Authors: Divyani Rehapade, Sarita Harne
DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.22214/ijraset.2022.39933
Certificate: View Certificate
In this we are studying modern technology of arch bridges i.e “Lithely Arch technology”. In this technology the blocks are precasted, blocks are jointed with screed concrete and lifted to a location by transporting them on site and again lifted to form arch bridge and then working towards the finishing. It also includes the study of reading the drawing, Bearing capacity, prepared all over detailed estimate and stability checks. Various IRC codes, IS codes is studied. The masonry arch is one of the oldest structural elements. Brick masonry arches have been used for hundreds of years. This technical note is an introduction to brick masonry arches. Many of the different types of brick masonry arches are discussed and a glossary of arch terms is provided. Material selection, proper construction methods, detailing and arch construction recommendations are discussed to ensure proper structural support, durability and weather resistance of the brick masonry arch. Lithely arch method is innovative, modern, economic and fastest method of construction of arch bridges. This method is invented in Maharashtra, India. Bridges constructed using this method are purely compressive in nature. This method utilizes precast units for construction of arch bridges. This method can be utilized for rehabilitation of old arch bridges in India very economically and with less time. The lithely arch is India\'s only Precast, Unreinforced Bridge solution and is developed on the lines of the conventional stone-mason built arch bridges. Arch bridges are the most reliable and time tested solution for medium span (5m to 20m) bridges. These bridges have been standing strong for centuries and while they were initially designed for 8-10 tons of load are carrying modern vehicular load without any distress.
Arch Bridges are used form ages. Lithely Arch technology is the derived version of stone arch bridges. Stone arch bridges required more time in construction, and it also required accurate stone cutting (skilled manpower). These limitations were overcome in the Lithely Arch bridge.
The lithely arch is based on the same principles of the conventional arch bridge and requires absolutely no maintenance once installed. the bridge is designed to have a service life of over 120 years, almost twice that of modern bridge solutions.
Modern arch infrastructure, through lithely arch, retains the core functionality of arch bridges, while eliminating all inconveniences.
These bridges are strong enough to hold 8-10 tons of load which can carry a modern vehicular load without any distress.
Masonry arch bridges are part of our heritage. To preserve our heritage and to utilize these bridges to their maximum capacity, understanding of arch bridges is vital. as no more masonry arch bridges are being constructed in modern times, engineers have forgotten the old thumb rule methods of their design and also there are no common software available which can analyse the arch bridges correctly taking into account effect of fill, spandrel walls etc. the design of these structures was based on empirical rules which were too conservative, this has resulted in structures with an inherent ability to withstand the applied loads and extreme weathering conditions. Masonry arch bridges form an integral part of the railway infrastructure. They are the oldest structure type of the railway bridge population with thousands still in service despite their age and the significant changes in loading conditions that have occurred since their construction. Today many masonry arches carry a load that is radically different from that when they were constructed.
In absence of steel improves cost efficiency over conventional bridge solutions.
To minimize construction time by to rapid installation due to reliance on precast elements.
To calculate the detailed estimate and the design calculation of bridge.
To compare the structural, hydraulic and cost effectiveness of the various types of bridges with Lithely arch bridge.
To provide such type of design which have less maintenance cost and long service life.
III. LITERATURE REVIEW
1. Lithely Arch Bridge: A Review R.V. Popate Sheikh Md. Sabir R.H. Mohankar
a. The lithely arch system requires no steel reinforced. As a compression structure, it is self – supporting by virtue of its own weight, without any external support.
b. With the absence of steel rebar content, the possibilities for internal correction, rebar expansion, and the resultant concrete cracking are eliminated.
c. These factors result in a substantially lower carbon footprint and energy consumption during the construction and overall life span of the bridge
d. Lithely Arch method is very useful for rehabilitation of old arch bridges in India.
e. Lithely Arch method is easy, fastest and economical method than other methods of construction of arch bridges.
2. Rehabilitation of arch bridges with lithely arch method Saurabh Vilas Joshi ,G. N. Kanade
Today arch bridges can be built very fast with advanced technologies and advanced materials. With help of new construction techniques now it has been possible to achieve economy during construction of arch bridges. Also these new arch bridges are durable and withstands in natural calamities due to advanced materials. Today arch bridges can be built for longer spans. Lithely Arch is a precast, modular, concrete arch bridge system. The bridges constructed using Lithely Arch technology are purely compressive in nature. Lithely Arch technology can be used for replacing, widening and strengthening old arch bridges. In this paper the rehabilitation of old arch bridge by lithely arch technique done safely.
3. Arch bridges – unlocking their potential
By taking full advantage of the attributes of the FlexiArch system, the full potential of (a) arch bridges can be unlocked and (b) multi-span arch viaducts can be achieved. The lack of corrodible reinforcement, expansion joints and bearings will minimize maintenance. As a consequence, a highly sustainable bridge infrastructure can be realised in the future.
4. Performance Comparison of Through Arch Bridge at Different Arch Positions Alika Koshi, Dr. Laju Kottalil
The behaviour of a fixed supported through arch bridge was studied by changing the arch positions. The parameter investigated is deformation. The deformation increase as the arch position goes downwards. Maximum deformation is showed by the bridge having its arch positioned below the deck level and the maximum deformation is found at the center portion. The positioning of arch at deck level shows lesser deformation compared to the other cases. But as the arch is positioned below the deck level, the deformation exceeds thus making it unstable.
5. Long Span ARCH Bridges in China Baochun CHEN
It is heavy, labor consuming and difficult to build and is not an economic bridge type to be considered at present in many cases. Compared with the other types of bridges in China at present, steel arch bridges are still very expensive to be built.
6. Stability Analysis of Special-Shape Arch Bridge Wen-Liang Qiu1,Chin- Sheng Kao *, Chang-Huan Kou , Jeng-Lin Tsai and Guang Yang
If a deck arch bridge tilts and becomes unstable, vertical column will tilt as a result of restraints of the girder. The horizontal component force produced thereby will accelerate the tilt of the bridge. This is anegative effect produced by non-directional force on arch bridge stability. Diagonally placed hangers tend to postpone the buckling of arch occurring and improve the overall structural stability. This is a positive effect provided to special-shape arch bridge stability by non-directional force. Increasing vertical rigidity of arch can effectively increase overall structural stability, increasing the lateral rigidity of arches can increase overall structural stability, but the impact is insignificant once a certain value is reached.
7. Probabilistic Model for Masonry Strength of Existing Structures Miroslav S´ykora*, Milan Holick´y*
For common existing structures, moderate consequences of failure and moderate costs of safety measures may often be assumed and in accordance with ISO 2394 the target reliability index reduces to 3.1 .
The theoretical design value (6.6 0 /00 fractile corresponding to the reliability index 3.1) is greater by about 25 % than the design value estimated in accordance with EN 1996-1-1. – Significant economic effects may be achieved when the probabilistic model of masonry strength is used.
IV. CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY OF LITHELY ARCH BRIDGE
Footings must be prepared on each side of the structure. the attendant crane lifts each LITHELY ARCH strips and lowers it into position over the precast sockets laying a top the foundation / pier top the lithely strips arrive on site completely flat , laying upon flatbed transporters. The components includes the required number of arch strips based on the scope of the project, ready for lifting and placing in position precast concrete sockets act as the surface on which individual lithely arch strips are placed . These sockets are placed in line and level a top the piers, prior to the commencement of the erection activity. Once all strips have been poisoned and placed, block masonry spandrel walls are constructed up to the road top level. Spandrels do not carry ant traffic load but act as a permanent shuttering for the poured plum concrete acting as the back fill to the lithely arch strips .the bridge is then ready for roadway finishing and any railing protection that may require.
A. Construction Steps of Lithely Arch Bridge
V. FUTURE SCOPE
By lithely arch bridge technology we can minimize the weight of overall bridge,each unit is light weighted and construction procedure is also simple.
Rehabilitation of arch bridges carried out by lithely arch method is more economical than rehabilitation of carried out by replacing bridge with R.C.C beam bridge method.
A. Cost Effectiveness Absence of steel improves cost efficiency over conventional bridge solutions. The lithely arch system requires no steel reinforced. As a compression structure, it is self –supporting by virtue of its own weight, without any external support. With the absence of steel rebar content, the possibilities for internal correction, rebar expansion, and the resultant concrete cracking are eliminated. These factors result in a substantially lower carbon footprint and energy consumption during the construction and overall life span of the bridge. B. Reliability The lithely arch is based on the same principles of the conventional arch bridge and requires absolutely no maintenance once installed. The bridge is designed to have a service life of over 120 years, almost twice that of modern bridge solutions. C. Timeless Rapid installation due to reliance on precast elements. D. Highway Safe The lithely arch has designed as per specifications of the MORTH (Ministry of Road Transport Highways) and IRC-6 Loading (70R) with a Load Carrying Capacity of Class 70R and Class AA. E. Wide Implementation The lithely arch is suitable for use in Culverts, Minor and Major Bridges, Submersible and High Level Bridges, Animal Crossings, Railway over Bridges and Railway under Bridges. F. Varying Span The lithely arch is readily available for spans ranging from 6-15m with ongoing tests for 20m+ spans
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Copyright © 2022 Divyani Rehapade, Sarita Harne. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Paper Id : IJRASET39933
Publish Date : 2022-01-14
ISSN : 2321-9653
Publisher Name : IJRASET
DOI Link : Click Here