Authors: Kirti Vishwakarma, Om Prakash Vishwakarma
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A wide range of scientific, technological, and research fields are included in the word \"nanotechnology.\" It can be defined as working with little objects in its most fundamental form. The study, creation, modification, production, and control of materials through physical or chemical techniques at resolutions on the order of one billionth of a metre in size. We find it necessary to have a basic understanding of nanotechnology because of its potential for a wide range of applications. The possibilities, excitement, and responsibilities that come with working in the quickly evolving field of nanotechnology are aptly summed up in the conclusion. It encourages the responsible and proactive use of technology while considering its effects on society and ethics. An overview of nanotechnology is given in this article, along with a discussion of its potential/ social effects on human life in the near future.
Using the special features that develop at the nanoscale between one and one hundred nanometers nanotechnology does, in fact, entail controlling matter at this size. One of the main causes of unique physical and chemical features is the quantum size effect, which is brought about by tiny particles having more surface area than volume. Wide-ranging effects of nanotechnology can be seen in many different sectors. Below is a summary of some of the most important things
a. Medical: Nanotechnology holds promise for use in molecular imaging, medication delivery, and diagnostics. • Electronics: By utilising nanoscale materials in electronic components, gadgets can become more compact and effective.
b. Military Applications: Advanced materials, sensors, and other military technologies can be developed using nanotechnology.
c. Computing: The development of quicker and more potent computers may be aided by nanoscale components.
d. Space Science: Satellite technology and space exploration are two areas where nanotechnology may find use.
II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
A. and Drug Delivery
Precision and Efficiency: Using nanotechnology in medicine has the potential to provide more accurate and efficient care. Because microscopic nanotools are so precise, patients can avoid invasive and dangerous surgical procedures.
Precision in Treatment: Advanced laboratory tests and highly technical computers can provide detailed images of the body's systems, helping identify the cause of diseases and suggesting appropriate treatments. Nanotechnology allows for precise treatment, doing away with the need for trial-and-error drug prescriptions.
In conclusion, the use of nanotechnology in medicine, especially for drug administration, has enormous potential to increase treatment accuracy and efficiency while lowering the unfavourable side effects of traditional medicines. This has important ramifications for patient welfare and the future of healthcare.
B. Green Nanotechnology
The application of nanotechnology to improve the environmental sustainability of processes that result in negative externalities is known as "green nanotechnology." It also refers to the application of nanotechnology-related products to improve sustainability. It involves creating environmentally friendly nanoproducts as well as utilizing them to promote sustainability. The development of clean technologies "to minimize potential risks to human health and the environment associated with the manufacture and use of nanotechnology products, and to encourage replacement of existing products with new nano-products that are more environmentally friendly throughout their lifecycle" is what is meant to be understood by the term "green nanotechnology." The two main objectives of green nanotechnology are to create nanomaterials and products that do not damage the environment or human health, as well as to create nanoproducts that address environmental issues. It makes use of current green chemistry and green engineering techniques to create nano-materials and nano-products that don't include any hazardous elements, are made at low temperatures with minimal energy consumption, whenever possible, and incorporate lifecycle thinking into every step of the design and engineering process.
C. Energy Sector
Nanotechnology has the potential to completely transform the energy sector by making it possible to create goods that produce, absorb, and store energy more efficiently. Nanotechnology can be used to develop smaller, more efficient devices, such as fuel cells, solar cells, and batteries.
Unlike classical computers, quantum computers use quantum bits (qubits), which are able to represent both "0" and "1" at the same time. They are made of billions of customised atoms and function through nanotechnology. Quantum computers are far faster than classical computers because they can execute several calculations at once.
2. Creation of Quantum Computers
a. Transforming Electronic Products: Nanotechnology has the power to transform electronic products, encompassing the creation of quantum computers, nano transistors, and nano diodes. Quantum computers function by using atoms to perform calculations in groups of qubits within a tightly regulated and secluded environment. This means that atoms in a quantum computer act as both the processor and memory.
b. Comparative Advantage: Due to their capacity for parallel computation, quantum computers may be able to outperform classical computers in some difficult tasks. A major development in computing technology is the creation and manipulation of quantum computers through the use of nanotechnology.
In conclusions, the impact of nanotechnology goes beyond the field of medical to include the energy industry and the creation of cutting-edge computing technologies like quantum computers. These developments have the power to drastically increase the capabilities of current technologies and change a number of sectors.
E. Reactivity and Material Strength
Because of their enormous surface area-to-volume ratio, nanoparticles are more reactive than bigger particles. Due to their increased reactivity, studies have indicated that some pollutants, including iron, can be cleaned up by groundwater nanoparticles more successfully than other ones. Carbon nanoparticles, in particular, are incredibly strong. This strength can be used in applications like the production of bulletproof vests composed of carbon nanotubes.
IV. SOCIAL IMPACT
In addition to the environmental and health hazards linked to first-generation nanomaterials, nanotechnology has a greater social influence and presents more significant social concerns. According to social scientists, societal concerns related to nanotechnology should be recognized and evaluated in addition to their "downstream" dangers and effects. Instead, the difficulties should be taken into account during "upstream" research and decision-making to guarantee that technology advancements serve social goals. Public participation should be a part of technology assessment and governance, according to a number of social scientists and civil society organizations, analyzing the stakeholder's perspective is also crucial to determining the extent of the risk attached to nanotechnology and products related to it.
For the millions of people in developing nations without access to basic amenities like clean water, dependable energy, medical care, and education, nanotechnologies may provide new options. Among the benefits of nanotechnology, according to the 2004 UN Task Force on Science, Technology, and Innovation, are low labor, low maintenance costs, high productivity, and minimal material and energy requirements in production. However, there are many worries expressed that the alleged advantages of nanotechnology will not be dispersed equally and that any advantages (technical and/or economic) will solely go to wealthy countries.
V. UNFAVOURABLE CONSEQUENCES OF NANOTECHNOLOGY
In conclusion, even though nanotechnology has a lot of potential, it\'s critical to take into account and deal with any potential negative effects, such as socioeconomic implications, increasing accessibility to strong technologies, health hazards, and financial obstacles brought on by nanotechnology\'s high cost. These worries emphasise the necessity of responsible nanotechnology development and control. It presents the current developments and the potential for future breakthroughs, highlighting the accuracy and control that scientists and engineers currently possess at the atomic and molecular levels. The need for preparedness and responsible use of nanotechnology is an important one, recognising the necessity of carefully weighing its risks in addition to its enormous potential benefits. The fact that nanotechnology has the potential to impact almost every person on the world in the next years is indicative of the field\'s revolutionary nature. Indeed, nanotechnology has the potential to rank among the greatest technological advances in Earth\'s history as long as funding, research, and applications keep increasing. Conclusion well sums up the possibility, excitement, and responsibility that come with working in the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology. It promotes using technology wisely and proactively while taking society\'s and ethics\' ramifications into account. Longer-term worries are about how new technologies will affect society as a whole and if they will eventually lead to a post-scarcity economy or worsen the income gap between wealthy and developing countries. The impact of nanotechnology on trade, security, human health, the environment, food systems, and even the notion of \"human\" has not been thoroughly studied or politicized.
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