Authors: Chaitrashree S R, Chandana R, Sadhana V, Keerthishree N
Certificate: View Certificate
In most of the educational institutions, the significant amount of energy is spent for illuminating the classrooms and for switching the fans, computers and so on. Sometimes due to unnecessary consumption of energy the energy costs may rise. practices. In order to minimise the energy consumption or to avoid energy waste during unoccupied and daylight hours ,here more efficient equipment is designed for utilization of improved lighting design Here we have established a lighting control system in which the light circuits and fans in classroom remain Off in the absence of students and switches on in their presence. When student enter classroom , Infrared energy emitted from the person activates the IR sensor and the aurdino acts as power saving device according to relay operations. By using IR Sensor is detected the relays are triggered and the fan and lights are switched On. Measuring the brightness of the cl motion LDR Sensor for assroom and also a sensor is used for the measuring the temperature, if the temperature is above 25°C the fans will be turned ON.
We are living in 21st century, where automation of any form i.e. home or industry plays an important role in human life. Industrial automation is the control of machinery and processes used in various industries by autonomous systems, through the use of technologies like robotics and computer software, which helps in increasing the efficiency in terms of production, energy & time.Home automation on the other hand, is a network of hardware, communication, and electronic interfaces that work to integrate everyday devices with one another via the Internet. Each device has sensors and is connected through wifi, so you can manage them from your smartphone or tablet whether you're at home or miles away.
To design & construct the prototype of sensor controlled Home Automation using Arduino. To develop a system that can be used to conserve energy and improve safety and convenience in buildings, outdoor spaces and other areas. Detecting movement in a room to switch the lights ON. Upon detection of NO movement immediate switching OFF of lighting in that room. Depending upon the time of the day switching ON & OFF of the street lights automatically
Here is a simple Lighting Automation circuit, a prototype for smart home initiative. The circuit consisting of LDR & PIR (Motion Sensor). The LDR sensor’s resistance value is dependent on the intensity of available light in the room. The PIR sensor detects the motion.
The Arduino UNO includes:
a. ATmega328 Microcontroller- It is a single chip Microcontroller of the ATmel family. The processor code inside it is of 8-bit. It combines Memory (SRAM, EEPROM, and Flash), Analog to Digital Converter, SPI serial ports, I/O lines, registers, timer, external and internal interrupts, and oscillator.
b. ICSP Pin - The In-Circuit Serial Programming pin allows the user to program using the firmware of the Arduino board.
c. Power LED Indicator- The ON status of LED shows the power is activated. When the power is OFF, the LED will not light up.
d. Digital I/O Pins- The digital pins have the value HIGH or LOW. The pins numbered from D0 to D13 are digital pins.
e. TX and RX LED's- The successful flow of data is represented by the lighting of these LED's.
f. AREF- The Analog Reference (AREF) pin is used to feed a reference voltage to the Arduino UNO board from the external power supply.
g. Reset Button- It is used to add a Reset button to the connection.
h. USB- It allows the board to connect to the computer. It is essential for the programming of the Arduino UNO board.
i. Crystal Oscillator- The Crystal oscillator has a frequency of 16MHz, which makes the Arduino UNO a powerful board.
j. Voltage Regulator- The voltage regulator converts the input voltage to 5V.
k. GND- Ground pins. The ground pin acts as a pin with zero voltage.
l. Vin- It is the input voltage.
m. Analog Pins- The pins numbered from A0 to A5 are analog pins. The function of Analog pins is to read the analog sensor used in the connection. It can also act as GPIO (General Purpose Input Output) pins.
A. LDR Sensor
Photoresistors, also known as light dependent resistors (LDR), are light sensitive devices most often used to indicate the presence or absence of light, or to measure the light intensity.
a. COM: common pin
b. NO: Normally open – there is no contact between the common pin and the normally open pin. So, when you trigger the relay, it connects to the COM pin and power is provided to the load.
c. NC: Normally closed – there is contact between the common pin and the normally closed pin. There is always connection between the COM and NC pins, even when the relay is turned off. When you trigger the relay, the circuit is opened and there is no supply provided to the load.
2. Working Principle Of Relay
It works on the principle of an electromagnetic attraction. When the circuit of the relay senses the fault current, it energises the electromagnetic field which produces the temporary magnetic field. This magnetic field moves the relay armature for opening or closing the connections. The small power relay has only one contacts, and the high power relay has two contacts for opening the switch. The inner section of the relay is shown in the figure below. It has an iron core which is wound by a control coil. The power supply is given to the coil through the contacts of the load and the control switch. The current flows through the coil produces the magnetic field around it.
Due to this magnetic field, the upper arm of the magnet attracts the lower arm. Hence close the circuit, which makes the current flow through the load. If the contact is already closed, then it moves oppositely and hence open the contacts.
???????D. Arduino- IDE Software
Arduino Software (IDE) - contains a text editor for writing code, a message area, a text console, a toolbar with buttons for common functions and a series of menus. It connects to the Arduino hardware to upload programs and communicate with them.Programs written using Arduino Software (IDE) are called sketches. These sketches are written in the text editor and are saved with the file extension .ino. The editor has features for cutting/pasting and for searching/replacing text. The message area gives feedback while saving and exporting and also displays errors. The console displays text output by the Arduino Software (IDE), including complete error messages and other information. The bottom righthand corner of the window displays the configured board and serial port. The toolbar buttons allow you to verify and upload programs, create, open, and save sketches, and open the serial.
VI. FUTURE SCOPE
For future development, the possibility could be to design several bags in the same style to be ableto make an entire collection. I think the prospective customers would like to buy products that are designed with the same idea or that are part of an entirety,
We would like to express our gratitude to our Principal, Dr. M Shivakumar, for encouraging and providing us a congenial environment for engineering studies.
We express our heart filled thanks to Dr. G Sreeramulu Mahesh, Professor and Head, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, GSSSIETW, Mysuru whose guidance and support goes beyond words.
We wholeheartedly thank our guide Chaitrashree S R, Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, GSSSIETW, Mysuru, for having shared a genuine desire to make a positive contribution to address the challenges associated with every element of the project.
We gratefully acknowledge the help and cooperation offered by all the teaching and nonteaching staff members of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, GSSSIETW, Mysuru.
The design and construction of Lighting Automation was outlined in a block diagram and then circuit was designed and tested. Finally the circuit was arranged, connected properly and tested. In this project IC (CA3140, NE555, UM 3561). The circuit we use three of the Ant-Bag Snatching Alarm is designed around the operational amplifier CA3140 (IC1) which is configured as a comparator. Normally, the non-inverting input is higher than inverting input and the output is High from the pin6 and the output pin is fed to the trigger pin 2 of IC NE555. Thecauseofhigh output of IC1 the trigger pin 2 is high and as a result the IC 2 output pin 3 is low and the alarm is off. A resistor along with a capacitor is connected to reset pin 4 of IC2 in order to prevent false triggering. When there is a bag-snatching attempt, the plug connected to the circuit detaches. At that moment, the voltage at the invertinginputofIC1exceedsthe voltage at the non-inverting input and subsequently its output goes low. This sends a low pulse to trigger pin 2 of IC2 to make its output pin 3 high. Consequently, the alarm circuit built around ICUM3561 (IC3) gets the supply voltage at its pin5. It’s output is fed to the base of single-stage transistor amplifier BD139 (T1) that amplifies the generated alarm signal. A loud speaker is connected to the collector of T1 to produce the alarm. The alarm can be put off if the plug is inserted into the socket again. It is a simple circuit and low costly. It’s easy to carry anywhere with bag, suitcase and pursue. The circuit kept in your bag or suitcase sounds a loud alarm, simulating a police horn, if someone attempts to snatch your bag or suitcase. This will draw the attention of other passengers and the burglar can be caught red handed.
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Copyright © 2023 Chaitrashree S R, Chandana R, Sadhana V, Keerthishree N. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.