Authors: Desai Akash Chandrakant, Shaikh Sohil Jahangir, Sharma Abhishek Rajendra, Shaikh Tousik Rafik, Iqbal Mansuri
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One of the most common problem that disabled persons with amputation in upper limb they couldn’t buy a commercial prosthetic hand because it very expansive and up to thousands of dollars, Researchers and developer aspire to manufacture an prosthetic hand that performs the same functions and activates of natural hand. This paper includes the design and development of a low-cost prosthetic hand (less than a1000$) that capable of wearing from the persons who has amputation in the hand, this design represent a hand with five finger capable of movement and gripping the object, rotatable wrist and socket connect with amputation body capable to up and down the forearm . The design of this prosthetic hand possess 18 degree of freedom (DOF), 3DOFfor each finger except the thumb has 4DOF, 2DOFfor wrist and 2DOF for socket. The design prosthetic hand work by under actuated system 7 servo motors with tendon to move the fingers material (PLA). The design element and tesht in solid work to avoid overlapping between fingers and then after manufacture the design try it in real life to movement and gripping the object.
The human hand is an amazingly complex set of mechanisms. It can be said that the hand is the brain’s ultimate tool, and loss of even one of these amazing tools has a profound impact on a person’s life the human hand has a full 22 degrees freedom (1) which are created by 27 unique bones and 30 muscles (2). Studies indicate that than ten million people in the whole world they are suffer from amputated limbs or any parts from the body (3). Almost thirty five percent of amputated limbs are amputate of arm or part arm. Until a few years ago, the evolution of prosthetic hand that bring back the functions and dependability for people who have amputation, the plan as development of any prosthesis depend both on the many – sided quality of the body part being supplanted and rehabilitative necessities of the prosthesis client. Upper limb prostheses are set for those individuals who have either part or whole upper limb absence, which may either be acquired (through amputation ) or inborn the prosthetic hand is the part that can mimic the movement and function of the human hand in daily work. In Riaan furies, explain the design and evolution of a modular mechanical design for a prosthetic hand that can be upgraded from a pure mechanical system to a mechatronic system, depending on the amputee’s needs. The test that have been conducted with the functionality of the prosthetic hand is presented and discussed.
In GK jones and R stop forth, they steady on the mechanical design of the major hand component, and an overview of the programmed control system is described, with possible future addition of amputee feedback, the touch hand II printed in 3D printed prosthetic hand has been developed to improve on the first design iteration. In order to goal of providing transadaial amputees with a low-cost alternative prosthetic hand.
This paper study a kinematic motion and a method to design a low cost prosthetic with full function of movement and analysis each part of figure manufacture of each part in prosthetic hand assemble it and then test to handle the objects .
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
A. Problem Of Statement
B. Aim Of Objectives
In earlier time, human being lost their human body part i.e. hands, legs etc. they did replacement of part by means any wooden or metal prosthetic part. But that had many constraints and limitation. It was only a state part of the body .as that was made by wooden or metal material tht would increase the weight of structure. Because of that it was hard to carry body part. Another limitation. For same was it would create resistance to the regular human body motion. At some instance it only be a non-useful human part. Only purpose of that would be for prosthetic criteria. But as time passed evolution occurred in that field human didn’t want prosthetic hand for just an aesthetic purpose they want fully functional prosthetic hand as replacing of it. As described above. Earlier the main origin of thief invention is to just provide the prosthetic hand. After that many development I this field occurred and now a day. We had a fully functional prosthetic hand that can do most of every normal function of human hand. As improvement and development in technology in mechanical electrical, electronic and communication etc. we had technical gadgets like sensor that would help use to provide accurate and desired motion to the prosthetic hand. But as well all know that every coin has has two side improving technology on economic criteria of the prosthetic hand. As part of literature survey, we found that the fully functional sensor prosthetic to hand cost us approximately 2 lack to lack that clearly not desirable for every people.
Due to above reasons we aligned our project in direction to provide a cost effective functional human prosthetic hand. To provided cost effective prosthetic hand. Firstly we need to manufacture it cost effectively. So we dig deep about different manufacturing process and finally we found appropriate manufacturing process for our invention so we came up with additive manufacturing process. By this manner we were fulfill aim of invention of providing cost effective functional prosthetic hand.
III. DESIGN METHODOLOGY
While designing the prosthetic hand we must satisfy some parameter of it. As we are going to develop human prosthetic hand, so aesthetic of prosthetic hand is one the most essential parameter of designing. Simultaneously with the aesthetic of the prosthetic hand safety is also important criterrria of designing. Failure of structure must be avoided. Prosthetic hand must satisfy the user expectation, so considering all the measure of the designing we develop the software model of our human prosthetic hand. The software modal of our human prosthetic hand is as shoun in below figure
A. Design the Basic Prototype
Computer assisted design Solid work is a computer design software package made for modelling solid mechanical components and aaemblies solid work is a popular tool in the engineering industry and has been used extensively in designing and analyzing mechanical compost.
The image below shows the artificial tendon drive for the index finger all other tendon have been omitted for clarity the thumb index and middle finger are connected to individual servo motors because the interior space of the arms limited the ring hand pinky fingers have both been tied to the same servo, meaning they open and close in tandem.
Amputation can occur anywhere along the arm and is every case.an ideal design facilitates connection to a stump located anywhere along the arm the hand and wrist section could now be fitted to a person amputated along their forearm.
This hand / wrist module can now also be connected to an elbow section which provides a solution for an above elbow amputation. Method of mechanically fitting this prosthetic hand to an amputee have only briefly been touched on is this thesis and will be discussed father in the future work section. In order to design a socket connection a mold or CAD rendering of an amputees stump would be required thermoforming plastic could be used to around the stump and some form of a harness or straps would most likely be required to produce a stable connection.
The prosthetic hand designed approximate the function abilities of human hand very well. A number of movement are produced and number of variety object can be grasped in a natural way. The five fingers have 16 degree of freedom drive by five actuator which enables the movements each finger independently which offers more manipulation abilities. The kinematic motion analysis of the finger showed that: the finger is not overlapping between them except the thumb in order to get the best gripping of object wit out slipping.
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