Authors: Rajat Tanwar, Ashi Gupta, Dr. Manjot Kaur Bhatia
DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.22214/ijraset.2022.47745
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If you have multiple devices connected to your organization, use remote internet at a restaurant, or are in a gathering looking for transmission capacity, you might be surprised by the sluggish speeds. The German physicist Harald Haas published another innovation called \"information by brightness\". This means the transmission of information through LED lights, the power of which changes faster than the natural eye can follow. According to him, this innovation relies on the performance and functionality of photo discharge diodes. This white paper reviews the evolution and capabilities of Li-Fi-based frameworks, including their publication and current innovations for remote organizations.
I. INTRODUCTION TO LI-FI
Li-Fi is a remote correspondence innovation that uses light to communicate information and position between gadgets. We as a whole are reliant on the web straightforwardly or by implication for the satisfaction of our day-by-day necessities. We utilize the web for an arrangement of purposes, manages among them being sharing of information. We share bunches of information in the present situation, so a great information-sharing limit is required. Furthermore, to carry out this, he utilized fiber optics to send information through LED lights. Light balance is not such a new idea, yet Haas is hoping to push things ahead and empower availability through bare LED bulbs. In Li-Fi innovation, we can associate the web with the assistance of a LED shaft with a limited reach. With this innovation, we would have the option to communicate information in any event, utilizing our vehicle headlights. There are different organization geographies, yet new ones are arising as the organization range is expanding. Li-Fi climate Li-Fi is another innovation that utilizes noticeable light for correspondence as opposed to radio waves utilized in different traditional correspondence advances; it alludes to 5G Visible Light Communication frameworks.
In Li-Fi innovation, LEDs will be medium to high speed connections, similar to Wi-Fi. Sending information through lights and other lighting devices helps distribute a lot of power. (Li-Fi) is considered a secure method of transmitting information because no perceivable light can penetrate the partition. Assuming the LED current shifts fast, the yield can be differentiated fast. That's the Li-Fi rule. How Li-Fi works is very simple. If Driven is on, the characters sent are electronic; if it is off, the characters sent are shifted. By changing the rate at which the LEDs cascade, you can encode and convey specific information. Secure information transmission can be achieved using secure message communication method proposed by Bhatia [13, 14, 15, 16, 17].
II. LITERATURE SURVEY
Haas, H. (2018)  defined in this article, the author first explains what Light-Fidelity (Li-Fi) is and claims it is the fifth generation (5G) technology. Transfer speeds up to 8 Gbps are delivered from a proven light source and a fully Li-Fi based cellular network. He discusses many misconceptions and shows the impact this technology can have on various existing and emerging industries. He also talked about new apps that Li-Fi might unlock in the future. We have shown that there is a clear trend towards using higher frequencies in wireless communications. This is a result of the simultaneous exponential growth in wireless traffic over the past decade that has limited the RF spectrum in the lower frequency bands. This growth will continue. This paper on Li-Fi physical layer technology has seen a lot of research in the last 15 years, with data rates increasing from a few Mbps around 2002 to 8 Gbps from a single LED in 2016. Over the past five years, his research on Li-Fi network technologies such as multi-user access and interference mitigation has increased.
Ramadhani, E., & Mahardika, G. P. (2018, March)  described that light Fidelity (Li-Fi) is a technology based on Visible Light Communication (VLC) that uses light as a communication medium to replace wired communication. Li-Fi is evolving to surpass Wi-Fi's nominal speeds, but with Li-Fi, nominal speeds can reach 14Gbps. This article provides an introduction to Li-Fi technology including architecture, modulation, performance and challenges. In this article, the author explained how his Li-Fi works, the modulations used, its architecture, performance and finally the challenges.
The purpose of Li-Fi technology is to provide high-speed data communication using the visible light spectrum. Li-Fi, which is currently under investigation, has potential advantages that can be used to complement RF communications and improve the performance of wireless networks. Li-Fi is excellent in terms of transmission speed, but when used outdoors under conditions such as sunlight, Li-Fi does not perform well. Li-Fi is unlikely to completely replace Wi-Fi, and the two technologies can be used together to create more efficient and secure networks. The results of this paper can be used as reference and knowledge for the development of Li-Fi technology.
Wu, X., Soltani, M. D., Zhou, L., Safari, M., & Haas, H. (2021)  proposed that growing number of mobile devices and growing demand for Internet services are driving network convergence, which brings together different technology domains. A promising approach for indoor wireless communication is to combine Light Fidelity (Li-Fi) and Wireless Fidelity (WiFi), especially Li-Fi and WiFi hybrid networks (HLWNets). This hybrid network combines the high-speed data transmission of Li-Fi with the wide coverage of WiFi. With the coming RF spectrum crisis, Li-Fi has emerged as a promising technology for in-home wireless communications in recent years. On the other hand, WiFi is becoming more and more prevalent in our daily life.
The coexistence of Li-Fi and WiFi is facilitated by the commercial deployment of his Li-Fi products by companies such as Pure Li-Fi and Signify. This document introduces the system design framework for HLWNets, followed by an overview of key performance indicators and outcomes that validate the superiority of HLWNets over standalone networks. The existing research was then categorized and analyzed on his three main technical themes: noise management, forwarding, and load balancing, with unique challenges in supporting user mobility.
Haas, H., Yin, L., Chen, C., Videv, S., Parol, D., Poves, E  discussed that Li-Fi is a two-way wireless network connection using light. Used to connect fixed and mobile devices at very high data rates using the visible and infrared spectrum. Combined, these spectrum sources are 2600 times larger than the entire radio frequency (RF) spectrum. This work showed that future mobile systems based on optical communication in free space can be built. Relatedly, it has been shown that to achieve this goal, the focus must shift from the point-to-point link layer of wireless networks to lightweight free-space communications. This paper showed that using Li-Fi in combination with Wi-Fi can significantly improve data density. In fact, Li-Fi is enabling incremental improvements in cell density and radical reuse of data transmission.
Kouhini, S. M., Kottke, C., Ma, Z., Freund, R., Jungnickel, V., Müller, M., & Linnartz  Precise location information is seen as a key driver for the use of intelligent manufacturing systems in Industry 4.0. This article describes
a time-of-flight-based indoor navigation system for Li-Fi based on ITU-T Recommendation G.9991. Our goal is to achieve positioning by reusing existing features of the Li-Fi communication protocol adopted by many publishers. In this article, the author demonstrated an indoor location system for networked optical wireless communication called Li-Fi.
The proposed navigation system is based on time-of-flight measurements between multiple optical fronts placed on the ceiling and mobile devices moving in overlapping coverage areas. For a 1 m × 1 m × 2 m test setup, the average 3D distance errors in the x, y, and z axes at the edges are less than 8 cm and small between the optical front ends. Adopting this technology requires strict synchronization between the optical interfaces of the Li-Fi infrastructure.
There is a vast literature survey on query processing on Li-Fi. This shows that it is possible to enhance the data density significantly using Li-Fi in combination with Wi-Fi. Li-Fi allows for step-change improvements in cell densification, enabling radical reuse of transmission resources.
III. OPERATIVE TECHNOLOGY OF LI-FI
This brilliant idea was presented in a VLC TED Worldwide chat by Harald Haas from the University of Edinburgh, UK. The person explains: "Assuming the LED is on, an advanced '1' is transmitted, and if the LED is off, a computerized '0' is transmitted." this is very easy. LEDs can be turned here and there very quickly, providing an incredible open door for transmitting the information.” In that sense, it's essential to have two LEDs and a controller to encode data into those LEDs.
Further upgrades might be made in this interaction, including the assortment of LEDs for equal information transmission or utilizing combinations of red, green, and blue LEDs to address the light's recurrence with every recurrence encodes the information of different channels. Such progressions guarantee any hypothetical speed of 10 gbps - which implies that one can download a whole top notch film in only 30 seconds. However, blazingly quick information rates and draining transmission capacities are typically not the only reasons that offer this innovation a higher hand. Since Li-Fi utilizes only light, it is generally utilized securely in airplanes and medical clinics, which are defenseless to impedance from radio rises. It can even work submerged where Wi-Fi ignores it totally subsequently opening up unlimited freedoms for armed force tasks. Envision just expecting to float under a streetlight to get public web access or download a film from light in a work environment .
Shred gadgets are dramatically filling in numbers each year, and the prerequisite for ultra-quick information is additionally unavoidable to help an enormous number of gadgets and applications. Our current remote advancements utilizing radio waves have numerous restrictions because of recurrence, and data transfer capacity.
Light Fidelity is a high velocity information transmission innovation previously presented by Professor Harald Haas in 2011 during a TED talk. Li-Fi utilizes apparent light as a transmission mode for information correspondence between gadgets.
Apparent light is an ultrafast electromagnetic wave with unlimited usable transmission capacity. While the natural eye cannot detect the rapid exchange of light, a very sensitive photodiode can adequately detect the light adjustments associated with the indicator. In advanced transmission frames, the information is converted to multiples of 0, corresponding to the "on" and "off" states. We focused on the radio waves used in the traditional remote framework. Apparent light travels several times faster. Unlimited transmission speed makes it probably the most productive solution for information-oriented applications. Li-Fi Innovation is a high-speed, full-duplex, bi-directional capable frame capable of information rates up to 224 Gigabits per second.
The pace of exchanging LED is quicker than the rate that our eye can distinguish, making the light source appear to be on persistently. However, it has wound up to having its potential gain, which empowers us to utilize light for moment information transmission. Light discharging diodes are found all through traffic and road lighting, vehicle brake lights, and controller units alongside endless different applications) can be turned here and there more prominent than the eye can recognize, The production of light sources is undoubtedly in tune. But it's really "burning". This vague on-off activity enables a sort of information transmission utilizing unique parallel codes. Data can be encoded inside light by fluctuating the pace; when the LED is fired up, then a consistent 'I' is shown, and when the LED is killed, an intelligent '0' is demonstrated. The LEDs glint on and off to give a diverse guitar arrangement of I’s and O’s.
Using fast pulses of delicate to send data remotely is named Visible Light Communication (VLC). Even its capability to handle customary Wi-Fi has propelled the generally utilized portrayal Li-Fi. An Obvious light correspondence (VLC) - "A likely answer for the worldwide remote range deficiency" Li-Fi (Light Fidelity) is typically a short and modest optical version of Wi-Fi. Its innovation will rely upon Visible Light Communication (VLC). VLC is an information transmission medium that typically uses visible light at 400 THz (780 nm) instead of 800 THz (375 nm) as an optical transporter for data transmission and reconnaissance. Communication uses high-velocity flashes of light, and transmission of information takes place over a distance.
The main segments of this communication framework are:
Secure. Visible light is less susceptible to interference than radio waves, and Li-Fi signals cannot penetrate walls. Table-1 depicts the compare between Li-Fi & Wi-Fi. As Li-Fi becomes a global phenomenon, LEDs can be dimmed to slow down, thus reducing energy consumption.
Connected devices require a reliable, low-power source to build an intertwined communication network. 5G has its own limitations and 6G has its own complexities. LiFi sits in the middle between these various devices and applications . Device building blocks include smart devices such as smartphones, computers, wearable devices, and new advanced systems. Applications and devices are deployed to handle complex situations where humans cannot handle such a variety of tasks simultaneously. Data that requires processing of concurrent real-time operations. The basic task of an IoT gateway is to transform physical field protocols into cloud protocols by establishing communication between the sensors used and the distributed network.
IV. LIGHT IN ALL: WILL LI-FI TAKE OVER WI-FI?
Early tests of LiFi have found it to be 100x faster than existing Wi-Fi, including high-speed Google Fiber. Another advantage Li-Fi has over Wi-Fi is that it is theoretically more
V. APPLICATIONS OF LI-FI
LiFi can be thought of as a complement to Wi-Fi. Even when working together, it can double the power to provide faster internet than traditional Wi-Fi. This section highlights key areas where LiFi can provide better performance than traditional Wi-Fi:
VI. ADVANTAGES OF LI-FI
A major advantage of Li-Fi based communication is the ability to provide high data rates. Running a system used in the visible light frequency range results in higher frequencies. This creates space for potentially higher bandwidth and higher data rates. Studies show that visible light frequency bands are 10,000 times easier to accommodate than traditional radio bands. It is already expected to reach the gigahertz range.
As expected, user demand for data is growing exponentially, making the demand for ever-increasing bandwidth more important. Lack of spectrum is a problem that needs to be addressed. A significant portion of the available radio frequency range is fully utilized and it is becoming increasingly difficult to make room for more range. Another issue is the licensing situation for operating HF range-based communication systems. Fortunately, the visible light band is locally available and this spectrum does not present such problems. Using this frequency band effectively solves this problem.
Older wireless communication systems overheat quickly due to their high power consumption, requiring more power to maintain cooling systems to cool base stations and access points. However, LEDs consume less power and, unlike traditional systems, do not require such a cooling system. Additionally, it provides lighting .
In situations where privacy is an issue, because light waves cannot penetrate huge walls where communication channels remain isolated and confined only around the signal source, making it difficult for hackers to break in from a distance [11-12]. The advantages of Li-Fi often seems to outweigh the ones of Wi-Fi especially in terms of security and moving forward in the technological age.
Conventional systems face interference arising from multipath propagation. The transmitted signal may be out of phase with respect to the reflected signal, invalidating the summation and possibly reducing the signal. Optical signals do not cancel each other.
They complement and reinforce each other.
VII. RECENT ADVANCEMENTS
Li-Fi for smart cities: The simplicity of Li-Fi technology, which uses LED light bulbs to transmit data, could drive the emergence of smart locations, including high-speed data links provided by streetlights. In the future, topology will be of utmost importance. Researchers published around the world show that future networks will be faster, but capacity issues may remain. It also shows which topology (the appearance of the transmitter that distributes the network signal) is becoming increasingly important to the demands of conferencing in densely populated areas.
VIII. EXPECTED CHALLENGES FOR LI-FI
With all the great heights that can be reached with the help of Li-Fi, there are some challenges that need to be addressed. Some basic challenges that require special attention are:
As the world shifts into the Internet of Things and the era of 5G / 6G, the requirements for wireless networks that can meet the endless needs of data communications become paramount. We believe that we can create a lot of value by supporting continuous innovation and research in and around the Li-Fi world. Through influential resources, you can advance Li-Fi and aim to develop futuristic applications in different areas.
The possibilities are many and it should be possible to investigate in this way. Let`s make his innovation common sense. In this case, each light bulb can provide something like a Wi-Fi area that helps transmit information over long distances. Because it provides a certified and productive alternative to cellular Wi-Fi. As more and more people access the remote web with a multitude of devices, wireless transmissions are becoming more and more impeded, making it more difficult to get a legitimate high-speed signal. It can address issues such as no radio. Li-Fi works best when paired with a Wi-Fi network. They have different throughputs and operate independently on different spectrums, but show correlation. The combination of Wi-Fi and Li-Fi calculated could be a performance multiplier that could improve local coverage with the fast, reliable data rates needed today and in the future. Given the nature of advances in connected device technology, we can safely assume that Li-Fi will meet these needs. Although this system has all its advantages, currently available concepts do not allow it to be used over long distances. The system is susceptible to indoor or outdoor opaque obstructions. The main drawback of this system is the inefficiency of the uplink function due to the inability to carry optical-based signals from user data to access ports. Li-Fi is inherently niche among other wireless communication methods. Uses optical frequencies in the visible range. Unlike traditional antennas, Li-Fi uses a system of light sources, gateways, and photodetectors. As mentioned earlier, the frequency band of light is tens of thousands of times wider than traditional radio frequency bands, so Li-Fi can cover more frequencies. It also eliminates licensing-related issues. The system also provides natural security features against remote hackers.
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Copyright © 2022 Rajat Tanwar, Ashi Gupta, Dr. Manjot Kaur Bhatia. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Paper Id : IJRASET47745
Publish Date : 2022-11-29
ISSN : 2321-9653
Publisher Name : IJRASET
DOI Link : Click Here