Authors: Dr. Ashish Kumar Sharma, Dr. Nirmal Kumar
DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.22214/ijraset.2023.50713
Certificate: View Certificate
Abstract: \"Business ethics\" refers to a company\'s moral duty to its employees to support balance, fairness, and justice. Safety in the workplace, respect, fairness, privacy, basic human rights, fair treatment of workers, and honest processes are all part of human resource management\'s ethical scope. For example, many companies that let people work from home think that it\'s important to keep an eye on their employees. Ethical time tracking lets companies keep track of what their workers are doing without going against their morals. To do this, the quality of stored voice and video is on purpose made worse. So, once Human Resources has learned the ethical problems that come up in their field, they will be better able to find and keep good people, since it is generally agreed that it is up to the person to make ethical decisions. Ethics are becoming more important in human resource management for a number of reasons. These include globalization, which has forced organizations to change their policies to work in the global economy, and rising competition, which has forced businesses to look for new ways to get ahead and make more money. The company has begun to think about how making ethical decisions could give it an edge in the market. This is because it is important to make sure that any business decisions are based on only the right information. In this paper, we will discuss about the HRM and its ethical conduct.
A. The Concept Of Ethical Conduct
The term ethics originates from the Greek word "ethnos," which translates as "custom or character." The ethical dimension of a person's character is its moral or cognitive dimension.[i] When addressing the professional culture, ethics is one of the most critical factors to consider when making business decisions.[ii] Ethics is a broad concept with several applications in society and business.[iii] It has been characterized as the social group that has recognized norms or ideas that separate right from wrong, good from evil, and what to do and what not to do. As a distinct viewpoint was adopted in the discussion of ethics and business ethics, it was said that ethics are not simply created via experience and reason.[iv] Several criteria go into determining what is ethically good or evil. Morality may be based on a person's values or society's norms; it differs from one person to another and between cultures.[v]
Unethical behaviour violates a company's, institution's, or society's stated and commonly practiced moral norms.[vi] On the other hand, ethical behaviour may be characterized as a set of morally acceptable acts that are both beneficial and generally recognized.[vii] There are several areas wherein the social group has similar ground, notwithstanding conceptual and cultural differences. For example, if a nation has low safety rules, selling dangerous or harmful goods may be lawful. However, it may elicit some immoral sentiments from the selling nation.[viii]
B. Ethics: Theoretical Framework
There are two approaches to ethical framework development: normative and descriptive. The term "Normative theory" refers to collecting actions that persons should do according to generally accepted standards and norms. Individuals' actions, i.e., their mental processes, are described in descriptive theory.[ix] Normative theories come in a variety of flavors.[x]
It is discussed in this theory how the ultimate conclusion in the pursuit of pleasure results in the maximum quantity of productivity and value being created ("the most good for the greatest number").[xi] It creates the boundaries between what is proper and what is erroneous. This is a reflection of the theory of consequences. Others believe that this is the ultimate goal of humankind: to make the most significant number of people happy.[xii] The aggregative-distributive theory was the name given to this kind of theory.[xiii] Utilitarianism has been stated briefly, with the author highlighting the primary goal of increasing the global good.
An enormous number of alternative theories have been offered in an attempt to call into question the concept of happiness, as well as the link between pleasure and pain.[xiv]
a. Drawback: There are several situations in which pragmatic decision-making may be unethical. 1. Circumstances in which one person gains at the expense of the rest of the community decisions that lead to the failure or insufficiency of the intended outcome.[xv]
b. Example: Consider the case of four persons who need one organ from each of the following: a lung, a kidney, a heart, and a liver. Assuming that a person who has all of these organs visits a hospital, his or her organs may be utilized to save the lives of those four people in return for the sacrifice of the person who possesses the organs. The ultimate objective is to provide the most incredible amount of benefit to the most significant number of people, and it is thus OK to sacrifice that one life to save four lives in the long run. Although this is a reasonable plan based on logic, it does have certain disadvantages.[xvi]
2. Deontology Theory
The theory of deontology developed by Immanuel Kant has impacted current management. "Deontology" comes from the Greek word "demon," which means "duty," and refers to the study of moral obligations. It is concerned with the need and science of God's message (logos).[xvii] According to the concept, rules, responsibility, responsibility to one's family, nation, and others were top priorities. Rather than focusing on the outcome, this theory emphasizes the motivation behind a decision. According to Kantian deontology, the decision-making drive has always been flawless in its implementation.[xviii]
Duty-based ethics theories have been criticized by many for presenting justice and equality in society in a distorted manner. However, many authors have provided a variety of inconsistent and conflicting opinions on the subject; some represent it as a source of kindness and righteousness, while others paint it as a source of evil and wickedness.[xix] Some have interpreted the phrase as meaning that there is no such thing as happiness.[xx] Numerous witnesses have stated that fairness necessitates the distribution of needs,[xxi] Another, on the other hand, has completely disregarded it, contending that no such responsibility exists in the name of justice.[xxii] If one thing has depreciated during the twentieth century, it is the ethical position, which has degraded over time due to technological advancements and modernism. Businesses have forgotten that customers may one day be impacted by a firm's principles and ideals in an age where time and money are all that matters.[xxiii]
3. Virtue Theory
"Virtue" refers to an individual's superior moral character or personality. Those great attributes become so established in a person that they nearly become a habit.[xxiv] Being a specific kind of person and possessing an advanced brain is required to have virtue. When seen through the prism of modern management, ethics seems to be losing relevance. Authors have lately concentrated on a particular problem, and the other takes about three procedures have increased in prominence, despite the principle's growing importance.[xxv] Virtues may be summarised as "what is right and reasonable" or "character qualities that optimize or create sufficient quantities of anything" in the context of contemporary management.[xxvi] Only a small number of scenarios need the deployment of the management solution.
The concept of rights is defined as follows:
A contract based on this normative theory explains wrong and right in a given scenario, established via negotiation. A person's character or the morale of a circumstance is not a significant consideration.
Five rights have been offered so far, and each of them is as follows:
a. The freedom to approve without being asked.
b. The freedom of speech and conscience
c. The Constitution guarantees freedom of speech.
d. The right to an impartial jury in a civil case
The right to be left alone is number five on the list.[xxvii]
4. Example as a Drawback
Consider the following scenario: a person has given his or her automobile to another individual to watch after while he or she is out of town. During this period, the decision to use or not to use the automobile is in the hands of the person who has been entrusted with the duty. In this case, whether or not it is incorrect to use the vehicle, whether or not it is OK to use the car, whether or not it is a nasty action to use the automobile in an emergency, and so on.
Even when it comes to the practical application of theory, the interpretation might be pretty subjective. This theory is stated to have a significant restriction regarding how it may be interpreted in terms of what it indeed implies.
C. Affordability and Ethical Talent Acquisition in Human Resource Management
Recently, due to the scientific shift in human resources management, an expanding body of literature has evolved on developing decision science for strategic talent and organizational development.[xxviii] From enforced ranking to prospective matrices to human resource allocation, many more models, frameworks, ideas, and tools have evolved in recent years. Examples include:[xxix] Forced ranking, sometimes known as forced distribution, is a notion that has acquired widespread acceptance across the globe. When Jack Welch worked at General Electric, he promoted the idea, which is outlined in this article's opening paragraphs (GE). Some opponents have voiced significant resistance to the rising usage of talent management practices such as mandated ranking in the last decade.[xxx]
It is no coincidence that the advent of this new talent management has happened to coincide In tandem with the emergence of human resource management and its associated utilitarian developmentalism, a tiny percentage of 'high performers' are identified and given specific development and incentives in order to optimize their contributions to the business. Unquestionably, a company's profitability and even the effectiveness of its labor market depend on its ability to manage its workforce's skills effectively.[xxxi] The ethical, regulatory, and practical considerations that may arise in implementing talent management initiatives must be carefully considered. For example, the issue of whether or not it is acceptable to import a whole new business strategy, culture, and HR philosophy from another company, such as in the instance of forced ranking. A "best practice" in the context of General Electric may be worthless in a different company.
D. Ethics Belief Systems and Talent Management: An Overview
In recent years, it has been more common for people management processes and programs to include considerations of ethics, values, and governance. According to a recent paper, a paradigm for assessing the ethicality of talent management programs has been established. This study identifies and defines five ethical belief systems: obligation ethics, ethical theories, distributive justice, stakeholder theory, and Utilitarianism. It also explained the differences between the various points of view on talent management.[xxxii].
According to virtue theorists, all persons are inherently attracted to and would benefit from developing a universal set of traits. The virtues of justice, compassion, and justice are known as the "cardinal virtues" of the Christian faith. Characteristics such as fairness, loyalty, self-preservation, and common sense.[xxxiii]
From the perspective of virtue ethics, a project to improve employee performance via talent management would be ethical if it maximized employees' potential and did not do so just for the company's benefit.[xxxv] When seen from this angle, talent management is concerned with the complete person, not just the parts of him or her chosen to be most beneficial for the company, while ignoring what is best for the individual or people who work for the company.
Elitist talent programs and equitable opportunities, the exaltation of outcasts, and the self-fulfilling prophecy in talent development will be discussed next.
We want to draw your attention to a new but related problem at this time: What is your opinion on whether or not high-potential employees should be identified and enrolled in top talent programs before or after they join an organization? What are your thoughts? In graduate or early career programs, when participants do not yet have a track record of accomplishment, the issue of time is crucial without a doubt. Fresh graduates with the most significant test scores or university grades, whether from prestigious or international academic institutions, are now commonly placed on fast-track programs upon their employment. Meanwhile, a new study shows that many graduates stick with the tried-and-true work path. Occasionally, these \"special\" graduates have earned two or three pay grades above their peers. Otherwise, they may be classified in the same class as their superiors, which might humiliate someone who has worked hard for their position over many years.
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Copyright © 2023 Dr. Ashish Kumar Sharma, Dr. Nirmal Kumar. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Paper Id : IJRASET50713
Publish Date : 2023-04-20
ISSN : 2321-9653
Publisher Name : IJRASET
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