Authors: Sonali C. Patil, Rushikesh Kadam, Sumit Sapate, Tejas Khandejod, Prasad Bhosale
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Twitter serves as a popular social media platform for sharing information during disasters. However, the task of distinguishing informative tweets from the overwhelming volume of content can be daunting. In this research, we propose an innovative approach that combines Natural Language Processing (NLP), Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and the Xception algorithm. Our objective is to effectively categorize disaster-related tweets based on their textual and visual content. By leveraging TensorFlow and Keras, we aim to accurately classify tweets as either disaster-related or unrelated. Additionally, we integrate the Google Translate API to facilitate the translation of text data into multiple languages. To enhance the precision of tweet label prediction, we utilize the late fusion technique to consolidate the output of our text-based model.
In recent times, social media platforms, especially Twitter, have emerged as valuable sources of real-time information during disaster situations. They have become crucial channels for receiving updates, connecting with others, and contributing to response efforts. The task of categorizing and classifying a large number of tweets as informative or non-informative is of utmost importance during disasters. Informative tweets play a vital role in providing critical updates on the situation, emergency services, evacuation instructions, and facilitating relief efforts. Conversely, non-informative or irrelevant tweets contribute to information overload and hinder the dissemination of accurate information.
Humanitarian organizations and rescue teams heavily rely on data regarding the number of casualties, collapsed buildings, and other relevant updates to take immediate action. Categorizing this crisis-related data enables efficient decision-making and task prioritization for these organizations. Affected individuals also depend on information about available resources, such as medical assistance, food, and shelter. However, these informative tweets often get mixed with non-informative tweets expressing personal sentiments, gratitude, emotions, or unrelated content. While non-informative tweets hold value for personal expression and social interaction, they do not contribute to rescue or relief efforts.
During disasters, both institutional and volunteer rescue efforts are essential in responding to and mitigating the impact of the event. However, individual volunteers face limitations in terms of time and resources. Additionally, verifying each tweet becomes practically impossible for rescue teams due to the overwhelming volume of data and the speed at which tweets are posted. This urgency necessitates the development of specific frameworks to extract useful information from the vast amount of social media content during disasters.
The automatic classification of tweets presents a challenging task, particularly due to character limitations, irregular abbreviations, and grammatical errors. In this research, we propose a strategy that utilizes Natural Language Processing (NLP) to focus on the textual aspect of tweets. NLP, powered by artificial intelligence, enables computers to understand natural language inputs, whether spoken or written, akin to human comprehension.
Besides textual content, images also hold potential for providing real-time information during disasters, especially regarding the extent of damage. Image recognition algorithms, such as the Xception Algorithm introduced in this study, prove effective in identifying relevant images.
To enhance the accuracy of our approach, we integrate the Google Translator API, which supports over 100 languages, to translate data from one language to another. However, it is crucial to note that translation quality may vary based on various factors.
II. RELATED WORK
In this paper , the authors propose a novel approach for classifying tweets by adapting image features. Their approach, compared to state-of-the-art models, utilizes a CNN-ANN dual approach where CNN is used for feature extraction and ANN serves as the classifier.
In another paper , the authors present a deep learning approach that combines CNN and Bi-LSTM to categorize tweets. Their system consists of seven modules, including input layer, embedding layer, BLSTM layer, attention layer, auxiliary features input, convolution layer, and output layer. The system also extracts location information from tweets to assist rescue operations. The proposed method outperforms other classification methods based on recall, precision, and F1 score. They also develop an adaptive multi-task hybrid algorithm for efficient rescue operation scheduling based on different rescue priorities.
They add a In a distinct study , the authors put forward a semantic approach for classifying tweets using the Dual-CNN technique. semantic embedding layer to traditional CNN layers to efficiently capture the context of tweets. Pre-processed tweets are inputted for word vector and concept vector initialization. The proposed approach in the paper utilizes the Alchemy API for semantic extraction, which involves extracting named entities and mapping them with subtypes using bases such as DBpedia and Freebase.The proposed approach achieves an accuracy greater than 79%.
Another paper  presents a method for event extraction from newswires or social media content in Indian languages like Hindi, English, and Tamil. The authors employ CNN and Bi-LSTM for event identification and utilize a heuristic-based approach to link event arguments and triggers. The achieved F-scores for Hindi, Tamil, and English datasets are relatively low compared to other models.
In a multi-channel representation approach , the authors propose a CNN model for tweet classification. The model includes an input layer, convolution layer, embedding layer, fully-connected layer, pooling layer, and output layer. The use of multichannel distribution representation allows consideration of the context of words in vectors. The approach achieves an accuracy of 77%.
Another paper  proposes a CNN model for categorizing tweets related to emergency response phases. The pre-processed tweets undergo feature extraction, pooling layer, and convolutional layer to extract features and reduce dimension. T
he outputs are then concatenated and processed by the Fully Connected Layer (FCL) using the softmax function to obtain the probability for each class.
The model achieves high accuracy with small amounts of data but experiences a decrease in accuracy with subsequent amounts of data.
In a multi-label classification approach , the authors propose a CNN model with respect to a seven-class taxonomy. The model contains seven similar classifiers predicting binary output for each label's relevance. The deep CNN architecture achieves an accuracy of 88%. The paper also investigates the effect of Twitter-specific linguistic knowledge on the deep CNN.
A text classification method based on a hybrid CNN-LSTM model is proposed in another paper . The algorithm utilizes the Skip-Gram and CBOW models in word2vec to represent words as vectors. Tests conducted on the Chinese news corpus of Sogou.com validate the algorithm's capability in enhancing the precision of text classification.
In an investigation of pre-trained language representations , the authors evaluate their effectiveness in determining the informativeness and information type of social media during disasters. Models built from pre-trained word embeddings, such as Word2Vec, GloVe, ELMo, and BERT, are used for performance evaluation. BERT and ELMo achieve competitive results for disaster tweet classification, similar to Word2Vec and GloVe.
Finally, a multi-modal system  utilizing tweet texts for identifying informative Twitter content is proposed. The system employs LSTM for tweet text classification and achieves high F1-scores for various disaster-related Twitter datasets.
In a novel interpretation of Inception modules , the authors propose a new deep convolutional neural network architecture inspired by Inception. Instead of Inception modules, the architecture employs depthwise separable convolutions, which are intermediate steps between regular convolution and depthwise separable convolution operations.
Twitter has emerged as a vital communication channel during emergencies, allowing people to share real-time observations of ongoing incidents using their smartphones.
This has sparked the interest of various agencies, such as disaster relief organizations and news agencies, in programmatically monitoring Twitter. The goal of this project is to propose a system capable of classifying and predicting whether a tweet is informative or non-informative during disasters, leveraging previous data.
In our study, we propose employing text processing techniques to analyze input text tweets. We will utilize pre-trained NLP libraries to extract essential keywords, which will then be processed using the SVM algorithm to differentiate the tweets. Additionally, we will utilize the Xception algorithm to analyze image inputs and classify them as either informative or non-informative in relation to disaster situations.
Different reason for using SVM & Xception algorithm as compared to other algorithms are as follows:
SVM is a powerful algorithm that can handle both linear and non-linear classification tasks. Here's why SVM Algorithm can be suitable for tweet identification and classification during disasters
a. SVM is effective with high dimensional data. It can perform well with such data by finding an optimal hyperplane to separate different classes, even in high-dimensional spaces.
b. SVM algorithm have an ability to handle non-linear data . Disasters can generate a wide range of tweet patterns, including non-linear relationships between features SVM with non-linear kernels, such as the radial basis function (RBF) kernel, can capture complex patterns and improve classification accuracy.
c. Robustness to Outliers: In disasters situation, many tweets might contain irrelevant or misleading information. SVM is less sensitive to outliers, meaning it can focus on the majority of relevant tweets and still achieve good classification performance.
2. Xception Algorithm
Xception is a deep learning algorithm based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) which is used to designed specifically for image classification tasks, but its architecture can also be adapted for tweet classification Here's why Xception algorithm can be suitable for tweet identification and classification during disasters.
In this system, we employ text processing, data processing, and image processing to detect the content of tweets during disastrous situations and classify them into informative and non-informative categories.
A. Text processing steps
B. Steps for Image Processing using Xception Algorithm
C. Steps for Google Translator API:
Through this research, we became familiar with various approaches to categorising tweets based on text and image. It categorises the information during catastrophes into informative and non-informative groups. After comparing our methodology to other ways for both text and image categorization, we came to the conclusion that it is more effective. This research study suggests a model that describes the NLP and SVM combined technique for text-based classification and the Xception Algorithm for picture classification. Therefore, the strategy will be useful to separate the crucial information from the tweets in times of crisis.
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Copyright © 2023 Sonali C. Patil, Rushikesh Kadam, Sumit Sapate, Tejas Khandejod, Prasad Bhosale. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.