Authors: Tushar Rajora, Abhi Gaur, Tushar Kapoor, Anand Kushwaha, Yogya Prashar, Jyoti Parashar
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This study explores the use of Genetic Algorithms (GAs) to solve the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) in logistics. GAs, inspired by evolutionary principles, prove effective in finding efficient routes for a fleet of vehicles serving customers where the goal is to find the most efficient routes for a fleet of vehicles serving customers. Inspired by evolution, GAs prove effective in this task by selecting promising routes, creating new options through crossover and mutation, and evaluating fitness based on objectives and constraints. The study incorporates techniques like reparation, penalties, and adaptive tuning to boost GA performance. Real-world applications in transportation and logistics demonstrate substantial cost savings. The key takeaway is the crucial role of parameter selection, representation design, and fitness function formulation in the success of GAs in solving VRP. The combination of GAs and VRP resolution shows promise in optimizing logistics, improving efficiency, and enhancing service quality. In simpler terms, the study explores a smart way, inspired by nature, to figure out the best routes for delivery trucks, leading to significant cost savings and better service.
In today’s world, goods and services are travelled through long distances and figuring out the best routes for transportation is a difficult task. The main challenge for the transporters or delivery services is time management and cost efficiency as it directly affect the overall performance.
In general, the criteria that are needed to be considered to send the product or an item for the delivery services consist of the number of delivery points, recollection of goods, warehouses, cost, logistics, etc., and the location mainly depends on the latitude and the longitude of different places.
A. Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP)
The problem of fleet management of trucks was first addressed by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959. They first introduce the “Truck Dispatching Problem” which is focused on optimizing the routes of a fleet of gasoline delivery vehicles. After five years, In 1964 Clarke & wright extended this problem to a linear optimization problem that is widely used in the field of logistics and transportation. This became the ‘Vehicle Routing Problem’ that is widely studied in the various fields of management science.
The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a broad category of problems where the objective is to establish the optimal routes for a fleet of vehicles originating from one or more depots to serve multiple cities or customers scattered across diverse geographical areas. The depot point is the hub where vehicles are dispatched, loaded with goods, and returned after completing their delivery routes, The multitude of delivery points or service stations are spread across the geographical area and each location is associated with specific customer demands.
The goal is not only to find the shortest path but also to the sequence of these locations in a way that maximizes efficiency as it directly impacts fuel consumption and transportation costs.
B. Genetic Algorithm (GA)
Genetic Algorithm is commonly used as a meta-heuristic algorithm. It Is an adaptive algorithm that can be adjusted based on the environment. It is based on genetic and natural selection mechanisms that are applied for a given number of iterations that are used to generate high-quality or optimal solutions for optimization problems.
The flow of the genetic algorithm is as follows:
5. Convergence Check: Convergence criteria are checked if the algorithm has reached the termination condition such as the specified number of generations or achieving a satisfactory solution.
Utilizing Genetic Algorithms (GAs) in Vehicle Routing Problems (VRP) emerges as an effective strategy to address the challenges of optimizing vehicle routes. GAs offers an optimal solution for planning delivery routes, providing a dynamic and adaptable approach to route optimization.
Genetic Algorithms operate by identifying and selecting optimal routes from a pool of potential solutions. Through processes such as crossover and mutation, these algorithms generate new options, exploring different combinations of routes. The fitness of each route is then evaluated based on predefined objectives and constraints, ensuring that the generated solutions align with the specific goals and limits set for the VRP.
The varied processes inherent in Genetic Algorithms lead to diverse scenarios, empowering the algorithm to adeptly manage the intricate logistics associated with the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). This flexibility is crucial for tackling the inherent variability and challenges in practical vehicle routing situations.
By leveraging the capabilities inspired by genetic evolution, Genetic Algorithms emerge as resilient and effective tools for discovering optimal routes. This, in turn, contributes to improved logistics solutions and heightened operational efficiency.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
 Laporte et al. have introduced an Integer L-shaped algorithm tailored for the vehicle routing problem with stochastic demands, aiming to minimize the expected solution cost while ensuring route demand stays within vehicle capacities. It rigorously solved instances with 25 to 100 vertices and 2 to 4 vehicles, assuming Poisson or normal demand distributions. The success of this approach hinges on robust lower bounds and efficient bounding functionals, yielding high lower bounds at the tree's root and reduced branching despite the problem's complexity. Emphasizing achievable outcomes on moderate-sized instances with realistic assumptions over a holistic solution approach, the research underscores the formidable nature of the stochastic VRP. Future endeavors should gradually relax underlying model assumptions, offering prospects for further investigation and refinement.
 Rahul et al., discussed a focused aspect of the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) in this study, concentrating on using Genetic Algorithms (GA) for solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). Notably, when executing the VRP on a multicore architecture, a substantial improvement in program speed was observed. The efficiency, however, depended on the initial and generated populations. Future research aims to explore diverse crossover methods to achieve faster and approximate outcomes. Additionally, investigating specialized GA techniques like non-dominant sorting-based GA (NSGA) and their parallel versions are suggested for obtaining more optimized results swiftly.
 In their study, Mahdi Abbasi and colleagues focused on using efficient parallel optimization algorithms for solving vehicle routing problems (VRPs), crucial in minimizing costs for intelligent transportation systems. They introduced an enhanced Genetic Algorithm (GA) tailored for VRP's Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) and designed it for parallelization on multi-core and many-core systems of Vehicular Cloud Computing (VCC) platforms. Their method concurrently executed GA functions like fitness evaluation, crossover, mutation, and selection on these platforms. By synchronizing kernels on GPU-like processors, they achieved efficient collaborative thread processing. Their findings showed varying performance based on processor types, highlighting that low initial population affected GPU-like processors' efficiency compared to multi-core ones. The study suggests future exploration on optimizing GA computations using CPU/GPU clusters
 Gomes et al. applied an adapted Genetic Algorithm to solve a complex logistics challenge in Covilhã, Portugal, dealing with the Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (m-TSP) in a mountainous area. The aim was to optimize routes for beverage delivery vehicles across approximately 270 establishments over five days a week. By dividing the city into three zones and optimizing daily worker routes, they achieved a 618 km reduction in total weekly travel distance. This approach improved client visits' timeliness, lowered fuel costs, and supported environmental sustainability through shorter logistical routes, contributing to smarter cities.
 Dutta et al. explored a crucial aspect of operations—preferring a single solution over multiple ones for time-sensitive tasks. Their study addressed the multi-objective open green vehicle routing problem, emphasizing environmental preservation alongside cost reduction. They proposed a practical variant of the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) that aimed to minimize transportation expenses and carbon emissions. Utilizing a hybrid approach combining cluster primary-route secondary method, SPEA2, and VIKOR, they assessed their model's performance against NSGA-II. SPEA2 outperformed NSGA-II based on metrics like generational distance, inverted generational distance, and spread. The study encourages future investigations into uncertainties concerning various parameters in vehicle routing, focusing on sustainability.
 Bavar et al. explored a mathematical model in their study to efficiently route cross-docking depots by considering time windows and route pricing. The primary aims were to cut overall costs and minimize freight fares during goods transportation. They employed GAMS software and a genetic algorithm to solve the problem. Comparative analysis showed the genetic algorithm's enhanced efficiency over GAMS, proving suitable for large-scale issues. Their findings emphasized the significance of vehicle routing in cost reduction and distribution system enhancement. Specifically focusing on Chabahar port, their model exhibited the potential to decrease cargo transportation costs.
III. PROPOSED FRAMEWORK
IV. FEASIBILITY STUDY
Technological Feasibility: Implemented Project is dependent on a series of technologies and resources, all conveniently accessible and feasible in terms of the requisite technical competencies.
A. Resource Kit:
B. The Project Requires
A. Implementation Overview
The methodology involves distinct components for different functionalities:
B. Implementation of The Project
The optimization process progresses through the following organized steps:
a. Invoke createPopulation() method.
b. Invoke rankPopulation() method.
c. Iterate through generationSize:
d. Return the currentGeneration.
4. Define createPopulation() method:
a. Loop for populationSize times:
5. Define rankPopulation() method:
a. Set totalFitness to 0.
b. Calculate totalFitness by summing up each chromosome's fitness in the currentGeneration.
c. Sort the currentGeneration based on chromosome fitness in ascending order.
6. Define createNextGeneration() method:
a. Initialize an empty array nextGeneration.
b. If elitism is true, add the highest fitness chromosome to the nextGeneration.
c. Loop until populationSize - 1, incrementing by 2:
d. Set currentGeneration to a copy of nextGeneration.
7. Define rouletteSelection() method:
a. Generate a random number randomFitness between 0 and totalFitness.
b. Initialize increasingFitness to 0.
c. Loop through the currentGeneration:
d. Return the last chromosome in currentGeneration if no chromosome is selected.
VII. RESULT AND ANALYSIS
The result demonstrated from the project:
In the illustrated figure 4, each set of coordinates serves as a geographical marker, representing delivery destinations where vehicles are assigned to transport products or shipments. The adaptability of the solution is evident in its ability to dynamically accommodate additional locations. Users can effortlessly input the latitude and longitude values of new destinations into the system through a user-friendly interface. This streamlined process allows for the seamless addition of fresh delivery destinations to the existing list.
Figure 6, visually presents routes for multiple vehicles, with each route identified by the starting depot point and corresponding coordinates or locations the trucks are directed to visit. This graphical representation enables users to intuitively generate optimized routes for up to 20 vehicles, elevating the user experience and facilitating efficient route planning in logistics operations.
Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) using Genetic Algorithms (GAs) extend across various industries, offering innovative solutions to complex logistics challenges. In the realm of transportation and delivery services, GAs applied to VRP can optimize routes for fleets of vehicles, leading to substantial cost savings, reduced fuel consumption, and improved delivery efficiency. In the context of e-commerce and online retail, GA-driven VRP applications can enhance last-mile delivery, ensuring timely and cost-effective shipment of goods.
Additionally, in the field of waste collection and management, GAs can streamline garbage collection routes, minimizing environmental impact and operational costs. The adaptability of GAs makes them invaluable in scenarios involving dynamic scheduling, such as in healthcare for patient transportation or emergency services for efficient response routes. Overall, the applications of VRP using GAs have the potential to transform various sectors by providing intelligent and optimized solutions to intricate routing problems.
IX. FUTURE SCOPE
The scope for the application of Genetic Algorithms (GAs) in solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is promising, with numerous avenues for advancement and refinement. As technology continues to evolve, integrating machine learning techniques and artificial intelligence with GAs could enhance the adaptability and decision-making capabilities of routing algorithms. Real-time data integration, including traffic updates, weather conditions, and dynamic customer demands, could further optimize route planning, making it more responsive to changing scenarios. Additionally, the scalability of GA-driven VRP solutions could be explored to handle larger fleets and more extensive logistical networks. Collaborative efforts with smart city initiatives and advancements in Internet of Things (IoT) technologies may open new frontiers for intelligent and interconnected routing systems. Moreover, there is potential for synergies with autonomous vehicle technologies, paving the way for self-optimizing and self-adaptive routing solutions. The future holds exciting prospects for the continued evolution and refinement of GA applications in VRP, contributing to more efficient, sustainable, and technologically advanced logistics solutions.
We thank Prof. Jyoti Parashar* our project's mentor, Dr. Akhilesh Das Gupta Institute of Professional Studies. Whose leadership and support have served as the compass guiding us through the challenging terrain of this research. Her valuable feedback and contribution remarkably enhanced our manuscript.
In summary, the fundamental aim is to revolutionize the logistics landscape by utilizing Genetic algorithms (GAs) to address the complexities of Vehicle routing problems (VRP). The primary focus is to provide a sophisticated yet accessible solution for optimizing the delivery routes, that aims to reshape the complexities of serving customers efficiently. The initiative in research directly benefits logistics stakeholders by introducing a powerful tool that aims to minimize transportation costs, reduce environmental impact, and enhance overall operational efficiency. By deploying the principles of genetic algorithm, it streamlines the route planning process and offers a comprehensive and dynamic approach to find the most optimal path for delivery of vehicles. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) emerge as a fitting meta-heuristic algorithm for addressing the challenges in vehicle routing problems. Alongside Tabu Search and Ant Colony Optimization, GAs are considered suitable for solving logistics operations. The application of these meta-heuristic algorithms is showcased to derive approximate and near-optimal solutions, leveraging the existing routing plan. Within constrained time frames, these algorithms excel in generating revised routing plans, contributing to the efficient resolution of vehicle routing problems. Furthermore, beyond the immediate benefit to individual businesses, it aims to contribute to the broader effectiveness of logistics on a macro scale. By facilitating smarter and more efficient routes, it seeks to drive increased cost-effectiveness, reduced fuel consumption and improved quality of end customers.
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Copyright © 2023 Tushar Rajora, Abhi Gaur, Tushar Kapoor, Anand Kushwaha, Yogya Prashar, Jyoti Parashar. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.