Authors: Santosh K C, Vinayak Kyatnatti, Ankith G D, Jagadish , Nikhil H N
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Essays are one of the most important methods for assessing learning and intelligence of a student. Manual essay grading is a time-consuming process for the evaluator, a solution to such problem is to make evaluation through computers. Aim of this paper is to understand and analyze current essay grading systems and compare them primarily focusing on technique used, performance and focused attributes.
Essays are crucial testing tools for assessing academic achievement, integration of ideas and ability to recall, but are expensive and time-consuming to grade manually. Manual grading of essays takes up a number of instructors' valuable time and hence is an expensive process. Automated grading, if proven to match or exceed the reliability of human graders, will reduce costs. Currently, automated grading is used instead of second graders in some high-stakes applications, and as the only grading scheme in low stakes evaluation. This application can have a high utility in many places. For instance, currently, evaluation of essay writing sections in exams like GRE, GMAT, and TOEFL is done manually. And, so automating such a system may prove to be highly useful.
An automated grading system is built with the magical powers of neural networks. Using automation reduces time and effort in evaluation. NLTK libraries for feature extraction and LSTM are used for the learning process.
The Automated Essay Grading System is a computer-based evaluation of student responses. Now a day’s education system is shifted to the online based education system and assessment also automatically. Till now more than 15 essay grading systems were there and their working on two categories like content-based and style-based assessment few are on both by considering features like number of sentences, number of words, parts of speech and grammar, etc. And remaining is considering features like semantic analysis, using natural language tools grading the essays.
A. Problem Statement
The AI graphical tool in Watson Studio automatically analyzes data and generates candidate model pipelines customized for predictive modeling problem. These model pipelines are created iteratively as AI analyzes dataset and discovers data transformations, algorithms, and parameter settings that work best for problem setting. Results are displayed on a leader board, showing the automatically generated model pipelines ranked according to problem optimization objective.
The Objectives of our project are:
C. Proposed System
The system will have the capability of identifying the local languages (Indian) present in the submitted essay and it will also find out how much effect is there for these words. It will also help the students to resubmit the essay with corrections where the students will be asked to re-enter the similar words for those local languages. It will also give a proper scorecard mentioning that still how much the essay is influenced by the local languages and the no of local words present, number of times corrections made by students.
II. LITERATURE SURVEY
III. SYSTEM DESIGN
A. System Architecture
The figure 1 depicts the architectural diagram of proposed system. System designs the main aim of this structure incorporated in study can fetch out data from economic news and propose this sets into prognosticate model. Major phases in formulated system include data collection and pre-processing, feature and factor selection and price appraisal and prediction. In the initial hand, news, financial and market data are gathered and processed. In Further aspect, unstructured documents are modified into structured extract by classification. Data retrieval and pre-processing in data retrieval, datasets can be fetched such of news data, black gold price data and market data. Dataset from news can be retrieved through headlines as it is easier to obtain and justifies in one line. Factors that affect the reduction are expert business, stock market and later business. Sentimental Analysis In this era of modernization, big data is also assisting through study of sentiment analysis which focuses on retrieving data through news and proposing prediction model. In this kind of analysis dictionary-based approach is accounted to gather the data regarding markets and essential factors affecting it. In case of trend prediction, the sentiment and prediction models are considered as variables. Back Propagation Back-propagation is considered as an algorithm which can be used for the purpose of training feed forward neural networks for prognosticate learning model. This leads to the attainably use gradient methods to teach multi – layer networks, by modifying weights to minimum loss. The process fetches the inputs and outputs and modify its inner state that will be capable enough to calculate the output that will be very precise to the expected output. Back propagation can also be described as "backward propagation of errors." It is a natural function to teach artificial neural networks. The forecasting can be done with TensorFlow which is followed by getting the data, generating features, generating ML model, training the ML model and testing and predicting with ml model. RNN (Recurrent Neural Network) RNN are not same as feed-forward networks. To predict things, it uses internal memory. It is capable of doing things which humans can’t do such as handwriting, speech recognition. Sequential information is added as input to these networks. We assume inputs are independent of each other which is a false assumption. We should know the previous words so that next words can be predicted without any trouble.
Most of the real-world data is messy, like:
Some of the basic pre-processing techniques that can be used to convert raw data are:
3. Model Selection - Model selection is the process of selecting one final machine learning model from among a collection of candidate machine learning models for a training dataset. Model selection is a process that can be applied both across different types of models and across models of the same type configured with different model hyper parameters.
The types of classification models are:
4. Train and Test Data - For training a model we initially split the model into 2 sections which are ‘Training data’ and ‘Testing data’. The classifier is trained using ‘training data set’, and then tests the performance of classifier on unseen ‘test data set’. Training set: The training set is the material through which the computer learns how to process information. Machine learning uses algorithms to perform the training part. Training data set is used for learning and to fit the parameters of the classifier. Test set: A set of unseen data used only to assess the performance of a fully-specified classifier.
5. Evaluation - Model Evaluation is an integral part of the model development process. It helps to find the best model that represents the data and how well the chosen model will work in the future. To improve the model hyper-parameters of the model can be tuned and the accuracy can be improved. Confusion matrix can be used to improve by increasing the number of true positives and true negatives. The output is predicted by analysing the test data as input along with test data output and then the output is displayed.
6. Interface - A web interface is built to take input and display an output. Flask language is used to build a web interface and pickle library is used to integrate both model and web page.
2. Long short-term memory (LSTM): LSTMs have chain like structure with the repeating module having a different structure. There are four neural network layers which are interacting to each other in a special way. Initially LSTM decides what information we’re going to throw away from the cell state. This decision is made by a sigmoid layer called the “forget gate layer”. Next it decides what new information we’re going to store in the cell state as shown in fig 7. This has two parts. First, a sigmoid layer called the “input gate layer” decides which values are to be updated. Next, a tanh layer creates a vector of new candidate values, C?t, that could be added to the state. Then it combines these two to create an update to the state. The old cell state, Ct−1, updates into the new cell state Ct. The old state is multiplied by ft, forgetting the things which were decided to forget earlier. Then we add it xC?t. This is the new candidate values, scaled by how much it is decided to update each state value. This output will be based on the cell state, but will be a filtered version. First, a sigmoid layer runs which decides what parts of the cell state will be output. Then, the cell state through tanh (to push the values to be between −1 and 1) and multiply it by the output of the sigmoid gate to get desired output.
VI. FUTURE SCOPE
The future scope of the given problem can extend in various dimensions. One such area is to search and model good semantic and syntactic features. For this, various semantic parsers etc. can be used. Other area of focus can be to come up with a better tool than linear regression with polynomial basis functions like neural networks etc.
Automated essay scoring (AES) is a compelling topic in Learning Analytics for the primary reason that recent advances in AI find it as a good testbed to explore artificial supplementation of human creativity. However, a vast swath of research tackles AES only holistically; few have even developed AES models at the rubric level, the very first layer of explanation underlying the prediction of holistic scores. Consequently, the AES black box has remained impenetrable. Although several algorithms from Explainable Artificial Intelligence have recently been published, no research has yet investigated the role that these explanation models can play. Automated essay scoring systems basically find features in the essay and grade for them. We can divide these features in terms of three attributes namely: style, content and semantic. Most of the system proposed works on either style, content or both. In future we require systems that primarily focus on semantic attributes for essay grading, we can also have new semantic attributes that can help in evaluating essay more accurately. Current grading systems cannot detect correctness of the essay we can also have different ways to check the consistency of the essay.
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Copyright © 2022 Santosh K C, Vinayak Kyatnatti, Ankith G D, Jagadish , Nikhil H N. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.