The article examines the interpretation of the concept of time and space in novels by leading Uzbek and Korean writers Abdullah Khadiry and Lee Kwan Su. In particular, Korean writer Lee Kwan Su\'s Majong and Uzbek novelist Abdullah Khadiry\'s \"Days gone by\" comment on the landscape of the period when these novels were created, and the ideas embodied in novels, the image of women, and the importance of women\'s problems.
The concept is the gist of understanding a phenomenon, a certain way of interpreting it, a basic point of view, describing them. It is considered as important to use this issue in the analysis of literary works. It is an essential section in the analysis of works of art and their main idea.
Korea and Uzbekistan are geographically Asian countries. Maybe that’s why culture, tradition and lifestyle are so close to each other. Numerous scientific studies have been conducted and scientific articles have been written on the culture, social status and traditions of Korea and Uzbekistan. However, it's insufficient that comparative research has been conducted in the field of literature. Based on this shortcoming, this article is devoted to a comparative analysis of Korean and Uzbek literature, work on them, the study of similarities and differences.
Uzbekistan and Korea have a lot in common historically. Both countries have gone through a period of colonialism and have gone through many hardships to this day. To this day, he has endured the harsh policies and pressures of colonialism, the bloody tears. In the early 20th century, Korea witnessed a lot of oppression as a colony of Japan and Uzbekistan as a colony of the Soviet Union. In such a difficult social period, the works created in the field of literature of the two countries have a lot in common, such as the image of the time, the views of the writers, the themes in their works, the methods of creation. This scholarly article aims to make a comparative analysis of the works of Lee Kwan-Su (1892-1950) and Abdullah Qadiri (1894-1938), who made significant contributions to the literature of the two countries, and to analyze the interpretation of the concept of time and space in the works of writers.
The famous orientalist E.Ye. Bertels wrote on the occasion of " Days Gone by" that "a European novel, an English novel, a Russian novel, as well as an Uzbek novel were created." According to Mukhtor Avezov, a well-known Kazakh writer and prominent figure in Uzbek literature, Abdullah Qadiri became "the greatest writer of the East" in the 1920s with his novel "Days Gone by".
Like Abdullah Qadiri, Lee Kwan-soo is a writer who plays an important role in Korean literature. Li Kwan-Su began his literary career in the 1910s. His works reflect the current requirements of the time, modern and intellectual ideas. In the 1910s, his first work began with the theme of "enlightenment". The purpose and theme of Lee Kwan-soo's work was 'enlightenment' and that is why he stood out from other writers of his time. Lee Kwan-soo's "Mujong" is one of the most important works of Korean literature of that time. In "Mujong", various themes of that period included the idea of early enlightenment. For this reason, this work is still considered as a rare work in Korean literature.
Lee Kwan-soo and Abdullah Qadiri portray an essential place in Uzbek literature as the authors of modern novels. Lee Kwan-soo's "Mujong" and Abdullah Qadiri's "Days Gone by" are the first novels in Korean and Uzbek literature. In these works, the image of the period in which the work was created, the thoughts and ideas of the writers are reflected.
This article provides a comparative analysis of female protagonists in Kwan-Soo's "Mujong" and Abdullah Qadiri's novels "Days Gone by".
From January 1 to June 14, 1917, Lee Kwan-soo's "Mujong" was published in 126 volumes in the "Daily News". The events of the novel took place over a period of one month, in which the author expressed his personal views and played an important role in Korean literature as the first modern novel.
The play incorporates new social cocepts, ideas for studying abroad, acquiring modern knowledge, being free in personal relationships, being able to decide one's own destiny, and enlightenment. In the play, writers Pak Yong-Je, Kim Son-hyong, and Byong Wook portray the social life of women of that time through female protagonists. Also, through these protagonists, the changes of the era have given the image of a ‘modern woman’ in line with the new era.
In Lee Kwan-soo-"Mujong", the author portrays the social life and place of Korean women of that period through female heroes such as Pak Yong-Je, Kim Son-hyong, and Byong Wook. In "Mujong", each female protagonist represented a different category of women at that time. In the play, Pak Yong-Je is uneducated and sacrifices himself to save his family. Lee Hyong Shik, who trusts and relies on Kiseng, is also attracted to him. Pictures of Pak Yong-jeong’s ‘kiseng's lifestyle’ portrayed the difficult, miserable lives of the kiseng girls of the time.
Kim Son-hyung, on the other hand, is the daughter of a prestigious household, a ‘well-rounded’ hero who has mastered both religious and secular knowledge and is well-educated. That's why the protagonist, Lee Hyong Shik Pak, prefers him to Yong-Je. Through this image, writer Lee Kwan-soo expresses his idea that it is necessary to be a well-educated and mature person with a place in society. Emphasizes the need to master modern knowledge. Through the image of Byong Wook, a contemporary ‘modern woman’(???) , the writer infused his idea of enlightenment.
Excerpts were published in 1922 and published in early 1926. "Days Gone by" covers the life of Uzbeks and other peoples of Central Asia in the first half of the XIX century.
"Days Gone by" is a huge and clear mirror, in which the specific historical conditions, life, customs, spiritual world, height and image of the Uzbek nation are widely reflected and clearly embodied. [¹"Kiseng" is a girl who won the hearts of guests by singing and dancing at parties.] At first glance, "Days Gone by" it reminds me of traditional love epics. It skillfully depicts the romantic adventures and tragedy of Otabek and Kumush. Under the pretext of romantic adventures of lovers, the author depicts a certain historical period - the situation in Turkestan on the eve of the Russian invasion, the dark days.
In the form of romantic adventures, Qadiri masterfully states that the main reason for the captivity of the country is ignorance, backwardness and internal strife. Although in the novel the writer describes and analyzes the character and destiny of the person in close connection with the environment, conditions, social problems, he also draws attention to the innate, mysterious and magical strands of the human personality, independent of the environment and circumstances. In this regard, the interpretation of the images of two worlds - the owner-sister Zaynab and Khushroybibi - from the point of view of one family, born and raised in the same conditions, is very exemplary.
One is dependent, obedient, acting only with the permission of others; the other is courageous, independent, and actively fights for his own happiness and destiny.
The author does not limit himself to commenting on the innate characteristics of these two personalities, but also expresses the tragic consequences of such qualities on the fate of those people, as well as others. Zaynab, who surrendered herself to the will of others, not only lost her happiness due to this weakness, but also involuntarily committed a crime behind the box of others - poisoning Kumush. Independence and courage are good qualities, but selfishness can turn them into a disaster. Khushroybibi fights for her happiness: She does not back down from anything in the way of personal interests; restores his happiness at the expense of the tears of others, at the expense of the misfortunes of others.
In "Days Gone by", Kumush is a general interpretation of smart, educated and beautiful Uzbek girls, despite their young age. He is loved everywhere for his cheerfulness and sincerity. The author describes Kumush as perfect in every way. Unlike Zaynab, Kumush has her own opinion and is an independent figure. But the evils in society; Kumush's young life will be ruined because of his inability to see the happiness of others and his greed and selfishness. A. Qadiri illuminates the evils of society through the heroes of the work; shows the consequences and strongly condemns them.
As mentioned above, in Lee Kwan-Suing’s “Mujong” and Abdullah Qadiri’s “ Days Gone by,” the protagonists depict not only the lives of the women of that period, but also the conditions and social environment of the time and space. In "Mujong", Lee Kwan-soo, a career writer, uses Pak Yong-jee to describe the unhappy lives of Kiseng girls whose lives are ruined due to various social problems. Lee Kwan-soo argued that Korean women need to ‘innovate’ and change their lives with such hardships and difficulties.
Each of the female protagonists in Lee Kwan-Suing's" Mujong" and Abdullah Qadiri's " Days Gone by" skillfully portrayed the lives of Korean and Uzbek women at the time. For this reason, these works are still very popular in Uzbek and Korean literature.