Authors: Akbarov Qobiljon
Certificate: View Certificate
The article describes the internal conflicts in the Kokand Khanate in the middle of the 19th century, the coming to power of Mallahona, his internal policy, the struggle against the Bukhara Emirate and the Russian state, his diplomatic relations with the Khiva Khanate.
Mallakhan ibn Sheralikhan is recognized as a peculiar period in the Kokand khanate. If we look at the process of Mallakhan's accession to the throne of the Kokand Khanate, by the 1950s taxes were increased in many areas of the Kokand Khanate, including nomadic Kazakhs, as well as in Turkestan, Shymkent and other settlements. One of the protests against the tax policy of the khanate took place in 1858 in the territories of the Tashkent principality . At that time, Khudoyorkhan, the khan of Kokand, immediately sent an army led by Shodmonhoji and his brother Mallabek to suppress the revolt. The uprising was suppressed as a result of Mallabek's entrepreneurial behavior, which was to fulfill the conditions set by the rebels (doubling taxes) and peace was restored in the country. Commander Shodmonhoji will be appointed governor of Tashkent.  After the above events, distrust in Khudoyorkhan and his government will increase. At this time, the Emir of Bukhara Nasrullo besieged Uratepa, defeated the Kokands and marched to Khojand. However, the Emir's march was stopped by the mayor, Yaqubbek Badavlat, and the Emir was forced to retreat.
II. MAIN PART
After these events, as the brother of Mallabek khan, Mirzo Ahmad's cousin and Dostmuhammad, two of the most influential officials, considered the tablecloths to be the main culprits in Khudoyarkhan's ignorance and ignorance of the country and its citizens, and tried to execute them. However, after the intervention of other officials, he changed his mind and left Kokand with his men for Andijan. Mallabek's case provoked protests in Khudoyorkhan and he was sentenced to death with the intervention of the prime minister. This has strengthened the goodwill of Mallabek by senior government officials and a number of Kyrgyz-Kipchak communities and tribal leaders.  However, it would be wrong to assume that Mallakhan's struggle for the throne and his accession to the throne were based on the goals of the Kyrgyz-Kipchak aristocracy, who had previously been in power and had a tremendous influence on the political governance of the state. Although the Kyrgyz-Kipchak aristocracy, which had great military power and position, closely assisted Mallakhan in this struggle, the struggle for power in the palace was marred by clashes, conspiracies, disobedience to the throne, and the failure of Khudoyorkhan to pursue policies for the benefit of all segments of the people. it must also be assumed that it was based on the personal interests of Mallakhon, who was seeking capture. In 1858, with the help of Mallabek Alikuli, he took advantage of the absence of Sufibek and Shah Murad, who were currently fighting against the Emir of Bukhara, and captured Andijan and Margilan, which were under their rule. Subsequent marches focused on the conquest of Kokand, and the battle between the brothers took place in the Samonchi district. Mallakhon wins this battle and, after a few days of siege, captures Kokand. Mallakhan's victory and accession to the throne were congratulated by Sultan Murodbek, the governor of Tashkent, Otambay's cousin, Sofibek, the governor of Andijan, and the Quramals, who acknowledged his legitimate throne and declared their allegiance to Mallakhan. When Mallakhon ascended the throne, he first set about establishing order in the khanate and strengthening the khan's authority. In governing the country, Mallakhon pursues a strict policy. The historian Mirza Alim Mushrif said, “[Mallakhan] was so quick and political that he would strike seventy-five boards under the pretext of a moment. He frightened Mardum, and the army and the civilians were always in a state of panic. ” In Andijan, a group led by Mallabek overthrew Khudoyorkhan and began a plan to seize the throne. From here, Mallabek comes to Osh on the advice of Mullo Aliquli, who has become one of his most trusted men. He says he intends to form an alliance with Olimbek Dodhoh, Sayidbek Dodhoh and other influential people in Osh to seize power and restore order in the country.
Having gained a number of colleagues here, Mallabek returned to Andijan, in the Tashlak district, where he rose to the rank of khan in the courtyard of Aliquli. They stand here and begin to prepare for power.  Mallakhan's move can be seen as a political crime against the state or a political conspiracy that is incompatible with Islam and Sharia law, but the above information shows that Mallakhan's efforts to restore order in the country, end chaos in the palace, end conspiracies and intensify. fought for power in order to prevent the invasion of the growing Russian Empire. His goal was supported by many officials and statesmen, as well as religious leaders. Nevertheless, Mallakhon does not forget the services of those who helped him in seizing the throne. He entrusts them with the administration of various ranks, provinces and principalities in order to form loyal and at the same time self-supporting and military and political forces that are a key factor in strengthening the central government. It should be noted that such measures taken by Mallakhon, as well as his actions in the field of domestic policy, do not justify themselves later and lead to a crisis of Mallakhan's rule. This can be witnessed throughout the course of events. Analyzing Mallakhan's early years on the throne, Mullah Niyaz Muhammad noted that all former officials with extensive experience in public administration had been removed from public office, and were replaced by immigrants who were loyal to Mallakhan but had no understanding of public administration. , laments that he has admitted many people whose consciences are not pure to the palace. At the same time, he emphasizes that Mallakhan was a complete absolute ruler, completely in control of power and did not allow arbitrariness . Mallakhon immediately began to increase the military potential of the khanate and prepare for the fight against the military aggression of the Russian Empire. Kurbanbek from Tashkent appointed his brother Rustambek as the governor of Turkestan and "ordered the governors of all regions to take good care of the horses, to arrange the weapons, and to begin the fight against the invaders with the onset of hot days" .In the spring of 1859, the Emir of Bukhara began another military campaign against the Kokand Khanate. He stipulated to Mallakhan that the khanate be divided into two parts, that Kokand and its subordinate provinces be given to one of Madalikhan's sons, and that Mallakhan himself rule the Tashkent region. However, this condition is strongly rejected by Mallakhon.
Amir conquers Oratepa and marches to Nov Fortress. After capturing him, one of his experienced commanders here, Kanoatshah, leaves the paternity. However, as soon as the Emir left, Qanoatshah crossed over to Mallakhan's side and left the fort of Nov. The transfer of Qanoat Shah to the Kokand side changed the balance of power in favor of Kokand and had serious consequences for the Emir of Bukhara. Some time later, the Emir of Bukhara began to march from Shahrisabz. As soon as the news came, Mallakhon and Aliquli, the gatekeepers, led the army and marched through Jizzakh to Jizzakh. Hearing that the Emir had intensified his march, the Kokand people continued their march towards Samarkand. Mirza Alim Mushrif Amir writes that he was very worried about this and immediately stopped marching and sent an envoy to Mallakhan. When Amir Muzaffar returns from Samarkand, negotiations will begin. Ambassador Bobohoja Sheikhulislam will take part in the talks on behalf of Mallakhon. As a result, the area of ??Kazakbulak is defined as the border between the two countries . After some stability in the khanate's relations with Bukhara, Mallakhan khanate continued to work to improve the internal political situation. He arrived in Tashkent on October 8, 1858 and appointed Qanoat Shah, who had shown great zeal in the struggle against the Emirate of Bukhara, as the governor of the Tashkent principality instead of Muhammad Musobek. By the end of 1859, some of the fortresses of the Kokand Khanate were occupied by the military forces of the Russian Empire. According to the sources, “the Muslim population of the country is extremely concerned about this and demands that Mallakhan start a war against the invaders. Mallakhan is ready to start a war this winter or early spring, if there is peace in the interior of the khanate. ” When Mallakhon did not want to unite with the Emirate of Bukhara in the fight against the invading armies of the Russian Empire, he sought to form a military alliance with the Khiva Khanate. The Khivaites, who had fought against Tsarist Russia several times and had a very good understanding of how the conflicts were going, or who had some experience in this field, supported this movement of the Kokand Khanate. In early November 1859, Mallakhan sent ambassadors to Khiva khan on this issue. On November 28, an agreement was signed between the Kokand and Khiva khanates, according to which the armies of both khanates agreed to march on the king's troops in winter, when the river froze. At the same time, in December 1859, Mallakhan sent an embassy of thirty men to the emperor, hoping to resolve political tensions between the Russian Empire and the Kokand Khanate, resolve some political issues, including the return of Akmasjid, and conclude mutually beneficial agreements. 15].
However, these ambassadors could not achieve any results. Mallakhon did not despair of this and re-established the embassy, which in April 1860 was sent to St. Petersburg via Siberia under the leadership of the Hoja librarian. The embassy headed by Khoja the librarian also ended in failure for the Kokand khanate. Meanwhile, Tsarist Russia\'s invading armies carried out the first raids on the Kokand Khanate\'s Pishpak and Tokmak fortresses. puts. In the eyes of these people, Mallakhan did not fully fulfill his promises before his accession to the throne. Despite the escalation of the internal political situation, the Cossacks fought fiercely against the imperial troops. However, all the officials and commanders of the army turned a blind eye to the real aggression of the external enemy, putting their own interests above the interests of the people and the country, and sought to seize power. In doing so, they made no secret of their dissatisfaction with Mallakhan\'s policies. On the night of February 23, 1862, Mallakhon, who had ruled the throne for 3 years and 4 months and had done a number of things for the khanate, was assassinated by insurgents led by Olimbek Dodhoh, the governor of Andijan, as a result of ongoing tensions in the khanate\'s internal political life. In conclusion, during the reign of Mallakhon, the Kokand khanate was able to establish some order in the country in domestic politics, as well as some successful struggles against external forces.
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