Authors: Absamatov Anvar Ergashevich
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This article analyzes the role and importance of the agricultural sector in the economy, the current situation in developed countries and the lexical differences between the concepts of the agricultural sector and agriculture. According to the results of scientific analysis, conclusions on the development of the agricultural sector are presented.
It is very difficult to imagine the economic development of any developed country in the world where the agricultural sector is not developed, because the level of well-being of citizens depends on the development of the agricultural sector of a given country's economy. Through the development of the agrarian sector, the system of cultivation and processing of agricultural products, which are useful for the quality of life and health of the country's population, will develop. In addition, it serves to increase the number of jobs for rural residents. All branches of the economy of Uzbekistan, including the agricultural sector, are being renewed, new directions of development are expanding. New developments lead to increased employment and income of rural residents. At the same time, the strategy of long-term development of agrarian sectors and agriculture, effective use of land, water, labor, equipment and other resources in our country, and the attraction of investments in agro-industrial sectors, adopted in our country, require strengthening. In particular, it is necessary to develop agroclusters that are newly entering into the practice of the entire agrarian sector and to support cooperative relations, to widely implement the scientific and theoretical concepts and principles of information and communication technologies and market mechanisms. This requires complex research work to ensure mutual compatibility between the agricultural sector and its components.
The agricultural sector of the economy is represented by various types of activities. The agrarian sector, like all other sectors, plays a very important role in the economy of Uzbekistan. Currently, a number of decisions and decrees have been adopted and are being implemented for the development of this sector. PF-5708 dated April 17, 2019 "On measures to improve the state management system in the field of agriculture" and October 23, 2019, pf-5853 "On approval of the strategy for the development of agriculture of the Republic of Uzbekistan for 2020-2030" of the President Decrees serve as a great ground for the development of the agrarian sector in our country [1, 2]. At the same time, the introduction of advanced science and technology from developed foreign countries to our country requires the development of new approaches and methods for managing agricultural sector networks and complexes. In addition, there are inconsistencies between the concepts and terms used in the field. Taking this into account, the scientific-practical analysis and comparison of concepts between the agrarian sector of our country and related fields is one of the most urgent problems at the present time. Taking this into account, the main goal of this study is to scientifically and practically research the existing structural structure of the agricultural sector and its main concepts on the basis of foreign experiences .
Before analyzing the current state of the agrarian sector in the economy of Uzbekistan, we found it permissible to analyze the state of the agrarian sector in a number of developed countries . Agrarian sector of Kazakhstan and Belarus; The agrarian sector of Kazakhstan has been witnessing positive dynamics over the last decade. However, during the period of drought, the yield of grain fell sharply, which slightly worsened the general situation in this field of activity. Stable financial results are observed in agriculture. Recently, the gross grain yield has increased. It has a high export potential (more than 7 million tons). Positive changes are also observed in animal husbandry. The number of cattle and poultry in the country is increasing. The volume of product production in the processing industry is expanding. The main problem of Kazakhstan's agriculture is insufficient technical and technological modernization. The agricultural sector of Belarus is also characterized by the dynamic growth of agricultural production. Despite the difficult economic situation in the country, the state is spending a lot of money on the development of national food security programs. Belarus occupies a leading position in the sale of sugar beet and technical crops among the CIS countries. The processing industry is dominated by dairy and meat production.
US agricultural sector;
The US agricultural sector is the most developed country in the world. It is the world's largest agricultural producer and exporter. Development and modernization of agriculture in this country is carried out under the constant control of the state. It develops agribusiness support programs. Unlike other countries, the US government uses various measures to maintain high incomes of farmers, improve their social life, create developed infrastructure in rural areas and expand markets for their products. State protectionism helps to strengthen the agricultural sector. In this regard, it is worth emphasizing the role of the achievements of science and technology development, which are actively used in the USA. The use of renewable energy sources in the agriculture of this country has made it possible to reduce the production costs of many enterprises. Programs for the construction of plants producing bioenergy products are being introduced. The use of bio-fuel is defined as an important element of the ecological system. The United States has a developed system of grants and subsidies for beginning farmers. Farm support programs encourage rural people to work productively in their habitats.
China's agricultural sector;
China's agricultural sector has undergone significant changes. This is related to the material and technical support of agricultural enterprises and the development of innovative resource-saving technologies. The government of this country is creating favorable conditions for living and working in the villages. It is one of the few countries where the income level of the rural population is close to that of the urban population. This became possible thanks to the introduction of benefits for peasant families. In addition, a large amount of money was allocated by the state for the development of rural infrastructure.
New types of high-powered agricultural machines are being actively used in China. In addition, water-saving soil irrigation technologies are being used there. All this allows to get a high yield from fodder crops. The main goal of this study is to assess the role and importance of the agricultural sector in the economy of Uzbekistan today, to analyze and compare the concepts between the agricultural sector and related complexes in our country from a scientific and practical point of view.
In Uzbekistan, the agricultural sector is divided into production and service sectors. The production sector includes the food industry, agriculture and agro-processing industry, forestry industry, and fishery industry, while the service sector includes, in proportion to its name, water management and land reclamation, agricultural machinery industry, rural construction. and includes vocational training and retraining of agricultural workers.
Studying the relationship of these areas into macro and micro levels will provide us with a clearer definition of the concept of the agrarian sector. In turn, the micro-level of the agricultural sector includes farmers and farms, agro-firms and agricultural cooperatives, forestry and fisheries, agricultural enterprises and agricultural products processing enterprises, as well as the agro-industrial cluster, while the macro-level includes agriculture, agricultural machinery. , includes storage of agricultural products, export of agricultural products and domestic market of agricultural products. We can see this in Figure 2 below.
The implemented land reform served the development of large agricultural complexes, family farms. The state has developed a new system of expenditure planning for the needs of the agrarian sector and its modernization.
The agrarian sector of Uzbekistan, like all sectors of the economy, is being renewed, new principles of development are expanding. Innovations in the agrarian sector have resulted in the establishment of new settlements in rural areas and an increase in the income of the population.
On the other hand, we can see that the sectoral analysis of agriculture includes a broad coverage of the agrarian sector. In particular, we can see that agriculture is divided into animal husbandry and farming sectors, and these sectors are an integrated network with farmers and farms and agricultural enterprises in the production of agricultural products.
We can define agriculture as an interconnected structure that meets the demand for food and non-food products, as well as commodity raw materials for the processing industry, which generally connects the agrarian sector. But in most cases, the concepts of agrarian sector and agriculture are used as if they mean the same thing. In the scientific terminology, the agrarian sector is in scientific terminology, and from the information presented in pictures 2 and 3 above, we can see that the agrarian sector is a broad concept and agriculture is a part of this sector.
The strategy of agricultural development was adopted in order to develop the agricultural sector and all its branches, including increasing the export of products grown by farmers and farms in our country, effective use of land, water, machinery and other resources, attracting investments to the agricultural sector. Also, it is necessary to develop agroclusters, which are newly applied to the agricultural sector of our country, to promote cooperative relations, to introduce modern innovative agrarian technologies and scientific-theoretical concepts and principles of market mechanisms. This, in turn, requires complex research to ensure compatibility with the agricultural sector and other sectors.
The introduction of advanced technologies in countries with a developed agricultural sector requires the development of new approaches and methods for the rational management of all areas and complexes of this sector. Also, different views are manifested in terms and concepts used in the agricultural sector.
If the cultivation of agricultural products in organic quality is one aspect of the issue, we can see that the quality delivery of these products to their owners is another important aspect. It is very important to use modern innovative methods and proper organization of work in the cultivation of these products. The agrarian policy of our country is aimed at further development by supporting small and private entrepreneurship in this sector. In particular, the European Union has allocated 11 million euros to Uzbekistan for the improvement of food production by small and private enterprises in the agricultural sector. This is the third financial aid allocated since the 1st quarter of 2020.  In this way, the grant allocated by the European Union reached 32 million euros. Last year, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the process of allocating grant support aimed at increasing the standard of living of the needy category living in rural areas and supporting government reforms in the sector was accelerated. The new project is a logical continuation of other projects implemented by the European Union and its member states to support farmers, agro-enterprises and scientific circles.
The grant allocated to the budget of Uzbekistan by the European Union is based on an agreement with the country's government. The purpose of this is to support the implementation of the tasks defined in the strategy for the development of the agro-industrial system of Uzbekistan for 2020-2030, and ultimately to achieve transparency in the management of the financial and budget system, and to ensure macroeconomic stability.
 Presidential Decree No. PF-5708 dated April 17, 2019 \"On measures to improve the state management system in the field of agriculture\".  Presidential Decree No. pf-5853 of October 23, 2019 \"On approval of the strategy of agricultural development of the Republic of Uzbekistan for 2020-2030\".  Amirov L.F. Agrarian sector of the economy of Uzbekistan and its main concepts \"Economics and innovative technologies\" scientific electronic journal. No. 4, July-August, 2020 4/2020 (No. 00048) http://iqtisodiyot.tsue.uz 195-202, pages.  https://www.agroprodmash-expo.ru/ru/ui/17130/  https://www.xabar.uz/jamiyat/evroittifoq-ozbekiston-agrar-sektoriga
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