The main element of the language is the word and its lexical meaning, the system lexical meaning - this information is a complex structure closely related to the problem of the sign: its semantics, pragmatics, syntactic. The content side of the language does not copy the external substrate, but expresses it in a specifically refracted system of lexico-semantic objects, it (the content side of the language) correlates primarily with perceptual information that underlies human cognitive activity, where this topic comes into contact with cognitive linguistics, the purpose of which is to identify ways of thinking about the world and compose “the picture” of its reflection in the language, what is commonly called the “linguistic picture of the world”.
An essential feature of the classification of linguistic meanings is their multi-aspect: when studying the meaning, various features of the word are taken into account (semantic, functional-syntactic, formal-grammatical, derivational, etc.). If a sememe is understood as a separate meaning of a word, then the material side of the word is a lexeme, and a semanteme is a set of meanings of a polysemous word as a structure. V.G. Gac defines a semanteme as “an unchangeable semantic unit at the level of the content plan” [1:14], which conditionally represents a set (complex) of related meanings of a polysemous word, i.e. the global content of the lexeme.
It is known that the structure of a polysemous word is colored idioethnically, i.e. it has a purely individual cut , a metalanguage apparatus has been developed for its study, serving as a “template”, a certain set of characteristics used as signs, these primarily include the seminal composition of the word: the number of semes and their ranking. The problem of the meaningful core of the word has constantly attracted the attention of researchers.
The authors of numerous concepts note the idea of the hierarchical organization of features in the composition of the meanings of words, highlighting the constant and variable components in the meaning. These differences in the lexical content of the word are considered differently by different authors, in the form of various oppositions: near and far , narrow and wide , archiseme and differential semes , intentional and implicational . We share the opinion of those scientists who consider the unity of origin and the semantic interconnectedness of the signified to be the two most important criteria in determining the phenomenon of polysemy [7:74-76].
When studying the developed polysemy of perception verbs, we can turn to epidigmatics, a term introduced by D.N. Shmelev into the theory of word formation, as the third dimension of the lexico-semantic system of the language along with syntagmatics and paradigmatics. “The semantic structure of each individual polysemous word can be considered as a reflection of this type of relationship, which can be called epidigmatic, or derivational (in the broad sense of the word)” [8: 191-194]. This statement is consistent with the point of view of language as a fuzzy-multiple and associatively dynamic system .
Epidigmatic connections, according to E.S. Kubryakova, “reflect the ability of a word, thanks to word formation and the processes of its semantic development, to enter simultaneously into various lexicosemantic paradigms and thus demonstrate, in addition to paradigmatic and syntagmatic, also epidigmatic connections” [10: 366-367].
Lexical units in epidigmatics are presented as a semantic paradigm, which is a “stop-cadre” of its development in depth, vertically (polysemy), horizontally (word formation), with associative connections between them, which allows us to explore the verbal perceptual lexeme as a dynamic structure with its semantic “focus” woven into a network of associative connections.
The lexico-semantic paradigm of perception verbs can be considered as the basic structure of the semantic field. The analysis of the lexico-semantic paradigm - three-dimensional education (paradigmatic syntagmatic epidigmatic) showed that the leading one is epidigmatics (polysemy and derivation).
In the paradigmatic aspect of the lexico-semantic paradigm, two parts are distinguished: the significative sector, the sector of perceptual meanings, and the figurative - a set of figurative meanings as a result of the transition from perceptual actions to emotional-mental ones. There are periphrastic constructions between them, which in terms of content perform the role of clarifying perceptual (prototypical) meanings, and in form they are linguistic innovations (f r . preter I oreille, esp. dar oido).
Periphrases have a compensating function, they fill gaps in the lexical series of percepts, because the “further” the derived meaning is from the original, the poorer the semantics of the verb itself and the greater the role of the noun in the interpretation of the whole syntagma, i.e. in the verb becomes, so to speak, “less verb” and “more object”. If non-metaphorical values can still be predicted to some extent from the original value, then metaphorical values practically cannot be predicted or interpreted without specifying the object [11:105].
Recognition of the epidigmatic nature of the field of perception verbs under consideration entails the use of a cognitive-prototypical approach as a research method, which makes it possible to more deeply interpret the functioning of the verbs under study in speech.
Cognitive and prototypical approaches to the description of the semantic structure of perception verbs allow us to distinguish in it, in addition to the signification, such components as exposure, assertion, presuppositions, salience, controllability, inclusivity. These elements, in addition to the incorporated, are included in the concept of implicit semantics and are associated with polysemy. The exposition describes the preparatory phase of the situation, the name of which is this lexical unit. The highlighted element of meaning is extremely important for the study of perceptual verbs.
So, two prototypical verbs to see and hear are in the exposition of many other verbs. In some they are present explicitly, in others - implicitly. Many verbs have visual perception as a preparatory phase: take, find, meet, etc. Within the semantic group of perception itself, there are relations of exposure between the verbs of the main perception (sight and hearing) and the secondary (smell, taste and touch).
Thus, the verbs fr. sentir, goiiter, toucher, being transitive, inevitably have the verb voir as an “exponent”, because for the realization of seme transitivity, the object to which olfactory, gustatory and tactile perception is directed must be in the visual-perceptual sphere of the agent. And, conversely, their passive correlates (it. fiutare, annusare “to smell”; it. sentire “to feel”; it. toccare “touch”) exposure does not manifest.
Presupposition is a set of preliminary knowledge of the interlocutors about the subject of speech. Assertion, being a statement or confirmation of the true state of affairs, is the opposite of presupposition .
Incorporation is the inclusion of an etymological seme in the actual meaning of a verb. The system in semasiology acts as a contradictory system, often asymmetric, constantly disturbed by internal movement. Romance languages have largely inherited the Latin system of word formation: affixation and word composition, in light of this, incorporation is an organic property of the vocabulary enrichment process. Thus, the Spanish verb asomar(se) includes lat. summus “highest”, “upper”. In it, the perceptual seme is manifested in the exposition, it is it that determines its further semantic development. With the gramme intransitivity, this verb has the meaning “to appear, to appear” hoy el sol by asoma, fr. “aujourd hui lesoleil nese montre pas”, with the gramme transitivity it means “to stick out, to put out”: asomar la cabeza horn la ventana “to stick your head out the window”, with the gramme reflexive asomarse updates the value of “to appear (top)”. The derivative noun asoma “sign, label” shows that the sema “to become visible” is dominant in this verb. Thus, the original seme “at the top” manifests itself in the actual meanings of the Spanish verb under study. This is one of the many examples where a non-perceptual lexeme becomes the root of a perceptual word. Cf. esp. encarar “to consider, to look (in the face)”, is based on the verb noun saga “face”.
In various languages, the incorporation of perceptual semes is observed in the semantics of some non-perceptual verbs, which indicates a certain deicticity of perception verbs that has been erased in the process of semantic evolution of the word. It is found in the structure of modern verbs not in the signification, but in the exposition. The French deictics void, “voila” have an incorporated perceptual seme, unlike the Spanish and Italian ones: te voila - jheme aqui! - eccomi; le voila - jahi esta! - eccolo.
In the course of historical development, from Latin words to modern ones, a process of seminal “bubbling” took place, during which in three territories: Gaul, Iberia and Italy - some semes were pushed to the surface, others went deep. In this process, there were few families with an identical development trajectory. In the language system, there is an equivalence between lexemes in their basic meaning, but in functional terms, in a minimal context, the equivalence is violated, and the relations become either variant or synonymous.
Lexico-semantic paradigm of perception verbs is an interweaving of historical trajectories of prototypical lexeme development. The trajectory of development refers to the movement of focus on the semantic axis. The consequence of such a shift is the idioethnic pattern of the lexico-semantic paradigm, from which the semantic field of perception verbs is formed, and - more broadly - the linguistic picture of the world of the national language.
The current state of the perception verbs of the Western Romance zone is a linguistic picture consisting of lexico-semantic paradigms of perception verbs. At the center is the lexico-semantic paradigm of prototypical verbs denoting five sensory functions, which is a structural element of the semantic field of perception verbs. The defining characteristics of the epidigmatic paradigm are the manifestation of chain, radial and chain-radial polysemy in verbs, word formation with a motivating basis (with an internal form) and word formation with a non-motivating basis (with an erased internal form).