Authors: Begmatov Azam, Lozovoy Alexey Yurievich
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The further development of civilization on the planet increasingly needs new ideas of preserving peace, coherence, mutual understanding and mutual support between peoples and government. New ideas are always the result of education. This task, in our opinion, will mainly be able to solve the scientifically based, practically directions of the new world education system. In this article we will try to talk about some new ideas that can form the basis of a new philosophy of education. Our goal is to introduce the reader for the first time to the idea of functional value analysis (FVA) to various phenomena, processes, objects and states of reality.
In our opinion, the FVA is the guarantor of the axiological development of mankind for the future, which is called the noosphere.
The reality is, that the functional-value analysis of the education system, the conditions affecting this education (objective and subjective), is not obtained yet. And the public consciousness in this regard is still dormant, since it is littered with far-fetched anti-human cost analyses. The system of functional and cost analysis is developed all over the world. It has made man a slave to value and has damaged the education system all over the world. This system has delayed the value development of the philosophy of education for many decades.
The system of functional and cost analysis genetically reflects the significance of the phenomenon and objects for the physiological existence of the living world. It has little to do with providing spiritual peace, high feelings, and human intuition. These disadvantages of the FVA should be compensated by the proposed FVA system.
The FVA of all phenomena of life, including the system of philosophy of education, is still a figment of our imagination. This idea has occupied us for more than 20 years, there are only our publications about it at international and local conferences. We are confident that along with the system of functional and cost analysis, the FVA system is gradually and steadily emerging and it will increasingly dominate. It depends on the equation of value-development of public consciousness.
A famous American physicist. R. Feynman argued: “If we want science to be of any use, we have to make guesses, ... we have to put forward laws extending to still unexplored areas” [???????, 1968: 78].
We learn to understand. Understandable things can be implemented in practice.
In order to comprehend the essence of the functional-value analysis of educational systems, we have constructed special concepts and categories. They will help us to get into the essence of the FVA of educational systems. This requires, in addition to the work of thinking, some activity of the knower's imagination.
So, in order to gain knowledge about the FVA of educational systems, we have a problem, ideas and a desire. It remains up to the formulation of concepts, the promotion of a hypothesis and the creation of a scientific theory. Within the limits of this message, we limit ourselves to the formation of some basic concepts of the FVA education systems.
FVA is a method of integral, systematic study of the function of objects, phenomena of processes and states aimed at ensuring the socially ordered, significant and necessary properties of an object and phenomena at rational costs for their manifestation at all stages of their life cycle.
In relation to the education system, the object of the FVA is the development of a new personality, the formation of a competent specialist, the whole technological process, manufacturing, organizational, information structure, subjected to value analysis in order to choose the optimal implementation of their main functions at reasonable costs.
The FVA of education systems subjects to a value analysis all the factors affecting the education, competence, axiological character of a person, on whose activities her future and the future of her kind will depend entirely.
The life cycle of an object is a period from the beginning of applied research on the FVA to the moment of performing its functions as an active person.
A function is an external manifestation of the properties of an object (answers the questions: “What should an object do?”, “What does an object do to preserve and increase human life, nature and its laws?”) in all conditions.
Value analysis also assumes that the external manifestation of the properties of objects to some extent answers the questions: “When does the object do?”, “Where does the object do?” and most importantly, “How does the object do?” These properties of the object are aimed at life support, life affirmation, that a person and - his mind, his genetic health (physical and spiritual) is the main value of being. Values are everything that provides its functional orientation for the comprehensive harmonious development of man, the integrity and purity of nature, the environmental friendliness of technology, thoughts and actions, a meaningful attitude to time and space, transformations.
Value analysis with the help of certain criteria can be used to evaluate any phenomena and objects, processes of states, which in particular and in integration are of interest for life affirmation on earth.
For example, a pistol, a tank, gunpowder always shoot, destroy people, litter nature. The barbaric destruction of the earth’s energy reserves has led to the warming of the entire atmosphere, violated the laws of nature, which is fraught with cataclysms. The policy of socialism has made people obedient slaves of superior “far-fetched” leaders. It is the reason that analytically thinking, creatively working and richly living people have almost disappeared in all countries where it prevailed. If the economy is negative, then it negatively affects education. A negative economy contributes to the degradation of industrial relations, where the main productive force is a person [???????, 2002]. In these conditions, whether he wants it or not, a person also degrades. This will lead to stagnation of both the economy and the spiritual world of the individual.
The carrier of the function is any objects or their elements (personal, technological, organizational, industrial, spiritual, axiological, synergetic, etc.), as well as their aggregates that implement the function.
Classification of functions – grouping of functions by signs of value for the formation of an educated and competent specialist. Everything that affects the formation of personality, the quality of competence in specialties on the basis of life support and life affirmation is analyzed here [?????????, 2008].
These functions are:
An external function is a function performed by an object under conditions of interaction with the external environment.
An internal function is a function that reflects actions and relationships within an object.
The main function is an external function that determines the purpose, essence and main purpose of the creation (formation) of the object as a whole.
A secondary function is an external function that reflects the secondary goals of the formation (creation) of an object, contributing to an increase in demand.
The main function is an internal function that provides the principle of operation of the object, creating the necessary conditions for the implementation of external functions.
The necessary function is the external and internal functions that ensure the satisfaction of the consumer properties of the object.
A potential function is a function that an object can perform when the conditions of existence change.
A new personality is a conscious individual, a socially active person whose activity asserts life, expediency.
Education – knowledge, skills and abilities of a person about life in general and his specific specialty. Plato [??????, 1994: 126] and Aristotle [??????????, 1981: 376] noted that all people are different in their abilities, inclinations, interests, and therefore the same education cannot be suitable for everyone — each person needs to be helped to develop the best spiritual qualities, which is why education that cultivates moral humanistic principles and best prepares for living together in society should be guaranteed.
Competence is the level of education of an individual that contributes to performing work in their specialty at the required level.
Value is a category for denoting the significance of certain phenomena of reality arising as a result of the reflection of these phenomena by the subject. These are the qualities of life, expediency, peace, work and goodness. This is a high personal attitude, on which life and expediency on the planet depend.
This part of the conceptual apparatus gives us the opportunity, at least occasionally, to imagine functional value analysis as a system. And how it can become the main new philosophy of education, the FVA reveals the causal relationship of the phenomena of reality that affect the education and spirituality of people.
The FVA system regarding the process of education is based on the fact that the costs associated with the creation and use of any object performing specified functions consist of the necessary for its formation and implementation. And additional, functionally unjustified unnecessary costs that arise from the introduction of unnecessary, morally worn-out functions that are not directly related to the purpose of the object, or are related to the imperfection of technological processes, methods of organization, modeling, training of teaching staff, their attitudes of desires and needs.
The value analysis of the function is the external manifestations of the internal, driving forces of the object of research, which allows the researcher to draw the right conclusion and develops his positive or negative attitude to this object. Simply put, such single criteria are those properties of an object that determine its necessity – uselessness, consciousness-unconsciousness, etc. the setting for determining the significance should be the dominant of life support, a synergetic approach to any processes, phenomena. The main principle resulting from this is the long-known law “do no harm”. Any reason leading to certain consequences should not destroy the structure and direction of the essence providing life affirmation.
Based on the above properties, their significance for the life-affirmation of the analysis, we will try to develop some criteria for evaluating the functions of objects that directly and indirectly affect the education and upbringing of a person. The main of these criteria is the attitude of a person to the object of analysis in the indicators of the point system from 1 to 100 points of the degree of usefulness - non-usefulness, necessity and uselessness, harmfulness - harmlessness, axiological-non-axiological, etc.
If, according to these simple criteria, the properties of an object are estimated from 1 to 25 points, then this object performs a destructive function for life. It should be immediately removed from the technological process, as it is anti-axiological, harmful, unnecessary.
If an object gets from 26 to 55 points, then this object also has a destructive function. These functions are harmful, unnecessary for life preservation, life affirmation. Such an object with such functions should also be removed from the technological process.
If an object receives from 56 to 77 points, then this object with its value and anti-value characteristics can be removed from the technological process, rarely due to the specificity of circumstances, its functioning can be temporarily allowed.
If an object receives from 85 points during evaluation, then this object, when performing and manifesting its functions, produces more necessary than unnecessary, useful than harmful, then it can be allowed to further use with such functions with appropriate adjustments focused on the continuous improvement of these properties of the object.
If an object receives scores from 86 to 100 points, then these functions are close to absolute life affirmation, axiological, usefulness and necessity.
These functions of the object are optimal for the preservation of life on earth. The technological process that provides such properties of the object meets the requirements of the 21st century. This is a requirement of life. But there are still few such objects with such value functions. The tasks of science and practice of our time are to ensure the value orientation of the functions of all objects and phenomena of reality as the dominant of life, attitudes on which the future of civilization on the planet depends.
These criteria developed by us are based on the formation of relations to any object, condition or process according to the life support installation, where socially acquired and genetic needs as motivation are involved.
Such setting criteria for axiological evaluation of the function can be used in the development of artificial intelligence programs.
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Copyright © 2022 Begmatov Azam, Lozovoy Alexey Yurievich. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.