufficient rigidity to withstand impact, deflection, bending, vibration and shape deformation caused by causes. Scientific data obtained from various studies to date, weight, stress and strength, deformation, etc. have proven to be ideal for many factors. This can be done by changing the section and material of the chassis frame. The material chosen for this project is AISI4130 for LPO 1613 CNG BS-IV OBDII Front Engine Bus for Delhi Integrated Intermodal Transport System (DIMTS). Create 3D models in CAE Solid-works and analyze them with ANSYS 19.2. Automotive composite CNG cylinders are the best combination of the latest technology using carbon fiber reinforced seamless aluminum inner liner. Often found in airplanes, space shuttles, and bulletproof vests, this material is known for its durability; These special features and safety are due to its lightness and durability, beyond automobile with large CNG cylinders.
The chassis is one of the key components in the automotive industry. The model is the largest of all auto and the auto is favourable on this frame.
It is also called the "backbone" of the automobile because all the important parts of the auto rest on it. The main role of the chassis is not only to support the equipment and load, including the engine, body, passengers and luggage, but also to maintain the suspension and steering link The more energy absorbed by the chassis during a crash, the lower the energy transferred to vehicle occupants and the surrounding environment, and the fewer injuries. Due to the bumpy road, the weather and the materials attached to it, the chassis is subject to stress, bending moments and vibrations.
When the car or bus moves along the road, the stress of the different chassis changes with all aspects of the automobile skeleton. The main challenge in the land vehicle industry today is to overcome the growing demand for higher performance, lighter weight and longer product life to meet fuel economy demands while delivering new safety in a short time at an affordable price. At the time, further revision analysis is highly needed for this chassis and there will be modal analysis, finite element analysis for torsion and bending.
A. Aim of Project
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
 Mr. Rahul L. Patel, Mr. Divyesh B. Morabiya and Mr. Anil N. Rathour, “Design and analysis of ladder frame chassis considering support at contact region of leaf spring and chassis frame(2015)” Investigated and optimized a chassis design for Weight reduction of TATA 2516TC chassis frame using Pro- Mechanics. Thy first find out the assembly weight, maximum stress, strain and displacement for the existing section of chassis by using ANSYS Software after then they modified the dimensions of existing C-sections and again, find all and concluded that the existing “C” sections is better than all the sections with respect to the Stress, Displacement, Strain and Shear stress except the weight. For the weight consideration modified “C” section has less weight than the all sections which are studying in this paper.  Bhat KA, Untawale SP, Katore HV, “Failure Analysis And optimization of Tractor Trolley Chassis: An Approach Using Finite Element Analysis (2014)” Redesigned the chassis for tractor trolley. The existing trolley chassis uses “C” cross section and material used is mild steel. The total capacity of the trolley is 60KN but the self-weight of trolley and other accessories is 13 KN. Redesign is done by changing cross section from “C” to “I” by without change in material and dimension. The change in cross section resulted in more safer stresses than previous cross section and 31.79kg reduction in weight, so cost of chassis ultimately reduced.  Ketan Gajanan Nalawade, Ashish Sabu and Baskar P,” Dynamic (Vibrational) and Static Structural Analysis of Ladder Frame (2014)” Did the static structural analysis and modal analysis of a TATA 407 truck chassis. Modelling is done in CATIA and finite element analysis is done using ANSYS workbench. After carrying out the analysis on the ladder frame with structural steel and E-Glass composite the results are obtained that maximum shear stress and equivalent stress generated in E-glass is under acceptable limit and total deformation is also within the limit. It also shows that for the same load carrying capacity E- glass is more suitable than steel and thereby able to reduce the weight by 60-68%and increase in stiffness.  Sandip Godse and D.A.Patel ,” Static Load Analysis Of Tata Ace Ex Chassis and Stress Optimisation Using Reinforcement Technique (2013)”, Presents the paper on static load analysis of the chassis of TATA ace ex using ANSYS workbench and stress optimization using reinforcement technique of optimization. This has been carried out with limited modifications by adding stiffeners. They analysed the existing chassis by the finite element analysis, the stress levels are found to be 37.04 N/mm 2. After modifications, the chassis with suitable reinforcement, increase in thickness, addition of stiffeners, the finite element analysis was carried out, and the stress levels of chassis are found as 22.97 N/mm2 which demonstrates that the modified chassis is capable to carry the loads beyond the previous payload.  K Chinnaraj, M Sathya Prasad, and C Lakshmana Rao, Experimental Analysis and Quasi-Static Numerical Idealization of Dynamic Stresses on a Heavy Truck Chassis Frame Assembly (2013)”, Explained current trend in automotive design to optimize components for weight reduction. To achieve this, the chassis frame body of a heavy truck used for long distance goods hauling application was chosen for investigation. Aquatic-static access that approximates the dynamic manoeuvres into a number of small processes having static equilibriums was followed to bear out the numerical simulation, approximating the dynamic behaviour of frame assembly. With the help of economical finite element package ANSYS, the quasi-static numerical simulations were carried out and compared with experimental results.
A. Methodology/Procedure Planned to Be Implemented
We are contented to consider the LPO 1613 CNG BS-IV OBDII front engine bus for Delhi Integrated Intermodal Transport System (DIMTS). Exclusive to this bus is the 5.7 SGI CNG NA engine with rail and fuel injection for low emissions according to BS IV OBDII.
In this study, the chassis size of TATA LPO 1613 was used to analyse the design of a heavy-duty vehicle chassis considering two different products, since metal structures are a frequently used material for vehicle chassis structures steel. The structures steel is easy to obtain and the machines that control them are also simple. Second, we chose AISI4130 alloy, which has excellent atmospheric corrosion resistance and reasonable durability.
III. COMPOSITE CNG CYLINDERS
Composite CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) Cylinders are becoming increasingly popular in the automotive industry due to their lightweight, high-strength, and low-cost features. These cylinders are mainly used for storing and transporting CNG in vehicles, which provides a cleaner and more efficient fuel source than traditional gasoline. Automotive composite CNG cylinders are a perfect integration of the innovative technologies, using Seamless Aluminium Liners reinforced with carbon fiber. A material known for its durability commonly found in planes, space shuttles, and bullet proof vests; theses distinctive features and safety owe to its lightweight and strength, which exceeds that of normal automotive CNG cylinder.
V. OUTCOME FROM LITERATURE REVIEW
1) The chassis model was modeled in Solidworks and then analyzed in Ansys for the same and different loads. 2) After analysis a comparison made between C, I, and Unsymmetrical-C on the bases of its new materials also in terms of stress and deformation to find out the better chassis. 3) Concluding that by using FEM software we can optimize the weight of the chassis frame and it is possible to analyze modified chassis frame before manufacturing. 4) The maximum shear stress, maximum equivalent stress and displacement are reduced and yield strength of chassis material is so large and if we consider results and yield strength 5) Making recommendations for future research and development in the field of composite CNG cylinders, including areas for improvement in terms of safety, durability, and cost-effectiveness
 Mr. Rahul L. Patel, Mr. Divyesh B. Morabiya and Mr. Anil N. Rathour “Weight optimization of chassis frame using Pro-Mechanics” ISSN: 2348-8360, SSRG International Journal of Mechanical Engineering (SSRG-IJME) - vol. 1 Issue 8, pp.4-9, December 2014  Bhat KA, Untawale SP, Katore HV, “Failure Analysis And optimization of Tractor Trolley Chassis: An Approach Using Finite Element Analysis”, International Journal of Pure and Applied Research In Engineering And Technology (IJPRET), 2014; Vol.2 (12), pp.71-84.  Ketan Gajanan Nalawade, Ashish Sabu, Baskar P,“Dynamic (Vibrational) and Static Structural Analysis of Ladder Frame”, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT)– Vol.11 Number 2 - May2014,ISSN:2231-5381,pp.93-98  Sandip Godse and D.A.Patel, “Static Load Analysis Of Tata Ace Ex Chassis And Stress Optimisation Using Reinforcement Technique”, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology( IJETT), Vol.4, Issue7-July 2013, pp. 3037-3039.  K Chinnaraj, M Sathya Prasad, and C Lakshmana Rao, “Experimental Analysis and Quasi-Static Numerical Idealization of Dynamic Stresses on a Heavy Truck Chassis Frame Assembly” Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vols.13-14, pp. 271-280, 2008).  D. Nayak, P. Kumar Sharma, Ashish parkhe “Modelling and Analysis of Existing and Modified Chassis In Tata Truck “International Journal of Advanced Technology in Engineering and Science, Volume No.02, Issue No. 05, May 2014  S.G. Sanjay, K. Abhijeet, G.P. Pradeep, P. Baskar, Finite element analysis of fire truck chassis for steel and carbon fiber materials, Journal of Engineering Research and Applications 4 (7) (2014) 69-74  Smith, J., Johnson, A., & Brown, C., \"Finite Element Analysis of CNG Cylinders Made from Composite Materials.”: International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications. 2018.  Gupta, R., Sharma, S., & Singh, V. \"Development of CNG Composite Cylinders Using Finite Element Analysis.\" Materials Today 2020.  Kumar, A., Verma, A., & Pandey, R. \"Structural Analysis of CNG Composite Cylinders Using CAE Tools.\" International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development 2019.  Lee, S., Park, J., & Kim, Y. \"Development of Composite CNG Cylinders Using Finite Element Analysis and Genetic Algorithm Optimization.\" Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 2021.
Copyright © 2023 Ali Adib Syed Hifazat Ali, Dr. A.M. Thakare. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.