Authors: Priyanshu Dubey
DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.22214/ijraset.2022.47280
Certificate: View Certificate
This study set out to ascertain the degree of contamination in the Kukrail Nala and how much it contributed to the pollution of the Gomti River. The Kukrail Nala begins in the Kukrail Forest and confluences with the Gomti River after travelling approximately 26 kilometres, passing through the centre of the city. As a result, the Kukrail Nala\'s pollution will have an impact on the health of Citizens, particularly those who live nearby. The Gomti River and Kukral Nala run through Lucknow, the state capital of Uttar Pradesh. Due to human involvement and the discharge of municipal and industrial trash, Kukrail Nala and Gomti River, located in the centre of the Ganga Plain, suffered severe damage downstream of Lucknow. The nala is extremely contaminated, with high levels of Biochemical oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical oxygen demand(COD), even in the summer. Due to the extremely low and almost negligible flow of the Kukrail Nala, it is likely that the pollution may percolate there and eventually reach the ground water. People who live close to the nala regularly depends upon the groundwater for various activities like drinking, bathing and other household activities ground water, which could have an impact on their health. Speaking of more than just humans, it also harms animals within and outside of water bodies. The way that technological advancements are affecting everyone\'s lives is having a tremendously negative impact on natural resources. This study focuses on the extent to which Kukrail Nala has been dangerously exploited and how it may have an impact on other larger water sources and as well effect being associated with these water bodies.
The most prevalent physical substance and clear liquid on earth is water. Two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom make up the water molecule. Water serves as the basis for all life. On a planet with water, water is a vital natural resource for the survival of humans, plants, and animals. It is an essential component of all life processes, thus humans cannot exist for very long without it. In rural and many urban areas of developing countries, the availability of safe and sufficient drinking water is a critical concern. Groundwater is a dependable and limited source of water in rural areas.
Around the world, groundwater is a crucial source of water. Through a well or a bore, groundwater can be drained. A key element of the water resources used for domestic, industrial, and drinking purposes is groundwater. Groundwater is polluted by waste disposal facilities, animal waste, leaking underground storage tanks, industrial chemical waste from pesticides and fertilisers, and by lands utilised for extensive agriculture. Groundwater contamination can make it unfit for a variety of uses, and its restoration is challenging, time-consuming, and expensive. Both the environment and human health may be harmed by it. Health. When groundwater is contaminated, it means that it contains too many contaminants for it to be used as intended.
Concerns have been raised all over the world about the impact of increasing urbanisation and industrialisation on the management of water resources. There have been significant quantitative as well as qualitative constraints on surface water resources as a result of historical settlement and ongoing development in the area of waterways. Drinkable water is increasingly necessary to meet the demands of each population, particularly in expanding nations. Therefore, it is necessary to control pollution and contamination.
A. A Brief about Kukrail Nala
A left bank tributary of the Gomti River is the Kukrail Nala. This fourth-order (medium stream) tributary of the Gomti River is a groundwater-fed stream that rises in the Kukrail Reserved Forest and Confluence at Gomti River. It has a 200 metre wide flood plain.
As per government data, the Kukrail nala extends for a total distance of around 26 kilometres from its source to the site of confluence. It is a natural drain of Gomti River and carrier untreated sewage and water to the river. All this washed down into the natural drain when it rains
Human activities and livestock’s around kukrail nala pollute its water. All these factors are choking gomti Blood line. Due to excess sedimentation its water is stagnant at several places giving rise to epidemic and other fatal diseases. Kukrail nala opens all pollution and run off to river at confluence near gomti barrage. Rather than intercepting natural drain falling into the river, we should intercept Sewage and waste washing into the drains. That’s the key – to save the river and improve lives in Lucknow. It needs working sewage and waste management system not mega concrete structure for Pomp and show.
B. Kukrail Nala’s Pollution
C. Gomti River
A tributary of the Ganges, the Gomti is also referred to as the Gomti. According to the Bhagavad Gita, one of the fundamental texts of Hinduism, Gomti was one of India's five eternal streams. Within is a special Gomti Chakra. Water was conserved and directed into the Gomti River by the construction of the check dam at the Behta River, which includes several of its tributaries. Gomti's tributaries must be rehabilitated because if it receives enough water, contamination won't pose a threat to the river. The river's evergreen nature is one of its features. The river flows slowly all year long, with the exception of the monsoon season, when heavy rains cause a huge surge in runoff. At Hanuman Setu in Lucknow and Maighat in Jaunpur, the 75 percent predictable flow in September was 125 cumec and 450 cumec, respectively. The mean lean inflow for each of these locations in April was 15 cumec and 25 cumec, respectively.
Cities along the banks of the Gomti River receive drinking water in addition to Lucknow. Among them are Lakhimpur Kheri, Sultanpur, and Jaunpur. Although the rivers in all of the aforementioned places are polluted, Lucknow has the worst problem, with the majority of the river resembling a sewer.
The river appears to be under "attack" at various points along its journey from downstream of Sitapur to upstream of Sultanpur as it meanders through the industrial zone of the sugar making, papers, and hardwood industries. For the 15 different sized cities in its river watershed, such as Lucknow, Sultanpur, and Jaunpur, the river is increasingly acting as a running dumping ground for anything from industrial garbage to household waste. The river is still comparatively clean as it washes itself thanks to natural oxidation.
D. Pollution Status of Gomti River
The Gomti River travels through the alluvial plains of Uttar Pradesh for 940-kilometers (580-miles), where it is poisoned at several points. The primary source of contamination is home sewage as well as industrial waste from the Indian subcontinent and sugar refineries. The Kukrail Drainage is one of the many rivers and streams that pass through an area with a population of around 18 million people and pick up a significant quantity of industrial and human contaminants. High pollution levels pose a hazard to the aquatic life of the Gomti. On July 25, 2008, the cornerstone was laid for a 345 million litre (91,000,000 US gal) sewage treatment facility. The factory, which was advertised as Asia's largest, failed; in 2014, it appeared to be functioning at 10% capacity, and untreated wastewater and solid garbage overflowed the river beyond the plant (near Bharwara). The device was created to block the Gomti's 23 enormous natural drainage channels. The Gomti is currently the most historically contaminated river in Uttar Pradesh. The water is not safe to drink, according to the state pollutant control board. The contamination has gotten so bad that it is now harming the river's biodiversity.
Fig: Discharge of Kukrail Nala waste into the Gomti River
E. Effects of River Pollution
Polluted water can contain bacteria that cause cholera, dysentery, typhoid, hepatitis A, polio, and diarrhoea. According to the UN, over 297,000 children under the age of five pass away each year from diseases brought on by unclean, unsanitary, or poisoned drinking water. Waterway or large body of water pollution causes acidic lakes, raises water temperatures, encourages the spread of algal blooms, and reduces dissolved oxygen levels. It's possible that fish and other aquatic animals will have to leave their existing habitats in search of water that is far more suited to them. Skin infections, allergies, and other issues can result from bathing in contaminated river systems. Drinking contaminated water can cause tuberculosis, cancer, a lack of calcium from human and animal bones, vision loss and impotence in men, sterility in women, and a host of other major health problems.
F. Effects of Polluted Water on Human Health
II. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
In this portion of the project, research is conducted by taking a sample of water from Kukrail Nala and a corresponding sample of groundwater, and by analysing the water parameter for various seasons.
A. Parameter for Water Sample Testing
B. Sample Collection and Storing
In the current study, 12 samples are taken from the groundwater and kukrail nala throughout a 3,000 meter stretch in the months of June (summer) and September (Monsoon).
The sampling sites are
(Co-ordinates: 26.85992232806865, 80.96781002883613)
Located near Gomti River, it is the point where kukrail nala Discharges it’s sewage into the gomti river).
2. Sampling Site 2(S2)
(Co-ordinates: 26.870411, 80.968250).
Located 1 kilometre in air from the Gomti River and too from sampling site 1.
3. Sampling Site 3(S3)
(Co-ordinate: 26.880440466557772, 80.96588451091492)
Located 2 kilometre in air from Gomti River and 1 kilometre from sampling site 2.
Sample collection, storage and water sample analysis has been done according to the standard method for the examination of water and waste water (APHA 2012).
The samples are collected from well mixed segments of the nala in high density poly-ethylene (HDPA) bottles, after proper sensing with water samples at respecting site using a cylindrical bailer.
The samples were collected and maintained in an incubator at 4 °C for further testing
a. Sampling Site 1
A sample was taken from Sampling Site 1 using a cylindrical bailer and placed in a High Density Polyethylene (HPDA) bottle. The samples were then collected and kept at 4 °C in an incubator for further testing.
Two samples were taken: one from the kukrail nala and the other from the corresponding ground water in a nearby open well, hand pump, or bore well.
According to the tests done on the sample that was taken, the majority of the test parameters were beyond the allowable limit and unfit for consumption. The release of industrial waste, human activity and animal activities are to blame for the pollution of Kukrail Nala. The percolation of kukrail nala\'s waste water into the ground water is the primary cause of contamination. The soil\'s salt concentration has likely increased as a result of the application of dirty ground water to the area around the Kukrai\'l Nala, where ground water quality has deteriorated. However, if pollution in Kukrail Nala does not decrease, it could lead to significant issues in the future. Therefore, this study can offer the requisite information for the authority to pursue the sustainable approaches on groundwater management and contamination prevention The results obtained helps in making the public, local administrator and the government to be aware of the dilemma of poor groundwater quality prevailing in these areas. Since, in the future the groundwater will have the major share of water supply schemes, plans for the protection of groundwater quality is needed. Hence, this research plays an experimental work on ground water quality assessment in the nearby area of Kukrail Nala in Lucknow district of Uttar Pradesh. 1) Increase in air temperature during summer may be due to increased intensity of solar radiation. Conversely reduction in air temperature during monsoon is due to rainfall, cloudy weather and increased humidity. Similar to the present result, high and low water temperatures in Kukrail Nala were recorded during the summer and monsoon seasons respectively. In fact air temperature of a given season determines the water temperature of that season; the former is determined by intensity of solar radiation. 2) The low pH during Summer season could be due to enrichment of organic matter and subsequent decomposition. The low pH during summer season may also be due to biological activities of organisms. Reduction in pH at all three stations during monsoon could be due to dilution of the medium while increase in summer is possibly due to enrichment of alkaline materials after evaporation. 3) With reference to alkalinity, the highest level recorded at all stations in summer could be due to evaporation of water and subsequently increased salts of weak acids. Conversely, reduction in total alkalinity in monsoon may be due to dilution of the system by. 4) Increase in TDS at midstream stations during summer season could be due to enrichment of organic matter from intensive sources (solid wastes, land runoff and industrial drain). High levels of TDS recorded at midstream and downstream stations during summer could be due to evaporation of water while the reverse in monsoon may be due to dilution as reported earlier form the sampling site. 5) Eventhough there are no major seasonal variations in conductivity, it gradually increased from comparison with groundwater to surface water, which indicated a corresponding increase in salts and solutes due to pollution. Sampling Sites showed a very little or no Seasonal variation in the conductivity as recorderd from the sampling. Constant drain of solute and salts in the kukrail nala from various sources(open sewage drains, land runoff, industrial waste discharge) into the kukrail nala may retain the conductivity constant irrespective of the Seasons. 6) Increase in total hardness during summer season could be due to evaporation of water for the surface of kukrail nala. Reduction in total hardness during monsoon season could be an opposite effect due to dilution of the medium. 7) The high level of DO recorded during summer season at stations Sampling Site 1, Sampling Site 2 and Sampling Site 3 could be attributed to photosynthetic input from algal producers. Occurrence of green algae in the water at these stations supported this conclusion. DO remaining unutilized at unpolluted in the groundwater during summer; while it is utilized for decomposing organic load at the surface water of kukriail nala for all station . Thus DO contents of the water at all the Sampling Sites are relatively high when compared to the corresponding groundwater The reduction in DO at all three sampling sites during monsoon is possibly due to reduction in rate of photosynthesis at these stations under cloudy weather, while in groundwater of all the Sampling sites, it could be due to utilization of DO for decomposition of heavy monsoonal organic lood. 8) The increase in BOD during summer season at all stations is mainly due to : a) Concentration of organic matter due to evaporation of the medium. b) Increase in rate of decomposition at high water temperature. Conversely, levels of BOD decreased during monsoon season due to: • Dilution of the organic load by rainfall • Decrease in rate of decomposition of the organic matter at low water temperature. The lowest level of BOD during Summer Season at all the Sampling sites may be due to low organic load before. 9) COD was declined during monsoon while increased in summer season at all Sampling Sites due to variations in chemically oxidizable pollutants at these stations. These seasonal variation are well pronounced at all surface water of kukrail nala , where the nala received industrial waste waters from small and large scale industries which could be oxidized only under the influence of oxidizing agents. During summer, industrial wastes get concentrated in kukrail at all the sampling site which may result in higher COD of the nala.
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Copyright © 2022 Priyanshu Dubey, Mrs Kajol Priya, Dr. Dipteek Parmar. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Authors : PRIYANSHU DUBEY
Paper Id : IJRASET47280
Publish Date : 2022-11-03
ISSN : 2321-9653
Publisher Name : IJRASET
DOI Link : Click Here