Authors: Adarsh Salukhe, Ganesh Patil, Abhay Chavan, Aniruddha Pawar, Prof. R. M. Thadi
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The Internet of Things (IoT) is a trend emerging in information and communication technologies, and it has been ubiquitous for the last two decades. What do you mean by “Things”? A hardware device or an object of the physical world connected to the Internet is IOT. The Internet of Things (IoT) works for end-user devices, Mobile, Tablets, laptops, desktops, etc. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of broader devices connected to networks, including vehicles, smartphones, medical units, household devices, smart televisions, etc.
Internet of Things (IoT) can be implemented in projects like Smart cities, Health-care, the Automation industry, Smart Agricultural, Smart Vehicles, Temperature sensing, Traffic control, etc. IoT can be used in assistant devices like Amazon Alexa and Google Cast Home. The Internet of Things (IoT) is already successful and is used in almost 8 billion devices connected to the Internet. A recent study determined that IOT will be used in every device in the upcoming years. IOT is used to Automate the device and do the work with less effort. In the household, we use IOT for a Smoke detection unit, Temperature sensing unit, Solar panel, Smart Television, Heating sensing unit, etc.
One of the dynamic and existing developments in communication technologies is the Internet of Things (IoT). The Internet of Things is so well developed that we can now communicate with devices. Tesla car is the Perfect example of communication with a machine.
The car is a driverless vehicle, and the vehicle can share and have driving instructions from an enduser. Some Experts project it can generate US $ 13 trillion by 2025. The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the capability of everyday devices to connect to other devices and have an existing infrastructure, and communicate between end-users. They can communicate with end-user and collect and transmit a large amount of data to companies. The data flow in the Distributed Manner. Things are objects of the physical world (Physical Thing) or the information world (Virtual world). Static is known for Physical networks, and Dynamic is known for virtual networks.
II. EVOLUTIONARY PHASE OF IOT
III. STAGES OF IOT ARCHITECTURE
IoT technology is a wide variety of applications, and nowadays, the use of IoT is increasing significantly faster. IoT works depending on the device's location and Internet connectivity. It will work perfectly as it is being designed/developed, but it may differ in some cases. There is a basic flow on which IoT is built.
A. IOT Characteristics
B. IOT Communication Models
IV. COMPONENTS OF IOT
The Hardware utilized in IOT systems includes:
The devices manage vital functions such as system activation.
4. Protocols: Ethernet is the protocol used for wired medium, Ethernet, in its most basic version, runs at 10 Mbit/s Ethernet has traditionally been used to network enterprise workstations and to transfer non-real-time data. The Ethernet standard allows for several implementations, such as twisted pairs of coaxial cables. The maximum length of the Ethernet is determined by the node’s ability to detect collisions. The worst case occurs when two nodes at opposite ends of the bus are transmitting simultaneously. Ethernet accomplishes not supply any mechanism for recognizing obtained peripheries.
a. WiMax refers to a broadband wireless network based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (IEEE) WiMax standard, which ensures compatibility and interoperability between broadband wireless access equipment. A single WiMax tower can cover a large area, 3000 square miles. WiMax receiver is the antenna that could be a little box or personal computer Remembering card, or they could be assembled into a laptop the way wifi entrance is today.
b. ZigBee was introduced in 2002; seeing that neither Wifi nor Bluetooth could not fit some of their needs for embedded systems, several industrial companies formed the consortium called ZigBee Alliance, aimed at providing standard and low cost and low computation wireless communication. ZigBee communication can reach up to 500m, with a data rate of up to 250 kbs, for a typical power consumption of 125 to 400 microwatts.
V. TEMPERATURE SENSING USING IOT
Nowadays, sensors are beneficial for any work if we want to build an intelligent technology device. Sensors play a vital role in IOT devices. Sensing the signal is necessary for the devices to work correctly. Sensors sense the movement and send it to the microcontroller for further action. Some applications, such as tools for creating life-saving prescriptions, mandate temperature sensors to be responsive and authentic for vital differentia authority. However, some applications, like the thermometer in your car, don’t require as accurate or responsive sensors.
The above sensors are used to sense the temperature for any device in IOT where it is necessary. In some kinds of devices, the accuracy is very important. Those types of devices are fitted with thermocouples and RTDs. And some of the devices where the temperature accuracy is not that important are fitted with LM35 and LM35C. LM35 ranges from −55°C to 150°C, while LM35C ranges from −40°C to 110°C with better accuracy Temperature sensors are used to measure the temperature signals in solid, liquid, and gaseous form. They are used in industrial applications. Temperature sensing is monitored when there is a change in resistance and electrical current.
V. ARDUINO MICROCONTROLLER
Arduino is an open-source Microcontroller that can be easily programmed and is a mini-size computer; Arduino board can be easily programmed or can be easily erased and reprogrammed in any instance; Arduino was developed in 2005 for easy interaction of professional students with their environment and IOT devices using sensor and actuator. Arduino board has the capability of working like a minicomputer by receiving the input and controlling the input, and feeding back the output for the actual electronic devices. Arduino has the ability to send or receive information over the internet with the help of Arduino services or Arduino shields. Arduino uses hardware such as Arduino uno board and software for programming such as C, C++, etc. To code for Arduino, there is an Arduino IDE (Integrated Developing Environment) which is built with an 8-bit Atmel AVR microcontroller.
Arduino Microcontroller has come into the market recently, but it has acquired half of the market because it is easy to handle and easy to work on the Arduino board. Usually, hardware developer prefers only the Arduino board because it has many functions and services that can be used to make work done easily. The Arduino board is designed very simple so that it can be connected to our regular computer using USB and coded through the IDE. Arduino programs run in C, C++ programming language.
There is a variety of Arduino board available in the market, but to choose one of them then, a developer need to take a survey and check the capabilities of the Arduino board, and then select further work.
A. Types of Arduino Microcontroller
In this research paper, we have studied the basics of the Internet of Things (IoT), temperature sensors, Arduino board, and hardware/software requirements. We learned to develop or write sketches of Arduino in Arduino IDE for Temperature sensing. Arduino is an endless stream for IOT devices. A professional developer usually uses Arduino to create innovative things. Arduino is also known as a minicomputer that can control the process\'s input and output. The microcontroller of the Arduino is very intelligent, and it can be used in multiple programming languages. Arduino innovation can be done from wearable fashion to space satellite research programs. Arduino is a designed board that can be accessed from our setup or computer using a single USB cord. Arduino has no limitations and can be a learning platform for electronic students.
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Copyright © 2023 Adarsh Salukhe, Ganesh Patil, Abhay Chavan, Aniruddha Pawar, Prof. R. M. Thadi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.