Authors: Pankaj Tiwari , R. S. Parihar , Abhay Kumar Jha, Barun Kumar, Rajesh Misra
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While the density of the fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) is determined right away after the concrete mix has been prepared, the compressive strength and split tensile strength of the FRC are tested 7 and 28 days after it has been cured. As a result of adding polypropylene fibre, new fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) has a marginally or barely decreased density from 2397 kg/m3 to 2393 kg/m3, according to the results in laboratory. Waste polypropylene fibre boosts the strength of fibre reinforced concrete for all curing ages up to a particular degree (FRC). After that, there is a rapid decline in the strength of the fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC). It is recommended to add 0.5% of polypropylene fibre for maximum strength and minimal brittleness. The inclusion of 0.5% waste polypropylene fibre raises the split tensile strength and compressive strength of the fiber-reinforced concrete by 16.9908% and 9.988470%, respectively (FRC).
The use of fly ash in concrete technology is without a doubt beneficial to a nation's economy because fly ash creates environmental damage and the expense of fly ash storage is very high. Fly ash concrete offers a comprehensive strategy that can help us meet the objectives of meeting the increasing demand for concrete, improving concrete durability with little to no cost increase (in some cases reduced cost), and environmentally disposing of significant amounts of solid waste from coal-fired power plants. Numerous studies on concrete that contained fly ash found that it had outstanding mechanical and durability qualities. Despite fly ash's advantages, there are still issues with its field application. Due to the sluggish process of the pozzolanic reaction of fly ash, which contributes to the strength development only at later ages, the strength of concrete containing a high volume of fly ash as a partial cement replacement is much lower than that of control concrete at early stages of ageing. Instead of being a waste product, silica fume is a by-product of the silicon metal and ferro-silicon alloy industries, and its use in concrete technology has grown recently. The interfacial zone of cement paste-aggregate has significantly improved, and silica fume is known to boost the early strength and durability of concrete, producing a high-strength concrete. Silica fume is frequently used in two ways: as a cement substitute to lower cement content (mostly for financial reasons); and as an addition to enhance the qualities of concrete (in both the fresh and hardened phases). Therefore, silica fume treatment along with fly ash application gives an intriguing alternative to boost the early strength of concrete containing fly ash, and several researchers have lately done tests employing a combination of the two by-products. However, numerous study successes suggest that silica fume addition may result in the concrete having a more brittle structure. Since ductility improvement is a key objective in concrete science, researchers must take this into consideration.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
Klyuev et al. (2018) The paper demonstrates the effectiveness of using fibre concrete in building. The process for producing fine-grained concrete with a high level of quality is demonstrated. The physical and mechanical properties of the filler were discovered after researching the chemical make-up of the binder. Both anchor and fir-tree-shaped steel fibres were investigated. The results of the studies undertaken demonstrated the value of steel fibre dispersion reinforcing. It is known that the use of fibre in the shape of a fir tree results in the best improvement of operational qualities.
Grzymski et al. (2019) Due to the concrete's brittleness, structural concrete members that are subjected to tensile pressures shatter. By incorporating different fibres into the concrete mixture, it is possible to lessen the brittleness of the concrete and produce a composite material known as fibre reinforced concrete (FRC). This study investigates if recycled steel fibres, which are derived from machining process waste, might improve concrete's ductility.
Basic information on fibre reinforced concrete is supplied, including the numerous types of fibre, how steel fibre addition affects the material's mechanical properties, and how to test the key flexural qualities of FRC in accordance with various standards. For three sets of test specimens that varied in their fibre composition, the impact of a fibre addition was investigated. As a reference, a series composed of plain concrete was prepared. The concrete matrix in the other two groups received identical volume fractions of two different types of steel fibres as reinforcement. In the first series, standard hook-end fibres were used, and in the second series, suggested recycled fibres were used. On cube and beam specimens, basic mechanical characteristics such compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, and equivalent flexural strength were examined. Furthermore, the distribution of strains in the centre cross section of the bent, recycled steel fiber-reinforced beams was identified. It is studied and explored whether recycled steel fibres could replace the fibres that are typically used to reinforce concrete.
Shaikh et al. (2020) The cutting-edge cement-based material known as ultrahigh performance fibre reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) boasts a compressive strength of more than 150 MPa, as well as higher tensile and flexural strengths, ductility, and outstanding endurance. This analysis of previous studies on several influential factors is essential in acquiring fundamental information for its applicability. Therefore, the goal of this study was to review the existing literature on UHPFRCs that looks at the characteristics of an ideal UHPFRC, such as mechanical properties, such as compressive, tensile, and flexural strengths; mixing ratios and environmental friendliness; curing regimes; the impact of specimen size on its compressive, tensile, and flexural strength as well as loading rate; and the effects of fibre properties, such as type, geometry, length, and volume fractions; The best UHPFRC combination was subsequently found to be one that could be made with 2% to 3% of steel fibre content and a water/cement ratio of 0.2. Additionally, the compressive, tensile, and flexural strengths of the UHPFRCs produced by curing at 90 °C were 49% higher than those of the samples treated at 20 °C. The review clarifies the essential elements of making UHPFRC that is environmentally beneficial for use in future applications, as the existing UHPFRC contains roughly twice as much cement as regular concrete.
Heyang Wu et al. (2020) Due to its superior mechanical qualities compared to regular concrete, fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) has seen a rise in popularity in recent years. Fire resistance must always be taken into consideration when applying FRC to structures such as infrastructure, buildings, and other strategically significant structures. The fire resistance of FRC would be impacted by various fibre kinds, fibre doses, and cementitious matrix designs, according to the results of the current tests. This essay provides a thorough analysis of recent studies on the fire resistance of FRC. We address the permeability, spalling, compressive strength, tensile strength, elastic modulus, toughness, and mass loss of steel fibre reinforced concrete, polypropylene fibre reinforced concrete, and hybrid fibre reinforced concrete in particular. Additionally, a summary and comparison of the current FRC residual property forecasting equations are provided.
Khan et al. (2020) The multi-level process of cracking causes damage to cement- or concrete-based materials. Multi-scale hybrid fibres can now be used in concrete to increase its resistance to cracking. In this study, the reinforcing index and constitutive modelling are examined for varied basalt fibre concentrations in plain concrete, single fibre reinforced concrete, two hybrid fibre reinforced concrete, and multi-scale hybrid fibre reinforced concrete. Empirical equations between strength characteristics and the reinforcing index are derived, and the reinforcing index is computed for hybrid fibres. Additionally, it is possible to compare experimental results with various models and the constitutive models of the compressive stress-strain relationship. Additionally, from the stress-strain and load-deflection curves, compressive and flexural characteristics' absorbed energies and toughness indices are derived, respectively. The SEM examination is carried out to investigate the fiber-matrix bond and multi-level cracking process. The results of the empirical equation were consistent with the experimental findings in terms of strength attributes. The results of several uniaxial compressive stress-strain curve mathematical models are in good accord with the results of the experiments. It is discovered that 0.8% basalt fibre content, 1% CaCO3 whisker, and 0.25% steel fibre content produced the best mechanical performance for multi-scale hybrid fibre reinforced concrete.
Xu et al. (2020) Experimental research is done on the mechanical characteristics of concrete reinforced with cellulose fibre (CTF), polyvinyl alcohol fibre (PF), and polyolefin fibre appropriate for different sprays (VS). On axial compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and shear strength of concrete, the individual effects of single fibre as well as the synergistic effect of hybrid fibre are explored. A specimen of fiber-reinforced concrete's microstructures and stress-strain relationship are both seen. The findings indicate that CTF alone strengthens the axial compressive strength of concrete but weakens the splitting tensile strength. VS also weakens the splitting tensile strength but has no influence on the other two strengths. Only with the right fibre dosage does hybrid fibre have a favourable synergistic effect on mechanical characteristics. The synergistic effect of hybrid fibre varies with dosage. CTF-PF hybrid fibre is shown to work best when combined with 1.0 kg/m3 polyvinyl alcohol fibre and 1.5 kg/m3 cellulose fibre to produce the best synergistic effect. Also presented are the practical ramifications of CTF, PF, and VS.
Zhu and Jia (2021) The effects of glass fibre (GF) and polypropylene fibre (PPF) on the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of concrete as a function of the water/binder ratio and fibre content are the subject of a thorough experimental study, the findings of which are presented in this paper. The concrete specimens for the experiment were made using various water/binder ratios (0.30 and 0.35), GF and PPF contents (0.45, 0.90, and 1.35% by volume fractions), and curing durations (7 and 28 d). The compressive, splitting, and four-point flexural tensile strengths as well as the complete curves of water absorption of glass- and polypropylene-fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) were measured. In-depth analyses were done on the strengths and water absorption characteristics of GFRC/PPFRC. To examine the mechanism underlying the impacts of the water/binder ratio and the fibre, scanning electron microscope observation was carried out. The findings demonstrated that the ideal fibre content can be influenced by the water to binder ratio. The influence of the water/binder ratio should be taken into account when considering how fibres can improve the mechanical or microstructural qualities of concrete. When it came to improving water absorption, GF's effect was noticeably better than PPF's. The water absorption of GFRC and PPFRC tended to be steady as the test went on when the water/binder ratio was 0.30, but when it was increased to 0.35, the water absorption of the GFRC and PPFRC with the greatest fibre dosage continued to rise as the testing period was extended.
Zhang et al. (2022) Concrete has been strengthened using basalt fibre reinforced polymer (BFRP)fibres. A recently proposed BFRP fibre with a double-helix structure has a better bond-slip behaviour between the fibre and concrete matrix, improving the reinforcing effects on concrete materials. This study conducts laboratory tests to look into the static and dynamic properties of BFRP fibre reinforced concrete (BFRC) under compression and tension loadings in order to further analyse the contribution of double-helix BFRP fibres to the impact resistance of concrete material. First up is an analysis of how the volume fraction of double-helix BFRP fibres affects the mechanical characteristics of concrete under quasi-static loads. It has been discovered that raising the volume fraction of BFRP fibres to 1.5% enhances the BFRC's compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and flexural performance. At a 3 mm deflection, the BFRC's toughness is 3.8 times more than plain concrete's, and its uniaxial compressive strength and splitting tensile strength are both improved by 10.7% and 16.2%, respectively. Furthermore, utilising split Hopkinson pressure bar test equipment, compressive, spitting tensile, and spall tests were conducted to examine the dynamic mechanical characteristics of BFRC with 1.5% fibre volume percent. According to test results, the insertion of double-helix BFRP fibres improves concrete's strain rate sensitivity in terms of its strength, ductility, and energy absorption capacity. The rate sensitivity increases with the strain rate and becomes more pronounced. Empirical formulas of DIF-strain rate relations for the compressive and tensile strengths of BFRC are proposed based on the test results.
III. MATERIAL USED
A. Potable Water
The strength of hardened fibre reinforced concrete and how quickly new concrete sets up depend largely on the sort of water we utilise (FRC). Additionally, it increases the chance of fibre degradation, especially when using steel fibres. But in order to mould and lay concrete in the correct shape and location, as well as to hydrate cement, water is required. A minimum water/cement ratio of 0.28 is required, according their research, according to (4) (Balaguru and Shah, 1992), for suitable water for hydration. Drinkable water is suitable for use with concrete. If water has excessive levels of sodium, potassium salts, or suspended particles, it cannot be used to mix concrete. Care must be taken with the water to avoid contamination from split admixtures and other sources. We used fresh, clean tap water to cast the specimens for our study. The water was mostly free of any organic elements, sugar, silt, oil, chloride, and acidic material, according to (9) BIS: 456-2000.
Based on the above study following conclusions can be made: 1) A thorough analysis of the test data reveals that the addition of waste polypropylene fibre significantly affects the fibre reinforced concrete\\\'s 7 and 28 day compressive strength as well as split tensile strength (FRC). The compression strength and split tensile strength of conventional concrete are raised by up to 10% and 17%, respectively, by adding 0.5% of the weight of cement, it is clear from the large change that the addition of waste polypropylene fibre in a specific quantity, i. e. Results from experiments have also shown similar patterns. As a result, both the experiment\\\'s and statistical analysis\\\' results are consistent. 2) The mixture with the highest compressive and tensile strengths has produced by adding 0.50% fibre and a 0.55 W/C ratio. Therefore, this blend is suggested for maximum strength. This work was completed with the grants and facilities of Lakshmi Narain College of Technology, Bhopal (M.P.). Authors are thankful to this institute and faculties for extending this cooperation.
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Copyright © 2022 Pankaj Tiwari , R. S. Parihar , Abhay Kumar Jha, Barun Kumar, Rajesh Misra. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.