Authors: Prof. Pallavi Patil, Ankit Fabian, Hrithik Waghmode, Rushikesh Barkul
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As home security has become an important aspect in life and is necessary to be in every home due to the rising crime rates and robbery that is happening in out day to day life. In this work in progress paper we evaluate an application of home security system using Arduino. This project is based on the implementation in the IOT domain home security system which will allow to make homes secure from anywhere in the world. The main objective of this project is it should be cost effective and at the same time also secure, and this can be achieved by the use of IOT devices and other low cost electronic components and using them in such a way to build a secure home security system. This project was remove some of the limitations in the previous home security system apllications. Home security is very useful application of the IOT domain and we will be using it to build a low cost security system that can be addorded by almost everyone.
During the past few years, Internet was known as a big mass from where we could acquire data. Embedding mobile transceivers to everyday items and gadgets and enabling them into new forms of bi-directional communication between people, and people with things. That paradigm, known as Internet of Things was first introduced by Kevin Ashton in 1998 has recently gained more attention and interest in the academia and industry, and this would enhance a new dimension to the world of Information and communication technology. IOT has a very high positive impact on our lives. IOT has many definitions from several perspectives, however they all revolve around exchanging, collecting and communications between the different things and ‘things’ with people with the help of the internet. The vision of the smarter life IOT promises soon through various applications in making smart home security possible, which starts from basically monitoring different parts of home, to actually controlling them. The integration of IOT and home security has made is possible to monitor and secure homes from anywhere in the world. The IoT or Internet of Things is referred to the network in which there are connected physical objects that can communicate and interchange data among themselves without the need of any human interference. It has been defined as the “Infrastructure of Information Society”, because IoT lets us collect information from almost all kinds of means such as humans, animals, vehicles, kitchen appliances, etc. So any object that is there in the physical world which can be given an IP address to allow data transmission over a network can be made a part of IoT systems, by embedding or using them with different kinds of electronic hardware such as sensors, software and networking gear. IOT is not same like the internet as it only uses internet to connect to our everyday devices which are embedded with circuits to communicate and interact with each other using the internet configuration. The scope of IOT applications and project and grown extremely as it consists of more than 200 crores and will grow more and more with innovation and development in this field. Some examples of the IOT integrated with home security systems are: leakage of gas or smoke detection using smoke sensors and also giving notifications for the same, monitoring the home through surveillance camera that is there in homes or car while the person is away or even remote central locking and many other applications. With the growing technology and innovation in the internet of things, the applications of the IOT are present in almost every aspect of our life. Due to IOT both manufacturers of it and even the consumers of it have benefited. With so much growth of IoT both manufacturers and consumers have benefited. Manufacturers have gained insight into how their products will perform out in the real world and increase their revenues by providing more value added services which enhances and increases the lifecycle of their products and services. While on the other Consumers have the ability to integrate and control more than one devices at the same time form a single device for a more customized and improved user experience.
II. LITERATURE SURVEY
A. GSM Technology for Security
There were previous designs in which one of those were security for smart home based on the GSM technology. It provided two methods to implement the home security using IOT. The first one was using web cameras in such a way that if there was any motion detected by the camera, it would sound an alarm and send a mail to the owner. This method was very good but, it was expensive due to the cost of the motion sensor cameras that were used in the project. And in the second method the camera to use would have to be of good quality and should have good range and wide angle to detect the movement.
The movable cameras which are known as the dome cameras which cost even more. A SMS based system using GSM was proposed in which it would use the internet services to send the messages or even alerts to the house owner . The GSM technology can also be used for various sensors like IR sensors for sensing human presence to open and close the doors; LPG gas sensor which is known as the MQ_2 sensor to detect the gas leakage in kitchens and a smoke detector to detect if a fire occurs. A lot of additional things can be added like the temperature sensor, camera and other sensing devices for the improvement of the smart home security systems. These sensing values or the signals are sent to the microcontroller which will take necessary actions and perform the particular task.
B. Fingerprint Scanner for Security
A fingerprint based authentication system to unlock a door . In this system it helps the users to gain access in the house by the fingerprint authentication. And this was also used to monitor the members, when they entered the house and what time they came. This system was coupled with few more features to make the home more secure. The features were gas leak and fire accidents detection. As a good fingerprint authentication system is very expensive and difficult as they need to have high sensor resolution to incorporate into an IOT setup. Some experts also believe that only having a fingerprint system is not good as it is comparatively very easy to lift anyone’s fingerprints and make a replica of them, which is why it is advised to have a fingerprint scanner with 2 factor authentication in which it uses the fingerprint scanner as well as add another layer of security in which it will use a password or a pin.
C. Robust Security with Backup
Some researchers came up with an idea of robust IOT based home security system where a single fault in the system would not lead to the failure of the entire security system. The system would use multiple devices which may or may not be compatible with each other, but can be made to work in such a way that they can replace a particular component in case of failure. For eg: for the door security system when a finger print scanner is used for the authentication of the user. If this finger print scanner fails to identify the user or the owner which could in a lot of possible situations like wet or dirty fingers. Instead of failing that it would have a pin so that the owner can access or enter the home even if the fingerprint scanner failed. Another example of the robust IOT smart home security system would be for the intrusion. The door would have an LDR sensor and a laser light focused to it which would be used to detect intrusion as soon as the light is disrupted and the light does not reach the LDR it will send a signal to the microcontroller which activate the alarm alerting the people around it about an unauthorized access. In some case if this fails or the intruder bypasses this security it would also have magnetic system attached to the door. This will work when the door is opened forcefully and the magnet losses contact with the sensor it will send the signal to the microcontroller which will activate the alarm or the buzzer. In addition to this the model has the ability to overlap between various devices that are there which would result in preserving the energy. This would make the model more efficient. An example of the given model would use a Wi-Fi module, temperature sensor and a door sensor to replace the faulty camera. In this the authors were successful in demonstrating the given example. However systems like these are useful for people who need very high degree of robustness and security. This would also mean it will require a lot of energy and would be suitable for people ready to spend a lot. As this smart home security system will have not only one but several security features as mentioned in the examples, which will work with each other and have backup security feature if one fails.
D. LDR(Photoresistor) Sensor for Security
The LDR sensor also known as the photo resistor was used to detect intrusion using their movement was proposed in 2016. In this system a laser was focused on an LDR sensor. . It also contained a buzzer or an alarm which is connected to the microcontroller which would be used to alert the people around the home or the neighbors. The intrusion was detected whenever the laser light which was focused on the LDR was disrupted, as soon as the light was disrupted and the light did not reach the LDR it would send a signal to the microcontroller and then from there the buzzer or the alarm would get activated. It would also send an SMS to the owner. This system solved the problem of covering the places which are out of range from the fixed cameras. And even made it cheap to use where there was no need of installing a camera. But the system faced difficulties as this consisted of the GSM technology to send the text messages which would completely depend on the network coverage. Also as the nature of laser being straight, it can be very easily avoided by the intruders who know about the systems and are capable of avoiding the lasers, making the whole system unserviceable.
III. RELATED WORKS
This section concisely presents the most relevant literature publications on the topic. The authors in  provided an Overview of the security in the smart homes and their main components.
Then, they listed out different security issues related to smart home systems. In addition, they also provided a summary of the security studies which were conducted to address the security problems in smart homes security systems and gave some possible solutions to overcome these problems.
The authors in  presented a brief survey of the workings that use the IoT and big data in smart homes security systems. Additionally, they provided the technologies which were required to enable IoT and big data in smart homes, along with their possible applications and uses.
In , the authors described the benefits and the applications of using the IoT in smart home security systems. Then, they dedicated an entire section to IoT-based smart home security systems. In which, they presented the use of sensors such as infrared sensors(IR), passive infrared sensors(PIR) sensors, and cameras for developing the motion detection security systems. Different smart home applications were provided by the authors in  which were IOT based. They also described a number of concerns in the IOT based smart home security systems such as data management, communications issues, etc.
The authors in  and  presented a number of interesting
Purposes and functions of smart home systems. Then, they described the controlling processes and monitoring of the smart homes and also emphasized on the advantages and disadvantages of various wireless technologies such as, GSM, Bluetooth, ZigBee, and Wi-Fi. Furthermore, they provided an overview of different smart home designs. The authors in  and  focused on the enabling technologies, security challenges, and the applications in the smart homes. In  a systematic review on the smart home systems and their applications were conducted by the authors in which it focused on the user’s perspective. Additionally they also presented benefits of different types of smart home systems, and they highlighted the barriers and challenges of implementing smart home security systems.
The focus of the mentioned studies was not to conduct a committed systematic literature study on smart home safety and security systems. In contrast, our paper presents a complete and systematic literature study with a well-defined research methodology to investigate several features of smart home safety and security systems, such as applications, challenges with possible solutions, architectures, enabling technologies, and possible research gaps. Thus, this covers the details of other works on this topic by addressing many important research questions that are not addressed in the literature. Possibly, this study provides a much more detailed survey on the development and the use of smart home safety and security systems.
Safety and security are one of the major issus or challenges faced by everyone on earth today, we are now headed into the third decade of the 21st century, Technology and innovation over the years has made the systems very efficient these days which can turn some of the security agencies green with envy. Installing an IOT home security system can go a long way in providing protection against Intruders. we are now observing that more and more digital devices all around us in our daily life, with the growing need of technology they indeed influence our living and we cannot even Imagine one single day without using them, that is why IoT based home security system is certainly a timely project. In this time of increasing theft and crime, it has become important to safeguard your house with suitable and efficient safety devices. The security of home is not only a concern for the people who can easily afford the expensive systems but also for the middle class. The main aim of the project is to create or build an IOT based home security systems which are not only available for the rich but can also be affordable by the middle class as security is becoming a very important aspect in life.
In this paper, we introduced an IOT based home security system which is not only safe to use but also cost effective.Home security system is a solution to problems like theft, instruction, fire, energy conservation etc. The Raspberry Pi is a great platform for building highly capable, embedded systems. This makes it possible for users to rest assured that their belongings are secure. Now a day’s people are not aware about the importance of energy conservation. So in our project we are implementing a system for energy conservation by the use of PIR sensor. So this will save the electricity. The end product will have a very simple design making it easy for users to interact with. In conclusion the project is aimed at developing a cost effective and a useful security system for Home against fire and intruders.
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Copyright © 2022 Prof. Pallavi Patil, Ankit Fabian, Hrithik Waghmode, Rushikesh Barkul. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.